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Beidellite

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Formula:
(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
White, reddish, ...
Lustre:
Waxy
Hardness:
1 - 2
Member of:
Name:
Named for the type locality at Beidell, Colorado

Classification of Beidellite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Explanation of status:
Regarded as a aluminian variety of montmorillonite by the mindat subcommittee on Clays and Clay minerals (2010)
9.EC.40

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
C : Phyllosilicates with mica sheets, composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
71.3.1a.1

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
3 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
16.11.15

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
11 : Aluminosilicates of Ca and Mg with or without alkalis
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-604.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Beidellite

Year of Discovery:
1925

Physical Properties of Beidellite

Colour:
White, reddish, brownish-grey.
Hardness (Mohs):
1 - 2

Crystallography of Beidellite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.17Å, b = 8.97Å, c = 17.57Å
β = 90°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.576 : 1 : 1.959
Unit Cell Volume:
V 814.81 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Beidellite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.494 - 1.503 nβ = 1.525 - 1.532 nγ = 1.526 - 1.533
2V:
Measured: 9° to 16°, Calculated: 20°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.032
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of Beidellite

Formula:
(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ti,K,Mg,Fe

Relationship of Beidellite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Montmorillonite (see here)
Forms a series with Saponite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2O
FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
HectoriteNa0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
PimeliteNi3Si4O10(OH)2·4H2O
Saliotite(Li,Na)Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)5
SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
VolkonskoiteCa0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2O
ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.05Minnesotaite(Fe,Mg)3(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.05TalcMg3(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.05Willemseite(Ni,Mg)3(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.10FerripyrophylliteFe23+(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.10PyrophylliteAl2(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15Chernykhite(Ba,Na)(V3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4
9.EC.15MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15NanpingiteCsAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.15ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15Tobelite(NH4,K)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.15FerroaluminoceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15FerroceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15ChromceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)(Cr,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.15TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2
9.EC.15Ganterite(Ba,Na,K)(Al,Mg)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20EphesiteLiNaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20HendricksiteK(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20NorrishiteKLiMn23+(Si4O10)O2
9.EC.20PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20PreiswerkiteNaMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20SiderophylliteKFe22+Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20TetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.20FluorotetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)F2
9.EC.20Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4
9.EC.20EastoniteKMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20TetraferrianniteKFe32+((Fe3+,Al)Si3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20FluoranniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2
9.EC.20ShirozuliteK(Mn2+,Mg)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20SokolovaiteCsLi2Al(Si4O10)F2
9.EC.20AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20UM2004-49-SiO:AlCsFHKLi(Cs,K)(Al,Li)2.6((Si,Al)4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20Suhailite(NH4)Fe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
9.EC.20YangzhumingiteKMg2.5(Si4O10)F2
9.EC.20OrloviteKLi2Ti(Si4O10)OF
9.EC.20OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2
9.EC.25Brammallite(Na,H3O)(Al,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.30MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.35Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2
9.EC.35BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.35ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
9.EC.35Kinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Mn2+,Al)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
9.EC.35Ferrokinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.35Oxykinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(O,OH,F)2
9.EC.35FluorokinoshitaliteBaMg3(Al2Si2O10)F2
9.EC.40Kurumsakite(Zn,Ni,Cu)8Al8V25+Si5O35 · 27H2O (?)
9.EC.40Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.40NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.40VolkonskoiteCa0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.40Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2O
9.EC.45HectoriteNa0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.45SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.45SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.45SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O (?)
9.EC.45Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.45SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
9.EC.45ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.45FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.50Vermiculite(Mg,Fe,Al)3((Al,Si)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.55Baileychlore(Zn,Fe,Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Clinochlore(Mg,Fe2+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn32+Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Nimite(Ni,Mg,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Orthochamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
9.EC.55PennantiteMn52+Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Sudoite(Mg,Fe2+)2Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55DonbassiteAl4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55GlagoleviteNa(Mg,Al)6(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
9.EC.55BorocookeiteLi1+3xAl4-x(BSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.60AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2O
9.EC.60Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
9.EC.60DozyiteMg7Al2(Al2Si4O15)(OH)12
9.EC.60HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
9.EC.60Karpinskite(Ni,Mg)2Si2O5(OH)2 (?)
9.EC.60KulkeiteMg8Al(AlSi7O20)(OH)10
9.EC.60LunijianlaiteLi0.7Al6.2(AlSi7O20)(OH,O)10
9.EC.60Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
9.EC.60Saliotite(Li,Na)Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)5
9.EC.60TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
9.EC.60BrinrobertsiteNa0.3Al4(Si4O10)2(OH)4 · 3.5 H2O
9.EC.65Macaulayite(Fe,Al)24Si4O43(OH)2
9.EC.70BurckhardtitePb2(Fe3+Te6+)[AlSi3O8]O6
9.EC.75Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe23+(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2O
9.EC.75Surite(Pb,Ca)3(Al,Fe2+,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(CO3)2(OH)2
9.EC.75Niksergievite(Ba,Ca)2Al3(AlSi3O10)(CO3)(OH)6 · nH2O
9.EC.80KegelitePb8Al4(Si8O20)(SO4)2(CO3)4(OH)8
16.11.1MadisoniteCa2Mg2Al2Si3O13 or near
16.11.3Alumino-magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
16.11.4Tschermakite☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
16.11.5ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
16.11.6JuaniteCa10Mg4Al2Si11O39 · 4H2O or near
16.11.7Pumpellyite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
16.11.8TacharaniteCa12Al2Si18O51 · 18H2O
16.11.9Aluminobarroisite☐{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
16.11.10Taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
16.11.12Edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
16.11.13Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
16.11.14Katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
16.11.15Magnesiosadanagaite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
16.11.16Sadanagaite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2

