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Francesco Bassani
CaSO4 · 0.5H2O
Named in 1910 by Ferruccio Zambonini in honor of Professor Francesco Bassani [October 29, 1853 Thiene, Italia – April 26, 1916 Capri, Italia], Professor of paleontology, University of Naples, Italy.
May occur as pseudomorphs after gypsum.
Very similar to omongwaite.
Apparently a common precursor phase of anhydrite and gypsum (Van Driessche et al. 2012; Ossorio et al. 2014).

Classification of Bassanite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
D : With only large cations

6 : AXO4·xH2O

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Bassanite

Geological Setting of Type Material:
In cavities of leucite-tephrite blocks ejected from an active volcano.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Physical Properties of Bassanite

Vitreous, Dull, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
vitreous lustre for transparent crystals deduced from RI; usually in fine-grained aggregates and pseudomorphs
2.69 - 2.76 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Crystallography of Bassanite

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2 - Sphenoidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.0317(4) Å, b = 6.9269(2) Å, c = 12.6712(3) Å
β = 90.27(1)°
a:b:c = 1.737 : 1 : 1.829
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,056.04 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
About [010], twin plane {101}, may be sectored.
Space group I2 (non-standard setting)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
6.00 (70)
3.469 (54)
3.042 (15)
3.006 (100)
2.807 (86)
2.139 (22)
1.847 (56)

Optical Data of Bassanite

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.550 nε = 1.570
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.020
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of Bassanite

CaSO4 · 0.5H2O
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Converts to anhydrite when heated to redness.

Relationship of Bassanite to other Species

7.CD.05MatteucciteNaHSO4 · H2O
7.CD.10MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
7.CD.15Lecontite(NH4,K)NaSO4 · 2H2O
7.CD.20HydroglauberiteNa10Ca3(SO4)8 · 6H2O
7.CD.25EugsteriteNa4Ca(SO4)3 · 2H2O
7.CD.30GörgeyiteK2Ca5(SO4)6 · H2O
7.CD.35Koktaite(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
7.CD.35SyngeniteK2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
7.CD.40GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
7.CD.50Zircosulfate(Zr,Ti)(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CD.60MontaniteBi2(TeO6) · 2H2O
7.CD.65OmongwaiteNa2Ca5(SO4)6 · 3H2O
25.4.3GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
25.4.6EugsteriteNa4Ca(SO4)3 · 2H2O
25.4.7HydroglauberiteNa10Ca3(SO4)8 · 6H2O
25.4.8SyngeniteK2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
25.4.9GörgeyiteK2Ca5(SO4)6 · H2O
25.4.10PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
25.4.11Koktaite(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
25.4.13EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
25.4.14BentoriteCa6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O

Other Names for Bassanite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Bassanite

Reference List:
Zambonini, F. (1910) Mineralogia Vesuviana. Bassanite CaSO4. Atti della Reale Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche di Napoli, Serie II: 14: 327-328.

Gallitelli, P. (1933) Ricerche sul solfato di calcio semidrato e sull’anidrite solubile. Periodico di Mineralogia: 4: 132-171.

Gaubert (1933) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 197: 72.

Caspari, W.A. (1936) Calcium sulphate hemihydrate and anhydrites. I - Crystallography. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: 155A: 41-48.

Berg and Sveshnikova (1946) Bulletin de Académy des sciences de l'Union des Républiques Soviétiques Socialistes, Cl. sc. mat. nat., Ser. chim.: No. 1: 19.

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 476.

Flörke, O.W. (1952) Kristallographische und röntgenometrische Untersuchungen im System CaSO4—CaSO4·2H2O. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen: 84: 189-240.

Gay, P. (1965) Some crystallographic studies in the system CaSO4—CaSO4.2H2O II. The hydrous forms. Mineralogical Magazine: 35: 354-362.

Bushuev, N.N. (1980) On the structural features of CaSO4·0,5H2O and CaSO4·0,67H2O. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 255: 1104-1109.

Abriel, W. (1983) Calcium sulfat subhydrat, CaSO4.0,8H2O. Acta Crystallographica: C39: 956-958.

Lager, G.A., Armbruster, T., Rotella, F.J., Jorgensen, J.D., Hinks, D.G. (1984) A crystallographic study of the low-temperature dehydration products of gypsum, CaSO4 ·2H2O: hemihydrate CaSO4·0.50H2O, and γ-CaSO4. American Mineralogist 69, 910-918.

