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Berzelianite

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Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Formula:
Cu2Se
System:
Isometric
Colour:
Silver-White, shiny ...
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2
Name:
Named in 1850 by James Dwight Dana in honor of Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Swedish chemist [August 20, 1779 Linköping, Sweden - August 7, 1848 Stockholm, Sweden]. Berzelius is the father of analytical chemistry, inventor of chemical symbol notation. and discoverer of cerium, selenium, silicon, thorium, titanium, and zirconium, in addition to other elements that he gave to his students to work on. Ce, Se, Si, Zr, Ti, and Th
Dimorph of:
Berzelianite-Umangite Group.

A recent study showed the existence of a complete solid-solution series between high digenite [cubic, high-temperature digenite] and berzelianite (Pirard & Hatert, 2008).

Classification of Berzelianite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
2.BA.20

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
B : Metal Sulfides, M: S > 1: 1 (mainly 2: 1)
A : With Cu, Ag, Au
2.4.10.1

2 : SULFIDES
4 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
3.1.9

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
1 : Sulphides etc. of Cu
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First Recorded Occurrence of Berzelianite

Year of Discovery:
1832

Occurrences of Berzelianite

Geological Setting:
Hydrothermal veins.

Physical Properties of Berzelianite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Silver-White, shiny lead-grey; easily tarnishes iridescent blue-grey
Streak:
Shining
Hardness (Mohs):
2
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=21 - 24 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Malleable
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Comment:
Somewhat malleable
Density:
6.71 g/cm3 (Measured)    7.28 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Berzelianite

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fm3m
Space Group Setting:
Fm3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.731Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 188.23 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Thin dendritic crusts, fine grained, disseminated.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.33 (90)
2.03(100)
1.729 (80)
1.434 (30)
1.317 (20)
1.171 (40)
1.105 (20)
Comments:
Skrikerum, Sweden.

Optical Data of Berzelianite

Type:
Isotropic
Type:
Isotropic
Anisotropism:
Isotropic, sometimes slightly anisotropic
Reflectivity:
400nmR=25.8%
420nmR=28.9%
440nmR=30.0%
460nmR=30.7%
480nmR=31.1%
500nmR=31.0%
520nmR=30.2%
540nmR=28.7%
560nmR=27.0%
580nmR=25.5%
600nmR=24.1%
620nmR=22.9%
640nmR=21.8%
660nmR=20.7%
680nmR=19.7%
700nmR=18.7%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 31.1%.

Chemical Properties of Berzelianite

Formula:
Cu2Se
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Skrikerum, Sweden.
Cu (57.21)
Ag (3.51)
Se (39.22)
Total (99.94)
Common Impurities:
Ag,Tl

Relationship of Berzelianite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
UmangiteCu3Se2
2.BA.05ChalcociteCu2S
2.BA.05DjurleiteCu31S16
2.BA.05GeeriteCu8S5
2.BA.05RoxbyiteCu9S5
2.BA.10AniliteCu7S4
2.BA.10DigeniteCu9S5
2.BA.15BorniteCu5FeS4
2.BA.20BellidoiteCu2Se
2.BA.25AthabascaiteCu5Se4
2.BA.25UmangiteCu3Se2
2.BA.30RickarditeCu7Te5
2.BA.30WeissiteCu2-xTe
2.BA.35AcanthiteAg2S
2.BA.40MckinstryiteAg5-xCu3+xS4
2.BA.40StromeyeriteAgCuS
2.BA.40dUM2003-13-S:AgAuCuAg6AuCu2S5
2.BA.45JalpaiteAg3CuS2
2.BA.45SelenojalpaiteAg3CuSe2
2.BA.50EucairiteAgCuSe
2.BA.55AguilariteAg4SeS
2.BA.55NaumanniteAg2Se
2.BA.60CervelleiteAg4TeS
2.BA.60HessiteAg2Te
2.BA.60ChenguodaiteAg9Fe3+Te2S4
2.BA.65Henryite(Cu,Ag)3+xTe2 , with x ~ 0.40
2.BA.65StütziteAg5-xTe3, x = 0.24-0.36
2.BA.70ArgyroditeAg8GeS6
2.BA.70CanfielditeAg8SnS6
2.BA.70Putzite(Cu4.7Ag3.3)GeS6
2.BA.75FischesseriteAg3AuSe2
2.BA.75Penzhinite(Ag,Cu)4Au(S,Se)4
2.BA.75PetrovskaiteAuAg(S,Se)
2.BA.75PetziteAg3AuTe2
2.BA.75UytenbogaardtiteAg3AuS2
2.BA.80Bezsmertnovite(Au,Ag)4Cu(Te,Pb)
2.BA.80BilibinskitePbCu2Au3Te2
2.BA.80Bogdanovite(Au,Te,Pb)3(Cu,Fe)
3.1.1ChalcociteCu2S
3.1.2DjurleiteCu31S16
3.1.3DigeniteCu9S5
3.1.4AniliteCu7S4
3.1.5RoxbyiteCu9S5
3.1.6SpionkopiteCu39S28
3.1.7GeeriteCu8S5
3.1.8CovelliteCuS
3.1.10BellidoiteCu2Se
3.1.11UmangiteCu3Se2
3.1.12YarrowiteCu9S8
3.1.13AthabascaiteCu5Se4
3.1.14KlockmanniteCuSe
3.1.15Krut'aiteCuSe2
3.1.16WeissiteCu2-xTe
3.1.17RickarditeCu7Te5
3.1.18VulcaniteCuTe
3.1.19BambollaiteCu(Se,Te)2
3.1.20LautiteCuAsS
3.1.21MgriiteCu3AsSe3
3.1.22CubaniteCuFe2S3
3.1.23BorniteCu5FeS4
3.1.24FukuchiliteCu3FeS8
3.1.25ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
3.1.26MooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16
3.1.27HaycockiteCu4Fe5S8
3.1.28IsocubaniteCuFe2S3
3.1.29IdaiteCu5FeS6
3.1.30NukundamiteCu3.4Fe0.6S4
3.1.31PutoraniteCu9(Fe,Ni)9S16
3.1.32Orickite2CuFeS2 · H2O
3.1.33EskeborniteCuFeSe2
3.1.34Chaméanite(Cu,Fe)4As(Se,S)4
3.1.35TalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16

