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Berzelianite

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Formula:
Cu
 
2
Se
System:IsometricColour:Silver-White, shiny ...
Lustre:MetallicHardness:2
Member of:Berzelianite-Umangite Group
Name:
Named in 1850 by James Dwight Dana in honor of Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Swedish chemist [August 20, 1779 Linköping, Sweden - August 7, 1848 Stockholm, Sweden]. Berzelius is the father of analytical chemistry, inventor of chemical symbol notation. and discoverer of cerium, selenium, silicon, thorium, titanium, and zirconium, in addition to other elements that he gave to his students to work on. Ce, Se, Si, Zr, Ti, and Th
Dimorph of:Bellidoite


Berzelianite-Umangite Group.

A recent study showed the existence of a complete solid-solution series between high digenite [cubic, high-temperature digenite] and berzelianite (Pirard & Hatert, 2008).

Classification of Berzelianite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/B.03-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.BA.20

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
B : Metal Sulfides, M: S > 1: 1 (mainly 2: 1)
A : With Cu, Ag, Au
Dana 8th edition ID:2.4.10.1

2 : SULFIDES
4 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.1.9

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
1 : Sulphides etc. of Cu
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Type Occurrence of Berzelianite

Type Locality:Skrikerum Mine (Skrickerum Mine), Valdemarsvik, Östergötland, Sweden
Year of Discovery:1832

Occurrences of Berzelianite

Geological Setting:Hydrothermal veins.

Physical Properties of Berzelianite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Silver-White, shiny lead-grey; easily tarnishes iridescent blue-grey
Streak:Shining
Hardness (Mohs):2
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=21 - 24 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Malleable
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Comment:Somewhat malleable
Density (measured):6.71 g/cm3
Density (calculated):7.28 g/cm3

Crystallography of Berzelianite

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:Fm3m {F4/m 3 2/m}
Space Group Setting:Fm3m
Cell Parameters:a = 5.731Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 188.23 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Thin dendritic crusts, fine grained, disseminated.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.33 (90)
2.03(100)
1.729 (80)
1.434 (30)
1.317 (20)
1.171 (40)
1.105 (20)
Comments:Skrikerum, Sweden.

Optical Data of Berzelianite

Type:Isotropic
Type:Isotropic
Anisotropism:Isotropic, sometimes slightly anisotropic
Reflectivity:
400nmR=25.8%
420nmR=28.9%
440nmR=30.0%
460nmR=30.7%
480nmR=31.1%
500nmR=31.0%
520nmR=30.2%
540nmR=28.7%
560nmR=27.0%
580nmR=25.5%
600nmR=24.1%
620nmR=22.9%
640nmR=21.8%
660nmR=20.7%
680nmR=19.7%
700nmR=18.7%


Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Peak reflectance is 31.1%.

Chemical Properties of Berzelianite

Formula:
Cu
 
2
Se
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu2Se
Essential elements:Cu, Se
All elements listed in formula:Cu, Se
Analytical Data:Skrikerum, Sweden.
Cu (57.21)
Ag (3.51)
Se (39.22)
Total (99.94)
Common Impurities:Ag,Tl

Relationship of Berzelianite to other Species

Member of:Berzelianite-Umangite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Umangite
Cu
 
3
Se
 
2
Common Associates:
UraniniteUmangiteTiemanniteStromeyeritePyrite
PolybasitePearceiteMarcasiteKlockmanniteGold
EucairiteCrookesiteClausthaliteCalciteAthabascaite
Aguilarite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.BA.05Chalcocite
Cu
 
2
S
2.BA.05Djurleite
Cu
 
31
S
 
16
2.BA.05Geerite
Cu
 
8
S
 
5
2.BA.05Roxbyite
Cu
 
9
S
 
5
2.BA.10Anilite
Cu
 
7
S
 
4
2.BA.10Digenite
Cu
 
9
S
 
5
2.BA.15Bornite
Cu
 
5
FeS
 
4
2.BA.20Bellidoite
Cu
 
2
Se
2.BA.25Athabascaite
Cu
 
5
Se
 
4
2.BA.25Umangite
Cu
 
3
Se
 
2
2.BA.30Rickardite
Cu
 
7
Te
 
5
2.BA.30Weissite
Cu
 
2-x
Te
2.BA.35Acanthite
Ag
 
2
S
2.BA.40Mckinstryite
Ag
 
5-x
Cu
 
3+x
S
 
4
2.BA.40Stromeyerite
AgCuS
2.BA.40dUM2003-13-S:AgAuCu
Ag
 
6
AuCu
 
2
S
 
5
2.BA.45Jalpaite
Ag
 
3
CuS
 
2
2.BA.45Selenojalpaite
Ag
 
3
CuSe
 
2
2.BA.50Eucairite
AgCuSe
2.BA.55Aguilarite
Ag
 
4
SeS
2.BA.55Naumannite
Ag
 
2
Se
2.BA.60Cervelleite
Ag
 
4
TeS
2.BA.60Hessite
Ag
 
2
Te
2.BA.60Chenguodaite
Ag
 
9
Fe
3+
 
Te
 
2
S
 
4
2.BA.65Henryite
Ag
 
3
Cu
 
4
Te
 
4
2.BA.65Stützite
Ag
 
5-x
Te
 
3
, x = 0.24-0.36
2.BA.70Argyrodite
Ag
 
8
GeS
 
6
2.BA.70Canfieldite
Ag
 
8
SnS
 
6
2.BA.70Putzite
(Cu
 
4.7
Ag
 
3.3
)GeS
 
6
2.BA.75Fischesserite
Ag
 
3
AuSe
 
2
2.BA.75Penzhinite
(Ag,Cu)
 
