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Benavidesite

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Formula:
Pb
 
4
(Mn,Fe)Sb
 
6
S
 
14
System:MonoclinicColour:Lead Grey
Lustre:MetallicHardness:
Name:Named in 1982 by Élisabeth Oudin, Paul Picot, François Pillard, Yves Moëlo, Ernest A. J. Burke, and Marek A. Zakrzewski in honor of Alberto Benavides de la Quintana [October 21, 1920 Lima, Peru - February 12, 2014 Lima, Peru], mining engineer, for his contributions to mining development in Peru. He received his training from the colegio La Inmaculada and later the School of Engineers [now the National University of Engineering (UNI)] in 1941 and was awarded a scholarship by Cerro de Pasco Corporation to continue his studies towards a master’s degree in geology at Harvard University. Returning to Perú in 1944 he continued as a geologist at Cerro de Pasco and Goyarisquisga, where, due to his hard work and dedication, he was promoted in 1950, at age 30 to be the first head of exploration of the corporation. Under his leadership, Minas Buenaventura acquired the Julcani mine in 1953. Between 1956 and 1975 the company added the El Brocal, Orcopampa and Uchucchacua mines to its direct operations. In recognition of his business acumen, he was invested as President of Cerro de Pasco, where he led the Peruvian branch of the corporation from 1964 through to 1971. In 2013, the company produced 15% of Peru’s 3.6 million kg of silver and 12% of Peru’s 151,000 kg of gold. Benavides was always promoting and marketing of Peru as a mining destination made the country attractive to mining companies all around the world, but for the benefit of his fellow countrymen as well as for his mining interests. Newmont, BRGM, Noranda, BHP, Southern Peru, Rio Tinto, Barrick, Cyprus Minerals, Phelps Dodge, Freeport, etc. were all convinced to do business in Peru in the office of Alberto Benavides.
He founded the mining faculty of the Universidad Católica del Peru in 1971. Also in the 1970s, he was leading mining at the Uchucchacua mine and fostered innovative research in treating the unusual ores present there. Alberto also founded Buenaventura Ingenieros SA (BISA) in 1977 to retain talented engineers in Perú and develop new mining projects. During this period he was ably supported by his brother, Jorge Benavides de la Quintana, in running Buenaventura. Alberto Benavides was always up to date with all the geological and exploration techniques and he kept a close relationship with Harvard and academia. He headed the privatization committee of Centromin Peru, and he died during his term as president of the Patronato UNI, an institution created to raise funds for research grants and scholarships for the best UNI students. Because of his many accomplishments, Benavides, received many awards and recognitions. In 1980 he was honored by the French Government as Oficial in the Orden Nacional al Merito for his contribution to the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minieres (BRGM) in its exploration and research work in Peru. He received the Society of Mining and Metallurgy of America's (SME) Gold Medal Award in 2000 and the Society of Economic Geologists (SEG) honoured him with the prestigious Penrose Medal in 2001. Harvard University honored him as Chair alumni for his Life Time Achievement in 2011, the highest honour Harvard University gives to its alumni. The Sociedad Geologica, where he was twice its president, also honoured him with its highest award; Universidad de San Marcos named him Profesor Honoris Causa in 2001; the UNI, his Alma Mater, did it first in 1995, and he has been recognized by all the professional mining institutions in Perú. He was named Amauta, the highest recognition in education by the Peruvian government. Benevides was also a public servant. He was elected mayor of the city of Cerro de Pasco in 1945, deputy mayor of Lima from 1975 to 1977, Director of the board of the Central Bank of Peru in 1977 and again from 1992 to 2000, president of INCITEMI (Institute for scientific research and mining technology). He headed the privatisation committee of Centromin Peru, and he died during his term as president of the Patronato UNI, an institution created to raise funds for research grants and scholarships for the best UNI students. He is warmly remembered because of his famous quote: “Don’t worry about environmental care costs. Be sure to take good care of the environment, just for its own sake, because God will return the favor with a bountiful reward. ”
Isostructural with:Jamesonite

Classification of Benavidesite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/E.22-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.HB.15

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
H : Sulfosalts of SnS archetype
B : With Cu, Ag, Fe, Sn and Pb
Dana 7th edition ID:3.6.7.2
Dana 8th edition ID:3.6.7.2

3 : SULFOSALTS
6 : 2 < ø < 2.49
Hey's CIM Ref.:5.8.3

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
8 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Mn, Fe, Co and Ni
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Type Occurrence of Benavidesite

