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Beraunite

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Formula:
Fe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Dark greenish-brown, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Pearly
Hardness:
3 - 4
Name:
Named by August Breithaupt in 1841 for the type locality at the Hrbek Mine, Svatá Dobrotivá (St Benigna), Beroun (Beraun), Bohemia, Czech Republic. Beraunite was redefined by Fanfani and Zanazzi (1967), on the basis of a crystal structural analysis, as a mixed valence iron phosphate and left the fully oxidized end-member unnamed, although both beraunite and eleonorite had previously been applied.
A secondary mineral found in bog iron ores and as a cement in clays, sands, and bone material; also as an alteration product of triphylite in granitic pegmatites.

See also the oxidised "variety" (possibly a valid species) oxiberaunite.

Classification of Beraunite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.DC.27

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
C : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 1:1 and < 2:1
42.11.16.1

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
11 : (AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
19.13.10

19 : Phosphates
13 : Phosphates of Fe alone
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First Recorded Occurrence of Beraunite

General Appearance of First Recorded Material:
Reddish-brown to reddish orange bladed crystals in foliated clusters
Place of Conservation of First Recorded Material:
Freiberg Mining Academy, Freiberg, Saxony, Germany: #21359.
Year of Discovery:
1841

Occurrences of Beraunite

Geological Setting:
Bog iron ores, alteration of triphyllite in granitic pegmatites.

Physical Properties of Beraunite

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Lustre pearly on cleavages, resinous on fractures.
Colour:
Dark greenish-brown, green (unoxidized); reddish-brown, red (oxidized).
Comment:
Colouration may be banded.
Streak:
Olive drab (unoxidized); yellow, brownish yellow (oxidized).
Hardness (Mohs):
3 - 4
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Good on {100}
Density:
2.8 - 3.08 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.894 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Calculated density value of 2.894 = greenish black material; value of 2.970 = orange material.

Crystallography of Beraunite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/b
Space Group Setting:
C2/c
Cell Parameters:
a = 20.953(8) Å, b = 5.171(1) Å, c = 19.266(4) Å
β = 93.34°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 4.052 : 1 : 3.726
Unit Cell Volume:
V 2,083.89 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals rare and small, tabular {100}, elongated [010], striated on {100} parallel to [010]. Coarse radial-fibrous aggregates; globular; discoidal with a coarse-fibrous structure; as crusts.
Twinning:
On {100}, may be interpenetrant.
Comment:
Cell parameter values for greenish black material; orange material values = a = 20.646; b = 5.129, c = 19.213; β = 93.67.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
10.37 (100)
9.58 (50)
7.229 (50)
4.825 (60)
4.418 (50)
3.747 (30)
3.187 (40)
3.082 (60)
Comments:
Unoxidized end-member from Palermo #1 Quarry, Groton, NH, USA; also ICDD 22-631

Optical Data of Beraunite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.707 - 1.775 nβ = 1.735 - 1.786 nγ = 1.738 - 1.820
2V:
Measured: 30° to 60°, Calculated: 66°
Birefringence:
0.031
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.031 - 0.045
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
relatively weak
Optical Extinction:
Y^c = 1.5-5°, Z = b (unoxidized)
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = Pale flesh pink, yellow, blue-green
Y = Pale flesh pink, yellow, pale olive-green
Z = Carnelian red, reddish brown, olive-green
Comments:
Colors depend on state of oxidation; The low RI represents beraunite (redefined as mixed valence iron phosphate). Oxidation results in higher refractive indices and approach the original beraunite or eleonorite.

