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Bastnäsite-(Ce)

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Formula:
(Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)F
System:HexagonalColour:Yellow, reddish-brown; ...
Lustre:Vitreous, Greasy, PearlyHardness:4 - 4½
Member of:Bastnäsite Group
Name:For the type locality at the Bastnäs mines, Riddarhyttan, Skinnskatteberg, Västmanland, Sweden, plus the "-(Ce)" suffix due to the dominance of cerium in the composition.

Classification of Bastnäsite-(Ce)

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/C.07-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:5.BD.20a

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
D : With rare earth elements (REE)
Dana 8th edition ID:16a.1.1.1

16a : ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : (AB)(XO3)Zq
Hey's CIM Ref.:12.1.8

12 : Carbonates with other anions
1 : Carbonates with halides
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Type Occurrence of Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Type Locality:Bastnäs mines, Riddarhyttan, Skinnskatteberg, Västmanland, Sweden
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Swedish Museum of Natural History 23:0476
Geological Setting of type material:Narrow bands in a contact metamorphic amphibole skarn.
Associated Minerals at type locality:
FluoceriteCerite-(Ce)Allanite-(Ce)

Occurrences of Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Geological Setting:Most abundant REE mineral. Hydrothermal and primary igneous. Granitic and alkali syenites and pegmatites, carbonatites, contact metamorphic deposits, rarely in detrital deposits.

Physical Properties of Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Lustre:Vitreous, Greasy, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Comment:Pearly on basal partings
Colour:Yellow, reddish-brown; colourless to light yellow in transmitted light
Hardness (Mohs):4 - 4½
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
On {1010}.
Parting:On {0001} distinct to perfect of secondary origin).
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):4.9 - 5.2 g/cm3
Density (calculated):5.12 g/cm3

Crystallography of Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6 m2 - Ditrigonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:P6c2
Cell Parameters:a = 7.118(1) Å, c = 9.762(1) Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.371
Unit Cell Volume:V 428.34 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:6
Morphology:Crystals tabular {0001}, usually with {1010} alone. Crystals normally deeply grooved horizontally due to oscillatory combination of {1011} and {1010}. Large anhedral masses; granular.

Epitaxial Relationships of Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Epitaxial Minerals:
Fluocerite
Epitaxi Comments:Bastnäsite forms oriented overgrowths and alteration pseudomorphs after fluocerite. Crystal axes of both species oriented in parallel position.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
4.90 (35)
3.56 (71)
2.88 (100)
2.06 (50)
2.01 (35)
1.892 (50)
1.675 (24)

Optical Data of Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.717 - 1.722 nε = 1.818 - 1.823
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.101

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:Faintly pleochroic with absorption E is greater than O.

Chemical Properties of Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Formula:
(Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)F
Simplified for copy/paste:(Ce,La)(CO3)F
Essential elements:C, Ce, F, O
All elements listed in formula:C, Ce, F, La, O

Relationship of Bastnäsite-(Ce) to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Hydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce) (see here)
Member of:Bastnäsite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Bastnäsite-(La)
(La,Ce)(CO
 
3
)F
Bastnäsite-(Nd)
Nd(CO
 
3
)F
Bastnäsite-(Y)
(Y,Ce)(CO
 
3
)F
Hydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce)
(Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)(OH,F)
Hydroxylbastnäsite-(Nd)
(Nd,Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)(OH,F)
Thorbastnäsite
Th(Ca,Ce)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
5.BD.05Cordylite-(Ce)
NaBaCe
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
F
5.BD.05Lukechangite-(Ce)
Na
 
3
Ce
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
F
5.BD.10Zhonghuacerite-(Ce)
Ba
 
2
Ce(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
5.BD.10Kukharenkoite-(Ce)
Ba
 
2
Ce(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
5.BD.10Kukharenkoite-(La)
Ba
 
2
(La,Ce,Th)(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
5.BD.15Cebaite-(Ce)
Ba
 
3
Ce
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
5
F
 
2
5.BD.15Cebaite-(Nd)
Ba
 
3
(Nd,Ce)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
5
F
 
2
5.BD.18Arisite-(Ce)
NaCe
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3-x
F
 
2x+1
5.BD.18Arisite-(La)
NaLa
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3-x
F
 
2x+1
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(La)
(La,Ce)(CO
 
3
)F
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(Y)
(Y,Ce)(CO
 
3
)F
5.BD.20aHydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce)
(Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)(OH,F)
5.BD.20aHydroxylbastnäsite-(Nd)
(Nd,Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)(OH,F)
5.BD.20aHydroxylbastnäsite-(La)
(La,Nd,Ce)(CO
 
3
)(OH,F)
5.BD.20bParisite-(Ce)
Ca(Ce,La)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
 
2
5.BD.20bParisite-(Nd)
Ca(Nd,Ce,La)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
 
2
5.BD.20dRöntgenite-(Ce)
Ca
 
2
(Ce,La)
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
5
F
 
3
5.BD.20cSynchysite-(Ce)
Ca(Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
5.BD.20cSynchysite-(Nd)
Ca(Nd,Y,Gd)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
5.BD.20cSynchysite-(Y)
Ca(Y,Ce)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
5.BD.20aThorbastnäsite
Th(Ca,Ce)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(Nd)
Nd(CO
 
3
)F
5.BD.25Horváthite-(Y)
NaY(CO
 
3
)F
 
2
5.BD.25Qaqarssukite-(Ce)
Ba(Ce,REE)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
5.BD.35Huanghoite-(Ce)
BaCe(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
12.1.1Northupite
Na
 