Kuzel, H.U., Erlangen, M.H. (1987) Chemical and crystallographic properties of calcium sulphate hemihydrate and anhydrite III. Zement-Kalk-Gips: 12: 628-632.

Bezou, C., Christensen, A.N., Cox, D., Lehmann, M., Nonat, A. (1991) Structures cristallines de CaSO4, 0,5H2O et CaSO4, 0,6H2O. Comptes Rendus de L’Académie des Sciences Paris: 312: 43-48.

Abriel, W., Nesper, R. (1993) Bestimmung der Kristallstruktur von CaSO4(H2O)0.5 mit Röntgenbeugungsmethoden und mit Potentialprofil-Rechnungen. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 205: 99-113.

Bezou, C., Nonat, A., Mutin, J.C., Christensen, A.N., Lehmann, M.S. (1995) Of the crystal structure of γ-CaSO4, CaSO4·0.5H2O, and CaSO4·0.6H2O by powder diffraction methods. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 117: 165-176.

Ballirano, P., Maras, A., Meloni, S., Caminiti, R. (2001) The monoclinic I2 structure of bassanite, calcium sulphate hemihydrate. European Journal of Mineralogy: 13: 985-993.

Freyer, D., Voigt, W. (2003) Crystallization and phase stability of CaSO4 and CaSO4-based salts. Monatshefte für Chemie: 134: 693-719.

Lane, M.D. (2007) Mid-infrared emission spectroscopy of sulfate and sulfate-bearing minerals. American Mineralogist: 92: 1-18.

Christensen, A.N., Olesen, M., Cerenius, Y., Jensen, T.R. (2008) Formation and transformation of five different phases in the CaSO4-H2O system: Crystal structure of the subhydrate β-CaSO4·0.5H2O and soluble anhydrite CaSO4. Chemistry of Materials: 20: 2124-2132.

Wray, J.J., Squyres, S.W., Roach, L.H., Bishop, J.L., Mustard, J.F., Noe Dobrea, E.Z. (2010) Identification of the Ca-sulfate bassanite in Marwth Vallis, Mars. Icarus: 209: 416-421.

Schmidt, H., Paschke, I., Freyer, D., Voigt, W. (2011) Water channel structure of bassanite at high air humidity: crystal structure of CaSO4·0.625H2O. Acta Crystallographica: B67: 467-475.

Harrison, T.N. (2012) Experimental VNIR reflectance spectroscopy of gypsum dehydration: investigating the gypsum to bassanite transition. American Mineralogist: 97: 598-609.

Van Driessche, A.E.S., Benning, L.G., Rodriguez-Blanco, J.D., Ossorio, M., Bots, P., Gárcia-Ruiz, J.M. (2012) The role and implications of bassanite as a stable precursor phase to gypsum precipitation. Science: 336: 69-72.

Bishop, J.L., Lane, M.D., Dyar, M.D., King, S.J., Brown, A.J., Swayze, G.A. (2014) Spectral properties of Ca-sulfates: gypsum, bassanite, and anhydrite. American Mineralogist: 99: 2105-2115.

Ossorio, M., Van Driessche, A.E.S., Pérez, P., García-Ruiz, J.M. (2014) The gypsum-anhydrite paradox revisited. Chemical Geology: 386: 16-21.