Other Names for Beidellite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Beidellit
Spanish:Beidellita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Beidellite

Reference List:
Nadeau, P.H., V.C. Farmer, W.J. McHardy, and D.C. Bain (1985), Compositional variations of the Unterrupsroth beidellite: American Mineralogist: 70: 1004-1010.

Christidis, George E. (2006), Genesis and compositional heterogeneity of smectites. Part III: Alteration of basic pyroclastic rocks - A case study from the Troodos Ophiolite Complex, Cyprus: American Mineralogist: 91: 685-701.

Internet Links for Beidellite

Localities for Beidellite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Argentina
 
  • Chubut
    • Cushamen Department
Padrón de Minas de la Provincia de Chubut (2005).
Padrón de Minas de la Provincia de Chubut (2005).
    • Escalante Department
Padrón de Minas de la Provincia de Chubut (2005).
Padrón de Minas de la Provincia de Chubut (2005).
    • Gaiman Department
Padrón de Minas de la Provincia de Chubut (2005).
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • North Mt Lofty Ranges
        • Robertstown
Noble R.J., Just J. and Johnson J. E., (1983), Catalogue of South Australian Minerals-1983, Government Printer, Adelaide, South Australia.
  • Western Australia
    • Leonora Shire
      • Eulaminna (Murrin Murrin mining centre)
Murrin Murrin Nickel Laterite Deposit, WA; M.A. Wells, CSIRO Exploration and Mining; CRC LEME 2003
Bolivia
 
  • Oruro Department
    • Dalence Province
      • Huanuni
[MinRec 32:472]
Bulgaria
 
  • Sofiya Oblast (Sofia Oblast)
Radonova, T. G., Daskalova, Y., & Pounev, L. (1967). Rancieite, coronadite and baidellite–new minerals for the Kremikovtsi iron deposit. Bull. Geol. Inst., Geochem., Mineral. and Petrogr, 16, 127-133.
Cameroon
 
  • East Region
    • Lomié
Yongue-Fouateu, R., Yemefack, M., Wouatong, A.S.L., Ndjigui, P.D., and Bilong, P. (2009): Clay Minerals 44(2), 221-237
Denmark
 
