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Bassanite

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Formula:
CaSO
 
4
· 0.5H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:White
Name:
Named in 1910 by Ferruccio Zambonini in honor of Professor Francesco Bassani [October 29, 1853 Thiene, Italia – April 26, 1916 Capri, Italia], Professor of paleontology, University of Naples, Italy.


May occur as pseudomorphs after gypsum.
Very similar to omongwaite.

Classification of Bassanite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/C.22-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.CD.45

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
D : With only large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:29.6.1.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
6 : AXO4·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.4.2

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba
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Type Occurrence of Bassanite

Type Locality:Mt Vesuvius, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Naples Province, Campania, Italy
Year of Discovery:1910
Geological Setting of type material:In cavities of leucite-tephrite blocks ejected from an active volcano.
Associated Minerals at type locality:
Gibbsite

Physical Properties of Bassanite

Colour:White
Density (measured):2.69 - 2.76 g/cm3

Crystallography of Bassanite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:a = 12.0317(4) Å, b = 6.9269(2) Å, c = 12.6712(3) Å
β = 90.27(1)°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.737 : 1 : 1.829
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,056.04 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:12
Twinning:About [010], twin plane {101}, may be sectored.
Comment:Space group I2 (non-standard setting)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
6.00 (70)
3.469 (54)
3.042 (15)
3.006 (100)
2.807 (86)
2.139 (22)
1.847 (56)

Optical Data of Bassanite

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.550 nε = 1.570
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.020

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low

Chemical Properties of Bassanite

Formula:
CaSO
 
4
· 0.5H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:CaSO4·0.5H2O
Essential elements:Ca, H, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Ca, H, O, S
Analytical Data:Coverts to anhydrite when heated to redness.

Relationship of Bassanite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.CD.05Matteuccite
NaHSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CD.10Mirabilite
Na
 
2
SO
 
4
· 10H
 
2
O
7.CD.15Lecontite
(NH
 
4
,K)NaSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CD.20Hydroglauberite
Na
 
10
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
8
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CD.25Eugsterite
Na
 
4
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CD.30Görgeyite
K
 
2
Ca
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
7.CD.35Koktaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
7.CD.35Syngenite
K
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
7.CD.40Gypsum
CaSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CD.50Zircosulfate
(Zr,Ti)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CD.55Schieffelinite
Pb
 
8
(TeO
 
4
)
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 8H
 
2
O
7.CD.60Montanite
Bi
 
2
(TeO
 
6
) · 2H
 
2
O
7.CD.65Omongwaite
Na
 
2
Ca
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.4.1Anhydrite
CaSO
 
4
25.4.3Gypsum
CaSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.4Glauberite
Na
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.4.5Cesanite
Na
 
3
Ca
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
25.4.6Eugsterite
Na
 
4
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.7Hydroglauberite
Na
 
10
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
8
· 6H
 
2
O
25.4.8Syngenite
K
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.4.9Görgeyite
K
 
2
Ca
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
25.4.10Polyhalite
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.11Koktaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.4.12Ye'elimite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
6
(SO
 
4
)O
 
12
25.4.13Ettringite
Ca
 
6
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
25.4.14Bentorite
Ca
 
6
(Cr
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
25.4.15Celestine
SrSO
 
4
25.4.16Kalistrontite
K
 
2
Sr(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.4.17Baryte
BaSO
 
4

Other Names for Bassanite

Synonyms:
HemihydrateMiltoniteMirupolskitePlaster of ParisPolyhydrate
Soluble AnhydriteVibertite
Other Languages:
German:Bassanit
Miltonit
Mirupolskit
Vibertit
Russian:Бассанит
Simplified Chinese:烧石膏
半水石膏
Spanish:Bassanita
Miltonita
Mirupolskita
Vibertita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Bassanite

Reference List:

- +
Zambonini (1910) Min. Vesuviana: 327.

Gaubert (1933) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 197: 72.

Caspari (1936) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: 155A: 41.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 205: 99-113.

Berg and Sveshnikova (1946) Bulletin de Académy des sciences de l'Union des Républiques Soviétiques Socialistes, Cl. sc. mat. nat., Ser. chim.: No. 1: 19.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 476.

Freyer, D. & Voigt, W. (2003): Crystallization and phase stability of CaSO4 and CaSO4-based salts. Monatshefte für Chemie, 134, 693-719.

