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Berlinite

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Formula:
AlPO
 
4
System:TrigonalColour:Colourless, greyish or ...
Hardness:
Name:Honouring Professor Nils Johan Berlin (1812-1891), pharmacologist in the University of Lund, Sweden.
Isostructural with:Quartz


The Al-P-analogue of quartz; ordering of Al and P atoms in the crystal structure leads to a doubled c axis.

Classification of Berlinite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/A.01-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.AA.05

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
A : Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
A : With small cations (some also with larger ones)
Dana 8th edition ID:38.4.2.1

38 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
4 : AXO4
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.7.1

19 : Phosphates
7 : Phosphates of Al alone
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Type Occurrence of Berlinite

Type Locality:Västanå Iron Mine (Westanå Mine), Näsum, Bromölla, Skåne, Sweden
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Wroclaw University, Wroclaw, Poland; II-9574.

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 101252
Year of Discovery:1868
Associated Minerals at type locality:
AugeliteAttakolite

Physical Properties of Berlinite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colourless, greyish or pale pink; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:white
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:None Observed
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.64 - 2.66 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.618 g/cm3
Comment:2.56 (artificial material).

Crystallography of Berlinite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3 2 - Trapezohedral
Space Group:P31 2 1
Cell Parameters:a = 4.941Å, c = 10.94Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.214
Unit Cell Volume:V 231.30 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:3
Morphology:Crystals similar to quartz. Granules to 6 mm; massive.
Twinning:subparallel twinning lamellae
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.369 (100)
4.28 (25)
1.835 (16)
2.471 (12)
2.306 (12)
1.393 (12)
1.389 (12)

Optical Data of Berlinite

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.524 nε = 1.532
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.008

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low

Chemical Properties of Berlinite

Formula:
AlPO
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:AlPO4
Essential elements:Al, O, P
All elements listed in formula:Al, O, P
Common Impurities:Fe,Si

Relationship of Berlinite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.AA.05Alarsite
AlAsO
 
4
8.AA.05Rodolicoite
Fe
3+
 
PO
 
4
8.AA.10Beryllonite
NaBePO
 
4
8.AA.15Hurlbutite
CaBe
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AA.20Lithiophosphate
Li
 
3
PO
 
4
8.AA.25Nalipoite
NaLi
 
2
PO
 
4
8.AA.30Olympite
Na
 
5
Li(PO
 
4
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.7.2Augelite
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
19.7.3Trolleite
Al
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
19.7.4Senegalite
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.7.5Variscite
AlPO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
19.7.6Metavariscite
AlPO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
19.7.7Bolivarite
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
· 4-5H
 
2
O
19.7.8Wavellite
Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
3
· 5H
 
2
O
19.7.9Evansite
Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· 6H
 
2
O
19.7.10Vantasselite
Al
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
19.7.11Kingite
Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
F
 
2
(OH) · 7H
 
2
O
19.7.12Vashegyite
Al
 
11
(PO
 
4
)
 
9
(OH)
 
6
· 38H
 
2
O

Other Names for Berlinite

Other Languages:
German:Berlinit
Russian:Берлинит
Simplified Chinese:块磷铝矿
Spanish:Berlinita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:may fluoresce dark red
Thermal Behaviour:Exhibits the same thermal inversions as SiO2, but at somewhat lower temperatures.

Readily soluble in alkalies; virtually insoluble in cold acids.
Other Information:Inverts at 583° to a polymorph isotypic with β-SiO2.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Berlinite

Reference List:

- +
Blomstrand (1868) Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm, Handlingar, Öfv.: 25: 198.

Blomstrand (1868) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 105: 338.

Huttenlocher (1935) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 90: 508-516.

Strunz (1941) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 103: 228.

Beck (1949) Journal of the American Ceramic Society: 32: 147.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 696-697.