Co-type Localities:Uchucchacua Mine, Oyon Province, Lima Department, Peru
Sätra Mine, Doverstorp ore field, Finspång, Östergötland, Sweden
Place of Conservation of Type Material:National School of Mines, Paris, France
Year of Discovery:1982
Geological Setting of type material:Telescoped polymetallic deposit
Associated Minerals at type locality:
SphaleriteRhodoniteQuartzPyrrhotitePyrrhotite
PyriteGalenaCalciteBustamite

Occurrences of Benavidesite

Geological Setting:Metamorphosed iron sulfide deposits

Physical Properties of Benavidesite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Lead Grey
Streak:Brown-grey
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness (Vickers):VHN15=77 - 116 kg/mm2
Density (calculated):5.60 g/cm3

Crystallography of Benavidesite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b
Space Group Setting:P21/a
Cell Parameters:a = 15.74Å, b = 19.14Å, c = 4.06Å
β = 91.5°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.822 : 1 : 0.212
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,222.71 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Acicular crystals, rounded grains
Twinning:Polysynthetic parallel to elongation - common
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
4.10 (30)
3.85 (20)
3.45 (100)
3.169 (20)
3.098 (20)
2.829 (40)
2.737 (30)
Comments:Uchuc-Chacua deposit, Peru.

Optical Data of Benavidesite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Strong with tints of brown and blue
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=40.7%R2= 42.0%
420nmR1=39.6%R2= 42.0%
440nmR1=39.3%R2= 42.0%
460nmR1=39.5%R2= 42.4%
480nmR1=39.9%R2= 43.0%
500nmR1=39.7%R2= 42.9%
520nmR1=39.5%R2= 42.7%
540nmR1=39.0%R2= 42.4%
560nmR1=38.9%R2= 42.2%
580nmR1=38.7%R2= 41.8%
600nmR1=38.3%R2= 41.3%
620nmR1=37.9%R2= 40.8%
640nmR1=37.5%R2= 40.9%
660nmR1=36.8%R2= 39.5%
680nmR1=36.1%R2= 38.7%
700nmR1=35.6%R2= 37.8%


Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Peak reflectance is 43.0%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:White with a greenish tint
Internal Reflections:Dull red - rare
Pleochroism:Weak

Chemical Properties of Benavidesite

Formula:
Pb
 
4
(Mn,Fe)Sb
 
6
S
 
14
Simplified for copy/paste:Pb4(Mn,Fe)Sb6S14
Essential elements:Mn, Pb, S, Sb
All elements listed in formula:Fe, Mn, Pb, S, Sb
Analytical Data:Uchuc-Chacua deposit, Peru; by electron microprobe.
Pb (39.9)
Mn (2.2)
Fe (0.8)
Sb (34.8)
S (21.1)
Total (98.8)
Empirical Formula:
Pb
 
4.06
(Mn
 
0.84
Fe
 
0.30
)Sb
 
6.00
S
 
13.80
Common Impurities:Cu,Zn,Bi

Relationship of Benavidesite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Jamesonite (see here)
Common Associates:
SphaleriteSpessartineGudmunditeGalenaFreibergite
Bismuth
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.HB.05aAikinite
PbCuBiS
 
3
2.HB.05aFriedrichite
Pb
 
5
Cu
 
5
Bi
 
7
S
 
18
2.HB.05aGladite
PbCuBi
 
5
S
 
9
2.HB.05aHammarite
Pb
 
2
Cu
 
2
Bi
 
4
S
 
9
2.HB.05cJaskólskiite
Pb
 
2+x
Cu
 
x
(Sb,Bi)
 
2-x
S
 
6
(x = 0.2)
2.HB.05aKrupkaite
PbCuBi
 
3
S
 
6
2.HB.05aLindströmite
Pb
 
3
Cu
 
3
Bi
 
7
S
 
15
2.HB.05bMeneghinite
Pb
 
13
CuSb
 
7
S
 
24
2.HB.05aPekoite
PbCuBi
 
11
(S,Se)
 
18
2.HB.05aEmilite
Pb
 
2.7
Cu
 
2.7
Bi
 
5.3
S
 
12
2.HB.05UM2000-46-S:BiCuPb
Cu
 
0.33
Pb
 
0.33
Bi
 
7.67
S
 
12
2.HB.05aSalzburgite
Pb
 
1.6
Cu
 
1.6
Bi
 
6.4
S
 
12
2.HB.05UM1990-54-Se:BiCuPb
CuPb(Ni,Co)
 
0.3
Bi
 
3
Se
 
6
2.HB.05aPaarite
Pb
 
1.7
Cu
 
1.7
Bi
 
6.3
S
 
12
2.HB.10cEclarite
(Cu,Fe)Pb
 
9
Bi
 
12
S
 
28
2.HB.10bGiessenite
Pb
 
27
Cu
 
2
(Bi,Sb)
 