  • Faroe Islands
    • Suðuroy Island
      • Hvalba
Weisenberger, T. B. & Spürgin, S. (2012): Die Färöer - ein geologischer Streifzug. Aufschluss 63, 173-192.
France
 
  • Auvergne
    • Allier
      • Le Mayet-de-Montagne
J.C. Parneix, A Meunier : "Les paragenèses de remplacement des biotites utilisées comme marqueurs des conditions de température et de composition des fluides dans les altérations hydrothermales et supergène du granite de Mayet-la-Montagne (Allier, France), Bull. Minéral. , 1982, 105, 662-672.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Menzenschwand
Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
  • Saxony
    • Dresden
      • Wurgwitz
http://www.geologica-saxonica.de/52-53/05_Dietze.pdf
Hungary
 
  • Veszprém Co.
    • Marcal Basin
Szakáll & Gatter: Hun. Min. Spec., 1993
Indian Ocean
 
  • Ninety East Ridge (90° E Ridge; Indian Ridge)
    • D.S.D.P.
      • Leg 26
D. Besse et al. , Bell. Minéral. , 1981, 104, pp. 56-63.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Nagano Prefecture
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
      • Niigata Prefecture
        • Murakami City
Dr Yohachiro Okamoto (1876-1960) collection (curated by the Geological Survey of Japan)
      • Shizuoka Prefecture
        • Toi-cho
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
  • Kyushu Region
    • Kagoshima Prefecture
      • Okuchi city
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
    • Nagasaki Prefecture
      • Tsushima Islands
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Mun. de Aldama
Cross, B. & Culp Zeitner J. (2006), Geodes Natures Treasures, P.26
    • Mun. de Namiquipa
      • Namiquipa
Panczner (1987): 111.
New Zealand
 
  • South Island
    • Canterbury
Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
Norway
 
  • Vest-Agder
    • Farsund
      • Lista
; Isachsen, F. & Rosenqvist, I. Th. (1948): Forvitringsleire og blekejord på Karmøy. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 27:175-186
    • Lyngdal
Barth, T.F.W. (1940): Norske mineraler av Beidellit-gruppen. Norsk Geologisk Tidskrift. 19: 300-310
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
Active Volcanoes of Kamchatka, vol 2, p 140, S.A. Fedotov
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Bystrica Co.
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
Ďuďa,R., et al., 1981: Mineralógia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca, Monografia 2, 98s
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo Province
    • Bushveld Complex
      • Waterberg District
        • Mokopane (Potgietersrus)
Minerals of South Africa
UK
 
  • England
Ford, T., A. Sarjeant & M. Smith (1993) The minerals of the Peak district of Derbyshire UK Jour. Mines & Minerals 13:16-55
Ukraine
 
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
Golubovskaya, E.V. (2001): Lithology and Mineral Resources 36(3), 224-235.
USA
 