Chemical Properties of Beraunite

Formula:
Fe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Beraunite to other Species

8.DC.05NissoniteCu2Mg2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 5H2O
8.DC.07EuchroiteCu2(AsO4)(OH) · 3H2O
8.DC.10LegranditeZn2(AsO4)(OH) · H2O
8.DC.12StrashimiriteCu8(AsO4)4(OH)4 · 5H2O
8.DC.15ArthuriteCuFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15EarlshannoniteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15OjuelaiteZnFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15WhitmoreiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15Cobaltarthurite(Co,Mg)Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15BendadaiteFe2+Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15KunatiteCuFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15UKI-2006-(PO:FeHZn)ZnFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15UKI-2006-(PO:AlCuFeH)Fe2+Al3(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.17KleemaniteZnAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 3H2O
8.DC.20BermaniteMn2+Mn23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.20CoralloiteMn2+Mn23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.22KovdorskiteMg2(PO4)(OH) · 3H2O
8.DC.25FerristrunziteFe3+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
8.DC.25FerrostrunziteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
8.DC.25MetavauxiteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.25MetavivianiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
8.DC.25StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
8.DC.30GordoniteMgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30LaueiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30MangangordoniteMn2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30ParavauxiteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30PseudolaueiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30SigloiteFe3+Al2(PO4)2(OH)3 · 7H2O
8.DC.30StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30UshkoviteMgFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30FerrolaueiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30Kastningite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30MaghrebiteMgAl2(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30NordgauiteMnAl2(PO4)2(F,OH)2 · 5H2O
8.DC.32TinticiteFe3+5.34(PO4)3.62(VO4)0.38(OH)4 · 6.7H2O
8.DC.35VauxiteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
8.DC.37VantasseliteAl4(PO4)3(OH)3 · 9H2O
8.DC.40CacoxeniteFe243+Al(PO4)17O6(OH)12 · 17H2O
8.DC.45Gormanite(Fe2+,Mg)3(Al,Fe3+)4(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
8.DC.45Souzalite(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+)4(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
8.DC.47KingiteAl3(PO4)2F2(OH) · 7H2O
8.DC.50WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
8.DC.50AllanpringiteFe33+(PO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
8.DC.52KribergiteAl5(PO4)3(SO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
8.DC.55MapimiteZn2Fe33+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 10H2O
8.DC.57OgdensburgiteCa2Fe43+(Zn,Mn2+)(AsO4)4(OH)6 · 6H2O
8.DC.60Nevadaite(Cu2+,Al,V3+)6Al8(PO4)8F8(OH)2 · 22H2O
8.DC.60Cloncurryite(Cu,VO)Al2(PO4)2(F,OH)2 · 4.5-5H2O
19.13.1BarbosaliteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
19.13.2StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
19.13.3PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
19.13.4DufréniteCa0.5Fe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
19.13.5GiniiteFe2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5 · 2H2O
19.13.6WhitmoreiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
19.13.7TinticiteFe3+5.34(PO4)3.62(VO4)0.38(OH)4 · 6.7H2O
19.13.8FerristrunziteFe3+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
19.13.9FerrostrunziteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
19.13.11VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
19.13.12MetavivianiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O

Other Names for Beraunite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Beraunit
Spanish:Beraunita

Other Information

Other Information:
Readily soluble in HCl.

Alters to limonite and alters from Vivianite.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Beraunite

Reference List:
Breithaupt, A. (1841) Vollständige Handbuch der Mineralogie. Vol. 2: 156.

Breithaupt, A. (1853) Berg.- und hüttenmännisches Zeitung, Freiberg, Leipzig (merged into Glückauf): 402.

Bořický (1867) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 56.

Streng (1881) Jahrbuch Min.: I: 102.

Koenig (1890) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 17: 85.

Wherry (1914) Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum: 47: 509 (as Dufreniberaunite).

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 46.

Hintze, Carl (1931) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 898.

Le Mesurier (1943) Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia: 27: 133.

Frondel, C. (1949) American Mineralogist: 34: 536.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 959-961.

Fanfani, Luca and Pier Francesco Zanazzi (1967) The crystal structure of beraunite. Acta Cryst., 22, 173–181.

Moore, P.B. (1970) Crystal chemistry of the basic iron phosphates. American Mineralogist: 55: 135–169.

Moore, P.B. and A.R. Kampf (1992) Beraunite: refinement, comparative crystal chemistry, and selected bond valences. Zeits. Krist., 201, 263–281.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 58.

Internet Links for Beraunite

Localities for Beraunite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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