Other Names for Berzelianite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Berzelianite

Reference List:
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 182-183.

Earley, J.W. (1950): Description and synthesis of the selenide minerals. American Mineralogist, 35, 337-364.

Yamamoto, K. and Kashida, S. (1991): X-ray study of the average structures of Cu2Se and Cu1.8S in the room temperature and the high temperature phases. Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 93, 202–211.

Pirard, C. & Hatert, F. (2008): The sulfides and selenides of the Musonoi Mine, Kolwezi, Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Canadian Mineralogist 46, 219-231.

Internet Links for Berzelianite

Localities for Berzelianite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Argentina
 
  • La Rioja
    • Chilecito department
      • Sañogasta
M.K. de Brodtkorb (ed.) (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina, (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
Minerales de la Republica Argentina, E. O. Zappettini Ed., Buenos Aires 1999 ISSN 0328-2325
    • General Lamadrid department
      • Villa Castelli
Economic Geology (1997) 92, 468-484.
de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Crosta, S. (2010). Reseña de la ubicación geográfica de los seleniuros de la Sierra de Umango, provincia de La Rioja. Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 67(2), 272-279.
DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina); de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Crosta, S. (2010). Reseña de la ubicación geográfica de los seleniuros de la Sierra de Umango, provincia de La Rioja. Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 67(2), 272-279.
Economic Geology (1997) 92, 468-484.
    • Vinchina Department
Recursos Minerales de la Republica Argentina, E. O. Zappettini Ed., Buenos Aires 1999 ISSN 0328-2325
Can. Min. Vol. 42, 1745-1755 (2004).
  • Mendoza
    • Sierra de Cacheuta
      • Cerro de Cacheuta
Ahlfeld Friedrich and Angelelll Vlctorio 1948 Las especies minerales de la Republica Argentina Univ Nac Tucumftn Inst Geologla y Mineria Jujuy Pub no 458 p 47 48 49 50 54 67 69 70 71 120 121 133 134
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Robinson Co.
      • Cobar
        • Cobar
http://leme.anu.edu.au/Pubs/Advancesinregolith/Leverett_et_al.pdf
Leverett, P., McKinnon, A. R., Sharpe, J. L. and Williams, P. A. (2005): Secondary minerals from the central Cobar mines. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 75-82.
  • Tasmania
    • Queenstown district
      • Mount Lyell Mines
Bottrill RS & Baker, WE (in prep) Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania. Mineral Resources Tasmania
  • Western Australia
    • East Pilbara Shire
      • Rudall River District
Nickel, Ernest H. (2002): An Unusual Occurrence of Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, and Hg Mineralisation in the Pilbara Region of Western Australia. Canadian Mineralogist. 40: 419-433.
[MinRec 18:28]
      • Kalgoorlie-Boulder
        • Golden Mile Mines
Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Neuberg an der Mürz
      • Altenberg an der Rax
        • Eselberg
Postl, W. & Paar, W.H. (1997)
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí Department
    • Antonio Quijarro Province
[MinRec 21:137]; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Brazil
 
  • Pará
    • Carajás mineral province
      • Curionópolis
Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 40, pp. 1451-1463
Canada
 
  • Nunavut Territory
    • Kivalliq Region
      • Baker Lake
Miller A. (1980) Uranium Geology of the Eastern Baker Lake Basin, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories; G.S.C. Bulletin 330.
  • Saskatchewan
    • Beaverlodge Region
J. Traill (1952) Synthesis and x-ray study of uranium sulphate minerals . American Mineralogist 37:394-406.
        • Melville Lake
          • Eagle shaft area
http://www.ir.gov.sk.ca/dbsearch/MinDepositQuery/default.aspx?ID=1371
      • Lake Athabasca
        • Uranium City
Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
China
 