  • Alabama
    • De Kalb Co.
      • Willis Valley (Wills Valley)
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
  • Arizona
    • Coconino Co.
      • Cameron District
        • Cameron area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 132.
    • Gila Co.
      • Globe-Miami District
        • Miami-Inspiration District
          • Inspiration
            • Castle Dome area (Castle Dome Mine area; Pinto Valley Mine area)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 132; Peterson, N.P., et al (1946), Hydrothermal alteration in the Castle Dome copper deposit, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 41: 820-840; Peterson, N.P. (1962), Geology and ore deposits of the Globe-Miami district, AZ, USGS PP 342; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 108.
    • Greenlee Co.
      • Shannon Mts
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 132, 304; Schwartz, G.M. (1947), Hydrothermal alteration in the 'porphyry copper' deposits, Econ.Geol.: 42: 319-352; Schwartz, G.M. (1958), Alteration of biotite under mesothermal conditions, Econ.Geol.: 53: 164-177.
    • Pima Co.
      • Ajo District
        • Little Ajo Mts
          • Ajo
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 132; Gilluly, J. (1937), AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 141: 68-75, 79-81; Gilluly, J. (1946), The Ajo mining district, Arizona, USGS PP 209: 96; Thomas, W.J. & R.B. Gibbs (1983), Famous mineral localities: The New Cornelia mine, Ajo, AZ, Min.Rec.: 14: 283-298.
Gilluly, J. (1946), The Ajo mining district, Arizona, USGS PP 209: 96.
    • Pinal Co.
      • San Manuel District
        • San Manuel
          • San Manuel Mine (Apex Lead & Vanadium Mining Corp Mine; Quarelli group)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 132; Schwartz, G.M. (1947), Hydrothermal alteration in the 'porphyry copper' deposits, Econ.Geol.: 42: 319-352.
  • Arkansas
    • Hot Spring Co.
Rocks and Minerals, (1976) 51:495-507
  • California
    • Los Angeles Co.
      • Lake Hughes
        • Elizabeth Lake Canyon
Beverly, Burt Jr. (1934), Graphite deposits in Los Angeles County, California: Economic Geology: 29: 352; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 440.
      • Sierra Pelona Mts (Sierra Pelona Range)
        • Castaic
          • Elizabeth Lake Canyon
            • Upper Elizabeth Lake Canyon
Beverly, Burt Jr. (1934), Graphite deposits in Los Angeles County, California: Economic Geology: 29: 352; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 100.
    • San Benito Co.
      • Diablo Range
        • New Idria District
          • San Benito River headwaters area
            • Dallas Gem Mine area
              • Santa Rita Peak
www.mineralsocal.org
              • South of the Dallas Gem Mine
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 440.
    • Sierra Co.
Ferguson, Henry G. & R.W. Gannett (1932), Gold quartz veins of the Alleghany district, California: USGS PP 172: 45; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 441.
  • Colorado
    • Boulder Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 223
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Mineral Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Wagon Wheel Gap
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Ouray Co.
      • Mt. Sneffels
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • San Juan Mts
        • Ouray District
          • Ouray
            • Sneffels District (Sneffels - Red Mountain District; Mount Sneffels District)
              • Sneffels (Sneffels Camp)
                • Revenue group
The Mines and Minerals of the Great American Rift, R.W. Holmes & M.B. Kennedy, 1983
    • Saguache Co.
      • Bonanza District (Kerber Creek District)
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Crystal Hill District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Idaho
    • Blaine Co.
      • Lava Creek District
Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
    • Owyhee Co.
      • De Lamar District
Chipera & Bish, Clays and Clay Minerals 45:226
      • Flint District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Washington Co.
      • Weiser District
USGS Bull 1042D
  • Maine
    • Oxford Co.
      • Buckfield
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1.; King and Foord, 2000, Addenda to Volume 1, Mineralogy of Maine, v. 2.
  • Maryland
    • Cecil Co.
      • Pilot
Ostrander, C. W. & W. E. Price (1940) Minerals of Maryland: Natural History Society of Maryland , 92 p.
  • Montana
    • Flathead Co.
      • Hog Heaven District (Flathead District)
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
      • Fitting District
        • Gillis Range
Mineralogical Record: 30: 277-292.
  • New Mexico
    • Grant Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
        • Vanadium
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • McKinley Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Socorro Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
  • Oregon
    • Grant Co.
      • Quartzburg District (Comer District)
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Jackson Co.
      • Butte Creek District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Texas
    • Brewster Co.
[MinRec 21:233]
  • Utah
    • Sanpete Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Tooele Co.
      • Deep Creek Mts
        • Gold Hill District (Clifton District)
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Utah Co.
      • East Tintic Mts
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Oquirrh Mts
        • Fairfield
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
  • Wyoming
    • Sweetwater Co.
      • Green River Basin
Tony Nickischer
Mineral and/or Locality  
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