Internet Links for Berlinite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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  • Localities for Berlinite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Australian Capital Territory
      • Brindabella Mtn
        • Cotter
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV
    • Queensland
      • North Burnett Region
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV
    • South Australia
      • Mt Lofty Ranges
        • North Mt Lofty Ranges
          • Robertstown
    Peter Elliott
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Doce valley
        • Galiléia
          • Sapucaia do Norte
    Cassedanne, J.P. & Baptista, A. (1999): Famous Mineral Localities: The Sapucaia Pegmatite Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record, 30: 347-360 + 365
      • Jequitinhonha valley
        • Itinga
          • Taquaral
            • Piauí Valley
    Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
    Czech Republic
     
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Olomouc Region
    Reif, J., Rezek, K., Zachař, Z.: Berlinit AlPO4 ze sulfidického ložiska Zlaté Hory - západ. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1989, roč. 34, č. 4, s. 363-372.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Upper Palatinate
        • Oberpfälzer Wald
          • Mitterteich
            • Wiesau
    Pöllmann, H., (1990): Mineralparagenesen im Nephelinbasanit von Triebendorf/ Opf., Der Aufschluss, Vol. 41(4), 219-226
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Ehrenfriedersdorf
    Thomas, R., and Webster, J.D. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 570-582.
    Indonesia
     
    • Jawa Island (Java Island)
      • Jawa Barat Province (West Java Province)
        • Bandung
    goldschmidt.info/2011/abstracts/finalPDFs/638.pdf
    Madagascar
     
    • Fianarantsoa Province
      • Amoron'i Mania Region
        • Ambatofinandrahana District
          • Itremo massif
    Ackermand et al.(2006): "Lazulite-bearing metaquartzite of the Itremo Group (Central Madagascar); Scientific significance and economic importance" in Proceedings of the Malagasy-German Research Cooperation in Life and Earth sciences, 5-18
    Romania
     
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Hunedoara
    Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.; Am. Min., 88, 1395–1397 (2003) ; Am. Min. 90,1203-1208 (2005); Am. Min. 92,1998-2001(2007)
    Rwanda
     
    • Western Province
      • Gatumba District
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV; Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 613-615; Daltry, V.D.C. and O. von Knorring (1998) Type-Mineralogy of Rwanda with Particular Reference to the Buranga Pegmatite. Geologica Belgica 1:1-9
    Fransolet, Andre-Mathieu, 1989, The Problem of Na-Li Substitution in Primary Li-Al Phosphates: New Data on Lacroixite, a Relatively Widespread Mineral, Canadian Mineralogist, v. 27, p. 211-217.
    F. Hatert, P. Lefèvre, A.M. Fransolet, M.R. Spirlet, F. Fontan, P. Keller : "Ferrorosemaryite, []NaFe2+Fe3+Al(PO4)3, a new phosphate mineral from the Rubindi pegmatite, Rwanda", Bull. Liaison S.F.M.C., Vol. 16, 2004, pp 44-45.
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV
    Spain
     
    • Catalonia
      • Girona (Gerona)
        • Alt Empordà
          • Cadaqués
    Bareche, E. (2005) "Els minerals de Catalunya. Segle XX" Ed. Museu Mollfulleda de Mineralogia - Grup Mineralògic Català, 269 p.
    Sweden
     
    • Skåne
      • Bromölla
        • Näsum
    Blomstrand, C. W. (1868): Om Vestanå Mineralier. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 25 (3), 197-212;
    • Värmland
      • Torsby
    Grensman, F. (1989): Hålsjøberg- En fyndortsbeskrivning. NAGS-nytt 16(3), 24-27; Grensman, F. & Sandström, F. (2002): Kyanitmineraliseringen i Hålsjöberg, Torsby, Värmland. Litiofilen 19 (2): 26-38
    Switzerland
     
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Zermatt - Saas Fee area
        • Matt Valley
          • Stalden
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 72
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Gila Co.
        • Globe-Miami District
          • Miami-Inspiration District
            • Inspiration
              • Miami-Inspiration deposit
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 132.
    • Maine
    King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, volume 1.
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    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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