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Bastnäsite-(Ce)

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Formula:
(Ce,La)(CO3)F
System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
Yellow, reddish-brown; ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Greasy, Pearly
Hardness:
4 - 4½
Name:
For the type locality at the Bastnäs mines, Riddarhyttan, Skinnskatteberg, Västmanland, Sweden, plus the "-(Ce)" suffix due to the dominance of cerium in the composition.

Classification of Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Approved
5.BD.20a

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
D : With rare earth elements (REE)
16a.1.1.1

16a : ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : (AB)(XO3)Zq
12.1.8

12 : Carbonates with other anions
1 : Carbonates with halides
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First Recorded Occurrence of Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Place of Conservation of First Recorded Material:
Swedish Museum of Natural History 23:0476
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
Narrow bands in a contact metamorphic amphibole skarn.
Associated Minerals at First Recorded Locality:

Occurrences of Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Geological Setting:
Most abundant REE mineral. Hydrothermal and primary igneous. Granitic and alkali syenites and pegmatites, carbonatites, contact metamorphic deposits, rarely in detrital deposits.

Physical Properties of Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Vitreous, Greasy, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Pearly on basal partings
Colour:
Yellow, reddish-brown; colourless to light yellow in transmitted light
Hardness (Mohs):
4 - 4½
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
On {1010}.
Parting:
On {0001} distinct to perfect of secondary origin).
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
4.9 - 5.2 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.12 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6 m2 - Ditrigonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P6c2
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.118(1) Å, c = 9.762(1) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.371
Unit Cell Volume:
V 428.34 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
6
Morphology:
Crystals tabular {0001}, usually with {1010} alone. Crystals normally deeply grooved horizontally due to oscillatory combination of {1011} and {1010}. Large anhedral masses; granular.

Epitaxial Relationships of Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Epitaxial Minerals:
Epitaxi Comments:
Bastnäsite forms oriented overgrowths and alteration pseudomorphs after fluocerite. Crystal axes of both species oriented in parallel position.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.90 (35)
3.56 (71)
2.88 (100)
2.06 (50)
2.01 (35)
1.892 (50)
1.675 (24)

Optical Data of Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.717 - 1.722 nε = 1.818 - 1.823
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.101
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Faintly pleochroic with absorption E is greater than O.

Chemical Properties of Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Formula:
(Ce,La)(CO3)F
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Bastnäsite-(Ce) to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Hydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce) (see here)
Other Members of Group:
Bastnäsite-(La)(La,Ce)(CO3)F
Bastnäsite-(Nd)Nd(CO3)F
Bastnäsite-(Y)(Y,Ce)(CO3)F
Hydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce)(Ce,La)(CO3)(OH,F)
Hydroxylbastnäsite-(Nd)(Nd,Ce,La)(CO3)(OH,F)
ThorbastnäsiteTh(Ca,Ce)(CO3)2F2 · 3H2O
5.BD.05Cordylite-(Ce)NaBaCe2(CO3)4F
5.BD.05Lukechangite-(Ce)Na3Ce2(CO3)4F
5.BD.10Zhonghuacerite-(Ce)Ba2Ce(CO3)3F
5.BD.10Kukharenkoite-(Ce)Ba2Ce(CO3)3F
5.BD.10Kukharenkoite-(La)Ba2(La,Ce,Th)(CO3)3F
5.BD.15Cebaite-(Ce)Ba3Ce2(CO3)5F2
5.BD.15Cebaite-(Nd)Ba3(Nd,Ce)2(CO3)5F2
5.BD.18Arisite-(Ce)NaCe2(CO3)3-xF2x+1
5.BD.18Arisite-(La)NaLa2(CO3)3-xF2x+1
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(La)(La,Ce)(CO3)F
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(Y)(Y,Ce)(CO3)F
5.BD.20aHydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce)(Ce,La)(CO3)(OH,F)
5.BD.20aHydroxylbastnäsite-(Nd)(Nd,Ce,La)(CO3)(OH,F)
5.BD.20aHydroxylbastnäsite-(La)(La,Nd,Ce)(CO3)(OH,F)
5.BD.20bParisite-(Ce)Ca(Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2
5.BD.20bParisite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2
5.BD.20dRöntgenite-(Ce)Ca2(Ce,La)3(CO3)5F3
5.BD.20cSynchysite-(Ce)Ca(Ce,La)(CO3)2F
5.BD.20cSynchysite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Y,Gd)(CO3)2F
5.BD.20cSynchysite-(Y)Ca(Y,Ce)(CO3)2F
5.BD.20aThorbastnäsiteTh(Ca,Ce)(CO3)2F2 · 3H2O
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(Nd)Nd(CO3)F
5.BD.25Horváthite-(Y)NaY(CO3)F2
5.BD.25Qaqarssukite-(Ce)Ba(Ce,REE)(CO3)2F
5.BD.35Huanghoite-(Ce)BaCe(CO3)2F
12.1.1NorthupiteNa3Mg(CO3)2Cl
12.1.2BarentsiteNa7Al(HCO3)2(CO3)2F4
12.1.3RouvilleiteNa3(Ca,Mn,Fe)2(CO3)3F
12.1.4ChlormagaluminiteMg4Al2(OH)12Cl2 · 3H2O
12.1.5DeferniteCa6(CO3)2-x(SiO4)x(OH)7(Cl,OH)1-2x (x<0.5)
12.1.6BrenkiteCa2(CO3)F2
12.1.7Stenonite(Sr,Ba,Na)2Al(CO3)F5
12.1.9Bastnäsite-(La)(La,Ce)(CO3)F
12.1.10Bastnäsite-(Y)(Y,Ce)(CO3)F
12.1.11Parisite-(Ce)Ca(Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2
12.1.12Parisite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2
12.1.13Synchysite-(Ce)Ca(Ce,La)(CO3)2F
12.1.14Synchysite-(Y)Ca(Y,Ce)(CO3)2F
12.1.15Synchysite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Y,Gd)(CO3)2F
12.1.16Röntgenite-(Ce)Ca2(Ce,La)3(CO3)5F3
12.1.17Cordylite-(Ce)NaBaCe2(CO3)4F
12.1.19Huanghoite-(Ce)BaCe(CO3)2F
12.1.20Zhonghuacerite-(Ce)Ba2Ce(CO3)3F
12.1.21Cebaite-(Ce)Ba3Ce2(CO3)5F2
12.1.22ThorbastnäsiteTh(Ca,Ce)(CO3)2F2 · 3H2O
12.1.23PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
12.1.24BarstowitePb4Cl6(CO3) · H2O
12.1.25AlbrechtschraufiteCa4Mg(UO2)2(CO3)6F2 · 17-18H2O
12.1.26KettneriteCaBiCO3OF