  • Gansu Province
    • Gannan Autonomous Prefecture
      • Luqu Co.
Minzhi Yang (2000): Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 19(4), 381-383; Caixia Feng, Jiajun Liu, and Shen Liu (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 812-815; Hanjie Wen, Yuzhuo Qiu, and Shirong Liu (2003): Geochimica 32(1), 21-28
  • Hubei Province
    • Enshi Autonomous Prefecture (E'xi Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Enshi Co.
Feng Caixia, Liu Jiajun, Hu Ruizhong, and Liu Shen (2004): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 23(3), 255-264.
  • Jiangxi Province
    • Shangrao Prefecture
      • Dexing Co.
        • Dexing Cu-Mo-Au ore field
          • Dexing copper mine
Jingxian Li and Jiajun Liu (2014): Resources & Industries 16(2), 90-97
  • Sichuan Province
    • Liangshan Autonomous Prefecture
      • Huili Co.
Zhi Li, Zhenjie Chen, and Fengge Wang (1973): Geology and Prospecting 10(2), 20-24
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
Duda, Rejl, Slivka: "Mineralien", 1991; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Josef Vajdak (2008) Mineral News, 24, #3, 15. (collected on dump by Pavel Skacha)
    • Plzeň Region
      • Planá u Mariánských Lázní (Plan)
Scharmová, M., Scharm, B.: Minerály selenu na uranovém ložisku Zadní Chodov. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1995, roč. 3, s. 43-47.
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Olomouc Region
      • Javorník (Jauernig)
Sejkora, J., Plášil, J., Litochleb, J., Škácha, P., Pavlícek, R. (2012): A selenide association with macroscopic umangite from the abandoned uranium deposit Zálesí, Rychlebské hory Mountains (Czech Republic). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 20, 187-196 (in Czech with English abstract).
    • South Moravia Region
      • Tišnov
Šouba, M.: Příspěvek k mineralizacu dislokací v okolí Tišnovské Nové Vsi. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1984, roč. 29, č. 2, s. 185-191.uraninite, coffinite
    • Vysočina Region
      • Nové Město na Moravě
Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38. ; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38.
Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38.
      • Žďár nad Sázavou
        • Rožná deposit
Vavřín, I.: Nové poznatky o selenidech Českého masívu. Bulletin Mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1994, roč. 2, s. 82-89. ; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38. ; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Petr Pauliš
Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38. ; Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38.
Vavřín, I.: Nové poznatky o selenidech Českého masívu. Bulletin Mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1994, roč. 2, s. 82-89.
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Katanga (Shaba)
    • Katanga Copper Crescent
      • Kolwezi District
        • Kolwezi
Can.Min. 46,19-31(2008)
      • Shinkolobwe
Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Baden-Baden
No reference listed
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Fichtelgebirge
        • Weißenstadt
          • Großschloppen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Wölsendorf Fluorite Mining District
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Bad Sachsa
        • Zorge
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
      • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
        • Burgstatt veins
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
        • Rosenhof veins
          • Lerbach
Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
      • St Andreasberg District
        • St Andreasberg
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Gernrode
        • Rieder
Schaarschmidt, H. (2007): Weltweit einmalig: Clausthalit als freie Kristalle aus dem Harz. Lapis 32 (3), 41-42. (in German); Heider, J. & Siemroth, J. (2012): Die Selenidmineralisation im Grauwacke-Tagebau Rieder bei Gernrode, Harz. Aufschluss, 63, 213-223.
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
American Mineralogist (1983): 68: 280-281.
Can Min 40, 4, (2002), 1161-1170
          • Shaft 366
The Canadian Mineralogist, V 42, 2004, pp. 1719-1732.
FÖRSTER et al. (2003) Canadian Mineralogist 41, 1433-1444
Indonesia
 
  • Sumatera Island (Sumatra Island)
    • Bengkulu Province (Benkoelen Province; Benkulen Province)
      • Rejang Lebong District (Rediang Lebong District)
Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Mexico
 
  • Durango
    • Mun. de Mapimí
      • Mapimí
Panczner(1987):112-384.
Moore, T.P. and Megaw, P.K.M. (2003): Famous mineral localities: The Ojuela mine, Mapimi, Durango, Mexico. The Mineralogical Record, 34(5), 1-91
Thomas P. Moore (2008) Lapis, 33, #7-8, 33-40.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Kłodzko District
Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Bodaibo
          • Lena Gold District
            • Kropotkinsky ore cluster
http://www.igem.ru/igem/chem/pt/sukhloge.htm
Sweden
 
  • Östergötland
    • Valdemarsvik
[MinRec 19:295]; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
  • Värmland
    • Arvika
      • Glava
Scherbina, A. S. (1941): The gold-rich chalcocite-bornite deposit of Glava in Vermland, Sweden, and its geological setting. Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Geol., Beilage-Band, 76A, 377-458.
Switzerland
 
  • Aargau
    • Rheinfelden
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 76
UK
 
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
USA
 
  • Nevada
    • Elko Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
      • Aurora District
        • Durant vein
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Washington
    • Chelan Co.
      • Wenatchee District
        • Wenatchee
          • Squillchuck Creek
Lasmanis, R. (1995): Mineral News: A Compendium of Wenatchee District Mineralogy, Chelan County, Washington, p.6-7
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