19
S
 
57
2.HB.10bIzoklakeite
Pb
 
27
(Cu,Fe,Ag)
 
2
(Sb,Bi)
 
19
S
 
57
2.HB.10aKobellite
Pb
 
22
Cu
 
4
(Bi,Sb)
 
30
S
 
69
2.HB.10aTintinaite
Pb
 
22
Cu
 
4
(Sb,Bi)
 
30
S
 
69
2.HB.15Jamesonite
Pb
 
4
FeSb
 
6
S
 
14
2.HB.20dBerryite
Cu
 
3
Ag
 
2
Pb
 
3
Bi
 
7
S
 
16
2.HB.20bBuckhornite
AuPb
 
2
BiTe
 
2
S
 
3
2.HB.20aNagyágite
Pb
 
5
Au(Te,Sb)
 
4
S
 
5-8
2.HB.20eWatkinsonite
Cu
 
2
PbBi
 
4
(Se,S,Te)
 
8
2.HB.20cMuseumite
[Pb
 
2
(Pb,Sb)
 
2
S
 
8
][(Te,Au)
 
2
]
2.HB.20eLitochlebite
Ag
 
2
PbBi
 
4
Se
 
8
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
5.8.1Samsonite
Ag
 
4
MnSb
 
2
S
 
6
5.8.2Uchucchacuaite
AgMnPb
 
3
Sb
 
5
S
 
12
5.8.4Berthierite
FeSb
 
2
S
 
4
5.8.5Jamesonite
Pb
 
4
FeSb
 
6
S
 
14
5.8.6Parajamesonite
5.8.7Garavellite
FeSbBiS
 
4
5.8.8Izoklakeite
Pb
 
27
(Cu,Fe,Ag)
 
2
(Sb,Bi)
 
19
S
 
57
5.8.9Miharaite
Cu
 
4
FePbBiS
 
6
5.8.10Sakharovaite
5.8.11Arsenohauchecornite
Ni
 
18
Bi
 
3
AsS
 
16
5.8.12Tučekite
Ni
 
9
Sb
 
2
S
 
8
5.8.13Bismutohauchecornite
Ni
 
9
Bi
 
2
S
 
8
5.8.14Parkerite
Ni
 
3
Bi
 
2
S
 
2
5.8.15Hauchecornite
Ni
 
9
Bi(Sb,Bi)S
 
8
5.8.16Tellurohauchecornite
Ni
 
9
Bi(Te,Bi)S
 
8
5.8.17Lapieite
NiCuSbS
 
3
5.8.18Mückeite
NiCu(Bi,Sb)S
 
3
5.8.19Vozhminite
(Ni,Co)
 
4
(As,Sb)S
 
2

Other Names for Benavidesite

Synonyms:
IMA1980-073
Other Languages:
German:Benavidesit
Russian:Бенавидсеит
Spanish:Benavidesita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Benavidesite

Reference List:

- +
Oudin, É., Paul Picot, F. Pillard, Y. Moëlo, E.A.J. Burke, and M.A. Zakrzewski
(1982): La bénavidésite, Pb4(Mn, Fe)Sb6S14, un noveau minéral de la série de la jamesonite. Bull. Minéral., 105, 166–169 (in French with English abs.).

American Mineralogist: 68: 280.

L.L.Y. Chang, X. Li, and C. Zhang (1987): The jamesonite – benavidesite series. Can. Mineral., 25, 667–672.

Internet Links for Benavidesite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Benavidesite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Benavidesite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    China
     
    • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
      • Hechi Prefecture
        • Nandan Co.
    Xilin Li (1986): Acta Geologica Sinica 60(4)
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Abuta-gun
        • Takarada
    The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
    • Honshu Island
      • Chugoku region
        • Shimane Prefecture
    The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
    Peru
     
    • Lima Department
      • Oyon Province
    Bull.Min.(1982) 105, 166-169; Oudin E, Picot P, Pillard F, Moëlo Y, Burke E A J, Zakrzewski M A (1982) La bénavidésite, Pb4(Mn,Fe)Sb6S14, un nouveau minéral de la série de la jamesonite, Bulletin de Minéralogie 105, 166-169
    Romania
     
    • Maramureș Co.
      • Baia Mare (Nagybánya)
        • Chiuzbaia (Kisbánya)
    http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
    Sweden
     
    • Närke
      • Askersund
        • Hammar
    No reference listed
    • Östergötland
      • Finspång
        • Doverstorp ore field
    Bull.Min.(1982) 105, 166-169; Zakrzewski et al (1982): Can.Min. 20, 281-290
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