Other Names for Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in strong, hot acids.

May be found as pseudomorphs after Fluocerite or Tscheffkinite.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
REE ore

References for Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Reference List:
Berzelius (1818) Afhandlingar I Fysik, Kemi och Mineralogi, Stockholm: 5: 64 (as Basisk flussspatssyradt Cerium).

Berzelius, J .J. (1825): Flusspatssyradt och kolsyradt cerium. Årsberättelser om Vetenskapernas Framsteg. Afgivne af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Academiens Embetsman 31 Mars 1824: 201-202 (as Basisk flussspatssyradt Cerium).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Traité élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 520 (as Basicérine).

Hisinger, W. (1838): Analyser af några svenska mineralier. 2.Basiskt Fluor-Cerium från Bastnäs. Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 1838, 187-1891(as Basiskfluor-cerium).

Huot, J.J. (1841) Manuel de Minéralogie. 2 volumes, Paris: 1: 296.

Dufrénoy, A. (1845) Traité de minéralogie, 1st. Edition Vol. 1 (1844); Vol. 2: 382 (as Cérium hydrofluaté).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition, vol. 2, in two parts: 1447 (as Fluocerine).

Karavayev (1861) Bulletin of the Academy Imp. Science of St. Petersburg: 4: 401 (as Kischtim-Parisit).

Karavayev (1862) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 85: 442.

Brush (1863) American Journal of Science: 35: 427 (as Kischtimite).

Phillips (1867): 267 (as Sub-fluate of cerium).

Nordenskiöld (1868) Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm, Handlingar, Öfv: 25: 39 (as Hamartite).

Hillebrand (1899) American Journal of Science: 7: 51.

Koechlin (1912) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 31: 525.

Lacroix (1912) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 35: 108.

Geijer (1920) Sver. Geol. Undersök., Årsbok: 14, no. 6.

Lacroix, A. (1922) Minéralogie de Madagascar, Paris. 3 volumes: 1: 297.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3A]: 3418.

Silberminz (1929) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., series A, 55.

Oftedal (1931) Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Oslo: 12: 459.

Oftedal (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 78: 462.

Fleischer in: Glass and Smalley (1945) American Mineralogist: 30: 601.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 289-291.

Yunxiang, Ni, John M. Hughes, and Anthony N. Mariano (1993) The atomic arrangement of bastnäsite-(Ce), Ce(CO3)F, and structural elements of synchysite-(Ce), röntgenite-(Ce), and parisite-(Ce). American Mineralogist: 78: 415-418.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 51.

Internet Links for Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Localities for Bastnäsite-(Ce)

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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