3
Mg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Cl
12.1.2Barentsite
Na
 
7
Al(HCO
 
3
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
 
4
12.1.3Rouvilleite
Na
 
3
(Ca,Mn,Fe)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
12.1.4Chlormagaluminite
Mg
 
4
Al
 
2
(OH)
 
12
Cl
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
12.1.5Defernite
Ca
 
6
(CO
 
3
)
 
2-x
(SiO
 
4
)
 
x
(OH)
 
7
(Cl,OH)
 
1-2x
(x<0.5)
12.1.6Brenkite
Ca
 
2
(CO
 
3
)F
 
2
12.1.7Stenonite
(Sr,Ba,Na)
 
2
Al(CO
 
3
)F
 
5
12.1.9Bastnäsite-(La)
(La,Ce)(CO
 
3
)F
12.1.10Bastnäsite-(Y)
(Y,Ce)(CO
 
3
)F
12.1.11Parisite-(Ce)
Ca(Ce,La)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
 
2
12.1.12Parisite-(Nd)
Ca(Nd,Ce,La)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
 
2
12.1.13Synchysite-(Ce)
Ca(Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
12.1.14Synchysite-(Y)
Ca(Y,Ce)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
12.1.15Synchysite-(Nd)
Ca(Nd,Y,Gd)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
12.1.16Röntgenite-(Ce)
Ca
 
2
(Ce,La)
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
5
F
 
3
12.1.17Cordylite-(Ce)
NaBaCe
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
F
12.1.19Huanghoite-(Ce)
BaCe(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
12.1.20Zhonghuacerite-(Ce)
Ba
 
2
Ce(CO
 
3
)
 
3
F
12.1.21Cebaite-(Ce)
Ba
 
3
Ce
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
5
F
 
2
12.1.22Thorbastnäsite
Th(Ca,Ce)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
F
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
12.1.23Phosgenite
Pb
 
2
CO
 
3
Cl
 
2
12.1.24Barstowite
Pb
 
4
Cl
 
6
(CO
 
3
) · H
 
2
O
12.1.25Albrechtschraufite
Ca
 
4
Mg(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
6
F
 
2
· 17-18H
 
2
O
12.1.26Kettnerite
CaBiCO
 
3
OF

Other Names for Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Synonyms:
Basic fluocerineBasikfluorceriumBasiskfluor-ceriumBastnaesite-(Ce)Buszite
HamartiteHemartiteHydrocerite (of Glocker)HydrofluoceriteKischtimite
Kischtim-ParisiteKyshtymoparisiteSub-fluate of cerium
Other Languages:
French:Basicérine
Cérium hydrofluaté
German:Basisches Fluorcerium
Buszit
Hamartit
Hemartit
Hydrofluocerit
Kischtimit
Kischtim-Parisit
Kyshtymoparisit
Russian:Бастнезит-(Ce)
Simplified Chinese:氟碳铈矿
Spanish:Buszita
Hamartita
Hemartita
Hydrofluocerita
Kischtimita
Kyshtymoparisita
Swedish:Basiskfluocerium
Basisk fluss-spatssyradt Cerium
Traditional Chinese:氟碳鈰礦

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in strong, hot acids.

May be found as pseudomorphs after Fluocerite or Tscheffkinite.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:REE ore

References for Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Reference List:

- +
Berzelius (1818) Afhandlingar I Fysik, Kemi och Mineralogi, Stockholm: 5: 64 (as Basisk flussspatssyradt Cerium).

Berzelius, J .J. (1825): Flusspatssyradt och kolsyradt cerium. Årsberättelser om Vetenskapernas Framsteg. Afgivne af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Academiens Embetsman 31 Mars 1824: 201-202 (as Basisk flussspatssyradt Cerium).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Traité élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 520 (as Basicérine).

Hisinger, W. (1838): Analyser af några svenska mineralier. 2.Basiskt Fluor-Cerium från Bastnäs. Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 1838, 187-1891(as Basiskfluor-cerium).

Huot, J.J. (1841) Manuel de Minéralogie. 2 volumes, Paris: 1: 296.

Dufrénoy, A. (1845) Traité de minéralogie, 1st. Edition Vol. 1 (1844); Vol. 2: 382 (as Cérium hydrofluaté).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition, vol. 2, in two parts: 1447 (as Fluocerine).

Karavayev (1861) Bulletin of the Academy Imp. Science of St. Petersburg: 4: 401 (as Kischtim-Parisit).

Karavayev (1862) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 85: 442.

Brush (1863) American Journal of Science: 35: 427 (as Kischtimite).

Phillips (1867): 267 (as Sub-fluate of cerium).

Nordenskiöld (1868) Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm, Handlingar, Öfv: 25: 39 (as Hamartite).

Hillebrand (1899) American Journal of Science: 7: 51.

Koechlin (1912) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 31: 525.

Lacroix (1912) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 35: 108.

Geijer (1920) Sver. Geol. Undersök., Årsbok: 14, no. 6.

Lacroix, A. (1922) Minéralogie de Madagascar, Paris. 3 volumes: 1: 297.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3A]: 3418.

Silberminz (1929) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., series A, 55.

Oftedal (1931) Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Oslo: 12: 459.

Oftedal (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 78: 462.

Fleischer in: Glass and Smalley (1945) American Mineralogist: 30: 601.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 289-291.

Yunxiang, Ni, John M. Hughes, and Anthony N. Mariano (1993) The atomic arrangement of bastnäsite-(Ce), Ce(CO3)F, and structural elements of synchysite-(Ce), röntgenite-(Ce), and parisite-(Ce). American Mineralogist: 78: 415-418.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 51.

Internet Links for Bastnäsite-(Ce)

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  • Localities for Bastnäsite-(Ce)

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