Internet Links for Bassanite

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  • Localities for Bassanite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • South Australia
      • Eyre Peninsula
    Steve Sorrell Collection
    Austria
     
    • Burgenland
      • Mattersburg
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Salzburg
      • Abtenau
        • Webing
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
      • Golling
        • Grubach
          • Moosegg
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    • Upper Austria
      • Gmunden
        • Hallstatt
    Schorn, A., Neubauer, F., Bernroider, M. (2013): Polyhalite microfabrics in an Alpine evaporite mélange: Hallstatt, Eastern Alps. Journal of Structural Geology 46, 57-75.
    Bolivia
     
    • Cochabamba Department
      • Tapacari Province
    Alfredo Petrov collection
    Canada
     
    • Nova Scotia
      • Cumberland Co.
    N.R. Goodman, "Gypsum in Nova Scotia and its Associated Minerals," Geology of Canadian Industrial Mineral Deposits, 1957.
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
        • Taltal
    Tornos, F., Velasco, F, Barra, F. and Morata, D. (2010): The Tropezón Cu-Mo-(Au) deposit: the missing link between IOCG and porphyry copper systems? Mineralium Deposita 45, 313-321.
      • El Loa Province
        • San Pedro de Atacama
          • Cordillera de la Sal
    De Waele, J., Forti, P., Picotti, V., Galli, E., Rossi, A., Brook, G., & Cucchi, F. (2009). Cave deposits in Cordillera de la Sal (Atacama, Chile). Geological Constrains on the Onset and Evolution of an Extreme Environment: the Atacama area. Geoacta, Special Publication, 2, 113-117.
    • Tarapacá Region
      • El Tamarugal Province
        • Salar Grande
    Schlüter, J. & Malcherek, T. Haydeeite, Cu3Mg(OH)6Cl2, a new mineral from the Haydee mine, Salar Grande, Atacama desert, Chile. NJMA 184, 39-42 (2007)
    China
     
    • Qinghai Province
      • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
        • Dulan Co.
          • Qarhan salt lake (Chaerhan salt lake)
    Botao Li, Yuanyi Zhao, Zuohua Qian, Pengcheng Jiao, Chenglin Liu, and Shijun Wang (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 669-683
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
    Zacek, V., Oplustil, S., Mayova, A. & Meyer, F. R. (1995): Die Mineralien von Kladno in Mittelböhmen, Tschechische Republik. Mineralien-Welt 6 (1), 13-30 (in German).
          • Libušin
    Diederik Visser List #39, July 2006
      • Hradec Králové Region
        • Trutnov (Trautenau)
          • Radvanice
    Jirásek, J.: Thermal Changes of the Rocks in the Dump Pile of the Kateřina Colliery in Radvanice (Eastern Bohemia). Ostrava: VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, Institute of Geological Engineering - 541, 2001. 69 p.
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • South Moravia Region
    David Parfitt collection
    Egypt
     
    • Western Desert
    Marchesini, M. & Barresi, A. (2009): I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.
    Germany
     
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Aachen
        • Alsdorf
    Blaß, G. and Strehler, H. (1993): Mineralbildungen in einer durch Selbstentzündung brennenden Bergehalde des Aachener Steinkohlenreviers. Mineralien-Welt 4 (4), 35-42. (in German)
        • Stolberg
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Thuringia
      • Gera
        • Ronneburg U deposit
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    Hungary
     
    • Baranya Co.
      • Mecsek Mtns
        • Pécs
    Koller G. Own found.
    • Fejér Co.
      • Bakony Mtns
    Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
      • Vértes Mtns
    ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
    • Veszprém Co.
      • Bakony Mtns
        • Nyirád
    ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
        • Úrkút
          • Csárda Hill
    Szakáll & Jánosi (1996) The Minerals of Hungary
    Iceland
     
    • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
      • Heimaey island
        • Heimaey
    Mitolo, D., Garavelli, A., Pedersen, L., Balić-Žunić, T., Jakobsson, S.P., Vurro, F. (2008): Mineralogy of actually forming sublimates at Eldfell Volcano, Heimaey (Vestmannaeyjar archipelago), Iceland. Plinius, 34, 322.; Balić-Žunić, T., Garavelli, A., Acquafredda, P., Leonardsen, E., & Jakobsson, S. P. (2009). Eldfellite, NaFe (SO4) 2, a new fumarolic mineral from Eldfell volcano, Iceland. Mineralogical Magazine, 73(1), 51-57.
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    Russo, M., 2006: I minerali di formazione fumarolica della grande eruzione vesuviana del 1906
    • Sicily
      • Messina Province
        • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
          • Lipari
            • Vulcano Island
              • Porto Levante
    P.Forti, M.Panzica La Manna and A.Rossi (1994) The peculiar mineralogic site of the Alum cave (Vulcano, Sicily). Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology November 1994 p.35-44.
    • Tuscany
      • Grosseto Province
        • Montieri
    Bazzoni C. et al., 2003. Il "Filone di Boccheggiano": miniere e minerali. Riv. Miner. Ital., 1: 78-89
      • Livorno Province
        • Elba Island
          • Campo nell'Elba
            • San Piero in Campo
    Orlandi, P., & Pezzotta, F. (1997). Minerali dell'Isola d'Elba. Edizioni Novecento Grafico, Bergamo, 249 pp.
    Mars
     