Internet Links for Bassanite

Localities for Bassanite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
Steve Sorrell Collection
  • Burgenland
    • Mattersburg
Koritnig, S. (1967)
  • Salzburg
    • Abtenau
      • Webing
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    • Golling
      • Grubach
        • Moosegg
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
  • Upper Austria
    • Gmunden
      • Hallstatt
Schorn, A., Neubauer, F., Bernroider, M. (2013): Polyhalite microfabrics in an Alpine evaporite mélange: Hallstatt, Eastern Alps. Journal of Structural Geology 46, 57-75.
  • Cochabamba Department
    • Tapacari Province
Alfredo Petrov collection
  • Nova Scotia
    • Cumberland Co.
N.R. Goodman, "Gypsum in Nova Scotia and its Associated Minerals," Geology of Canadian Industrial Mineral Deposits, 1957.
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Taltal
Tornos, F., Velasco, F, Barra, F. and Morata, D. (2010): The Tropezón Cu-Mo-(Au) deposit: the missing link between IOCG and porphyry copper systems? Mineralium Deposita 45, 313-321.
    • El Loa Province
      • San Pedro de Atacama
        • Cordillera de la Sal
De Waele, J., Forti, P., Picotti, V., Galli, E., Rossi, A., Brook, G., & Cucchi, F. (2009). Cave deposits in Cordillera de la Sal (Atacama, Chile). Geological Constrains on the Onset and Evolution of an Extreme Environment: the Atacama area. Geoacta, Special Publication, 2, 113-117.
  • Tarapacá Region
    • El Tamarugal Province
      • Salar Grande
Schlüter, J. & Malcherek, T. Haydeeite, Cu3Mg(OH)6Cl2, a new mineral from the Haydee mine, Salar Grande, Atacama desert, Chile. NJMA 184, 39-42 (2007)
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Golmud Co. (Ge'ermu Co.)
        • Qarhan salt lake (Chaerhan salt lake)
Botao Li, Yuanyi Zhao, Zuohua Qian, Pengcheng Jiao, Chenglin Liu, and Shijun Wang (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 669-683
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55; Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic mineral deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
Zacek, V., Oplustil, S., Mayova, A. & Meyer, F. R. (1995): Die Mineralien von Kladno in Mittelböhmen, Tschechische Republik. Mineralien-Welt 6 (1), 13-30 (in German).
        • Libušin
Diederik Visser List #39, July 2006
    • Hradec Králové Region
      • Trutnov (Trautenau)
        • Radvanice
Jirásek, J.: Thermal Changes of the Rocks in the Dump Pile of the Kateřina Colliery in Radvanice (Eastern Bohemia). Ostrava: VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, Institute of Geological Engineering - 541, 2001. 69 p.
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • South Moravia Region
David Parfitt collection
  • Western Desert
Marchesini, M. & Barresi, A. (2009): I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Alsdorf
Blaß, G. and Strehler, H. (1993): Mineralbildungen in einer durch Selbstentzündung brennenden Bergehalde des Aachener Steinkohlenreviers. Mineralien-Welt 4 (4), 35-42. (in German); Witzke, T., de Wit, F., Kolitsch, U. and Blaß, G. (2015): Mineralogy of the Burning Anna I Coal Mine Dump, Alsdorf, Germany. Chapter 7, pp. 203-240, in: Stracher, G. B., Prakash, A. and Sokol, E. V.: Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective, Volume 3: Case Studies - Coal Fires, Elsevier, 786 pp.
      • Stolberg
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
  • Baranya Co.
    • Mecsek Mts
      • Pécs
Koller G. Own found.
  • Fejér Co.
    • Bakony Mts
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
    • Vértes Mts
ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
  • Veszprém Co.
    • Bakony Mts
      • Nyirád
ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
      • Úrkút
        • Csárda Hill
Szakáll & Jánosi (1996) The Minerals of Hungary
  • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
    • Heimaey island
      • Heimaey
Mitolo, D., Garavelli, A., Pedersen, L., Balić-Žunić, T., Jakobsson, S.P., Vurro, F. (2008): Mineralogy of actually forming sublimates at Eldfell Volcano, Heimaey (Vestmannaeyjar archipelago), Iceland. Plinius, 34, 322.; Balić-Žunić, T., Garavelli, A., Acquafredda, P., Leonardsen, E., & Jakobsson, S. P. (2009). Eldfellite, NaFe (SO4) 2, a new fumarolic mineral from Eldfell volcano, Iceland. Mineralogical Magazine, 73(1), 51-57.
Italy (TL)
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Russo, M., 2006: I minerali di formazione fumarolica della grande eruzione vesuviana del 1906
  • Sicily
    • Messina Province
      • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
        • Lipari
          • Vulcano Island
            • Porto Levante
P.Forti, M.Panzica La Manna and A.Rossi (1994) The peculiar mineralogic site of the Alum cave (Vulcano, Sicily). Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology November 1994 p.35-44.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Montieri
Bazzoni C. et al., 2003. Il "Filone di Boccheggiano": miniere e minerali. Riv. Miner. Ital., 1: 78-89
    • Livorno Province
      • Elba Island
        • Campo nell'Elba
          • San Piero in Campo
Orlandi, P., & Pezzotta, F. (1997). Minerali dell'Isola d'Elba. Edizioni Novecento Grafico, Bergamo, 249 pp.
  • Aeolis quadrangle
    • Gale Crater
      • Aeolis Palus
Several papers on: Science Express, , 9 December 2013, summarized by Dr Vivien Gornitz, Bulletin of the New York Mineralogical Club, February 2014.
  • Oxia Palus quadrangle
Wray, J.J., Squyres, S.W., Roach, L.H., Bishop, J.L., Mustard, J.F., Noe Dobrea, E.Z. (2010) Identification of the Ca-sulfate bassanite in Marwth Vallis, Mars. Icarus: 209: 416-421.
  • Muscat Province (Masqat Province)
    • Al Ghubra
Gunnar Farber
  • Małopolskie
    • Olkusz District
      • Olkusz
J. Cabala, B. Zogala, R. Dubiel (2008) Geochemical and Geophysical Study of Historical Zn-Pb Ore Processing Waste Dump Areas (Southern Poland). Polish J. of Environ. Stud. Vol. 17, No. 5, 693-700
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
      • Katowice area
        • Łaziska
Lukasz Kruszewski 2005: Minerals arising in cause of underground fires of "Skalny" coal mine dump in Laziska (Upper Silesia, Poland). Mag. Thesis (unpublished)
Al-Yousef , M. 2003. Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Origin of Quaternary Sabkhas in the Qatar Peninsula, Arabian Gulf. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Southampton University. By Mariam Al-Yousef of Qatar University.
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Hunedoara
      • Boșorod
Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., and Bourgier, V. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 31-36.
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
Bortnikova, S. B., Bortnikova, S. P., Manstein Yu, A., Kiryuhin, A. V., Vernikovskaya, I. V., & Palchik, N. A. (2009, February). Thermal springs hydrogeochemistry and structure at North-Mutnovskoe fumarole field (South Kamchatka, Russia). In Proceedings, thirty–fourth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, CA, pp SGP-TR-187.
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
Cesnokov, B., M. Kotrly, and T. Nisanbajev (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Lučenec Co.
      • Podrečany
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
  • Prešov Region
    • Vranov nad Topľou Co.
Ďuďa,R., et al., 1981: Mineralógia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca, Monografia 2, 98s
South Africa
  • Western Cape Province
    • Cape Winelands District
      • Ceres
        • Koue Bokkeveld Mtn
Brearley, A. J. & Jones, R. H. (1998): Chondritic Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, J. J., Editor): Chapter 3, 398 pages. Mineralogical Society of America: Washington, DC, USA. (1998)
  • Ticino (Tessin)
    • Leventina
      • Bedretto Valley
        • Ronco
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 66
  • England
    • Dorset
      • Charmouth
      • Lyme Regis
BMS Database
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
      • Sudak area
Alexander I. Tischenko (1996. Minerals of the Crimea - World of stones, 1996, #9, p. 9-18
  • Arizona
    • La Paz Co.
      • Plomosa Mts
        • Plomosa District
          • Bouse
            • Bouse area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 130.
    • Pima Co.
      • Sierrita Mts
        • Pima District (Olive District; Mineral Hill District; Twin Buttes District)
          • Batamote Hills
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 130.
  • California
    • Fresno Co.
      • Diablo Range
        • Escarpado Canyon
          • Cima Hill
Gulbrandsen, Robert Allen, D.L. Jones, K. McQ. Tagg & D.W. Reeser (1963), Apatitized wood and leucophosphite in nodules in the Moreno formation, California: USGS PP 475-C: 100-104; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 99.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 285.
    • Inyo Co.
      • Death Valley
Econ Geol (1996) 91:622-635
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 285.
Allen, Robert D. & Henry C. Kramer (1953), Occurrence of bassanite in two desert areas in southeastern California: American Mineralogist: 38: 1266-1268; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 99.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
        • Calico District (Daggett District)
          • Borate
[Murdoch, J & Webb, R (1966) Minerals of California, California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 189]
Allen, Robert D. & Henry C. Kramer (1953), Occurrence of bassanite in two desert areas in southeastern California: American Mineralogist: 38: 1266; Ver Planck, Wm. E., Jr. (1952), Gypsum in California: California Division Mines Bulletin 163: 48; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 287.
  • Massachusetts
    • Franklin Co.
      • Rowe
Cerato, A.. 2003: Mineralogical Study of Davis Mine, Rowe, MA, Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques
  • Nevada
    • Elko Co.
      • Bootstrap District
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
The Picking Table:17(2):4; Dunn(1995):Pt5:630.
  • New Mexico
    • Otero Co.
2008 New Mexico Mineral Symposium abstracts
  • Utah
    • Duchesne Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Aragua
Urbani, 1997. Bol. Soc. Venezolana de Espeleología, no.30.
Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
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