    • Aeolis quadrangle
      • Gale Crater
        • Aeolis Palus
    Several papers on: Science Express, www.sciencemag.org , 9 December 2013, summarized by Dr Vivien Gornitz, Bulletin of the New York Mineralogical Club, February 2014.
    Oman
     
    • Muscat Province (Masqat Province)
      • Al Ghubra
    Gunnar Farber
    Poland
     
    • Małopolskie
      • Olkusz District
        • Olkusz
    J. Cabala, B. Zogala, R. Dubiel (2008) Geochemical and Geophysical Study of Historical Zn-Pb Ore Processing Waste Dump Areas (Southern Poland). Polish J. of Environ. Stud. Vol. 17, No. 5, 693-700
    • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
      • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
        • Katowice area
          • Łaziska
    Lukasz Kruszewski 2005: Minerals arising in cause of underground fires of "Skalny" coal mine dump in Laziska (Upper Silesia, Poland). Mag. Thesis (unpublished)
    Qatar
     
    Al-Yousef , M. 2003. Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Origin of Quaternary Sabkhas in the Qatar Peninsula, Arabian Gulf. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Southampton University. By Mariam Al-Yousef of Qatar University.
    Romania
     
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Hunedoara
        • Boșorod
    Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., and Bourgier, V. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 31-36.
    Russia
     
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
    Cesnokov, B., M. Kotrly, and T. Nisanbajev (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Lučenec Co.
        • Podrečany
    Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
    • Prešov Region
      • Vranov nad Topľou Co.
    Ďuďa,R., et al., 1981: Mineralógia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca, Monografia 2, 98s
    South Africa
     
    • Western Cape Province
      • Cape Winelands District
        • Ceres
          • Koue Bokkeveld Mtn
    Brearley, A. J. & Jones, R. H. (1998): Chondritic Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, J. J., Editor): Chapter 3, 398 pages. Mineralogical Society of America: Washington, DC, USA. (1998)
    Switzerland
     
    • Ticino (Tessin)
      • Leventina
        • Bedretto Valley
          • Ronco
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 66
    UK
     
    • England
      • Dorset
        • Charmouth
    [BMS]
        • Lyme Regis
    BMS Database
    [BMS]
    Ukraine
     
    • Crimea Oblast'
      • Crimea peninsula
        • Sudak area
    Alexander I. Tischenko (1996. Minerals of the Crimea - World of stones, 1996, #9, p. 9-18
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • La Paz Co.
        • Plomosa Mts
          • Plomosa District
            • Bouse
              • Bouse area
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 130.
      • Pima Co.
        • Sierrita Mts
          • Pima District (Olive District; Mineral Hill District; Twin Buttes District)
            • Batamote Hills
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 130.
    • California
      • Fresno Co.
        • Diablo Range
          • Escarpado Canyon
            • Cima Hill
    Gulbrandsen, Robert Allen, D.L. Jones, K. McQ. Tagg & D.W. Reeser (1963), Apatitized wood and leucophosphite in nodules in the Moreno formation, California: USGS PP 475-C: 100-104; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 99.
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 285.
      • Inyo Co.
        • Death Valley
    Econ Geol (1996) 91:622-635
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 285.
    Allen, Robert D. & Henry C. Kramer (1953), Occurrence of bassanite in two desert areas in southeastern California: American Mineralogist: 38: 1266-1268; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 99.
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
          • Calico District (Daggett District)
            • Borate
    [Murdoch, J & Webb, R (1966) Minerals of California, California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 189]
    Allen, Robert D. & Henry C. Kramer (1953), Occurrence of bassanite in two desert areas in southeastern California: American Mineralogist: 38: 1266; Ver Planck, Wm. E., Jr. (1952), Gypsum in California: California Division Mines Bulletin 163: 48; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 287.
    • Massachusetts
      • Franklin Co.
        • Rowe
    Cerato, A.. 2003: Mineralogical Study of Davis Mine, Rowe, MA, Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques
    • Nevada
      • Elko Co.
        • Bootstrap District
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Ogdensburg
            • Sterling Hill
    The Picking Table:17(2):4; Dunn(1995):Pt5:630.
    • New Mexico
      • Otero Co.
    2008 New Mexico Mineral Symposium abstracts
    • Utah
      • Duchesne Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    Venezuela
     
    • Aragua
    Urbani, 1997. Bol. Soc. Venezolana de Espeleología, no.30.
    Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
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