4
Au(S,Se)
 
4
2.BA.75Petrovskaite
AuAg(S,Se)
2.BA.75Petzite
Ag
 
3
AuTe
 
2
2.BA.75Uytenbogaardtite
Ag
 
3
AuS
 
2
2.BA.80Bezsmertnovite
(Au,Ag)
 
4
Cu(Te,Pb)
2.BA.80Bilibinskite
PbCu
 
2
Au
 
3
Te
 
2
2.BA.80Bogdanovite
(Au,Te,Pb)
 
3
(Cu,Fe)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.1.1Chalcocite
Cu
 
2
S
3.1.2Djurleite
Cu
 
31
S
 
16
3.1.3Digenite
Cu
 
9
S
 
5
3.1.4Anilite
Cu
 
7
S
 
4
3.1.5Roxbyite
Cu
 
9
S
 
5
3.1.6Spionkopite
Cu
 
39
S
 
28
3.1.7Geerite
Cu
 
8
S
 
5
3.1.8Covellite
CuS
3.1.10Bellidoite
Cu
 
2
Se
3.1.11Umangite
Cu
 
3
Se
 
2
3.1.12Yarrowite
Cu
 
9
S
 
8
3.1.13Athabascaite
Cu
 
5
Se
 
4
3.1.14Klockmannite
CuSe
3.1.15Krut'aite
CuSe
 
2
3.1.16Weissite
Cu
 
2-x
Te
3.1.17Rickardite
Cu
 
7
Te
 
5
3.1.18Vulcanite
CuTe
3.1.19Bambollaite
Cu(Se,Te)
 
2
3.1.20Lautite
CuAsS
3.1.21Mgriite
Cu
 
3
AsSe
 
3
3.1.22Cubanite
CuFe
 
2
S
 
3
3.1.23Bornite
Cu
 
5
FeS
 
4
3.1.24Fukuchilite
Cu
 
3
FeS
 
8
3.1.25Chalcopyrite
CuFeS
 
2
3.1.26Mooihoekite
Cu
 
9
Fe
 
9
S
 
16
3.1.27Haycockite
Cu
 
4
Fe
 
5
S
 
8
3.1.28Isocubanite
CuFe
 
2
S
 
3
3.1.29Idaite
Cu
 
5
FeS
 
6
3.1.30Nukundamite
Cu
 
3.4
Fe
 
0.6
S
 
4
3.1.31Putoranite
Cu
 
9
(Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
16
3.1.32Orickite
2CuFeS
 
2
· H
 
2
O
3.1.33Eskebornite
CuFeSe
 
2
3.1.34Chaméanite
(Cu,Fe)
 
4
As(Se,S)
 
4
3.1.35Talnakhite
Cu
 
9
(Fe,Ni)
 
8
S
 
16

Other Names for Berzelianite

Synonyms:
Berzeline (of Beudant)SelencupriteSelenite (of Rau)Selenocuprite
Other Languages:
French:Cuivre Sélénié
German:Berzelianit
Berzelin
Selencuprit
Selenkupfer
Selenocuprit
Russian:Берцелианит
Simplified Chinese:硒铜矿
Spanish:Berzelianita
Selencuprita
Selenocuprita
Traditional Chinese:硒銅礦

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Berzelianite

Reference List:

- +
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 182-183.

Earley, J.W. (1950): Description and synthesis of the selenide minerals. American Mineralogist, 35, 337-364.

Yamamoto, K. and Kashida, S. (1991): X-ray study of the average structures of Cu2Se and Cu1.8S in the room temperature and the high temperature phases. Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 93, 202–211.

Pirard, C. & Hatert, F. (2008): The sulfides and selenides of the Musonoi Mine, Kolwezi, Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Canadian Mineralogist 46, 219-231.

Internet Links for Berzelianite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Berzelianite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Berzelianite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • La Rioja
      • Sañogasta District
    M.K. de Brodtkorb (ed.) (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina, (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
    Minerales de la Republica Argentina, E. O. Zappettini Ed., Buenos Aires 1999 ISSN 0328-2325
    Economic Geology (1997) 92, 468-484.
    de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Crosta, S. (2010). Reseña de la ubicación geográfica de los seleniuros de la Sierra de Umango, provincia de La Rioja. Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 67(2), 272-279.
    DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.
    Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina); de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Crosta, S. (2010). Reseña de la ubicación geográfica de los seleniuros de la Sierra de Umango, provincia de La Rioja. Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 67(2), 272-279.
    Economic Geology (1997) 92, 468-484.
      • Vinchina Department
    Recursos Minerales de la Republica Argentina, E. O. Zappettini Ed., Buenos Aires 1999 ISSN 0328-2325
    Can. Min. Vol. 42, 1745-1755 (2004).
    • Mendoza
      • Sierra de Cacheuta
        • Cerro de Cacheuta
    Ahlfeld Friedrich and Angelelll Vlctorio 1948 Las especies minerales de la Republica Argentina Univ Nac Tucumftn Inst Geologla y Mineria Jujuy Pub no 458 p 47 48 49 50 54 67 69 70 71 120 121 133 134
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Robinson Co.
        • Cobar
          • Cobar
    http://leme.anu.edu.au/Pubs/Advancesinregolith/Leverett_et_al.pdf
    Leverett, P., McKinnon, A. R., Sharpe, J. L. and Williams, P. A. (2005): Secondary minerals from the central Cobar mines. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 75-82.
    • Tasmania
      • Queenstown district
        • Mount Lyell Mines
    Bottrill RS & Baker, WE (in prep) Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania. Mineral Resources Tasmania
    • Western Australia
      • East Pilbara Shire
        • Rudall River District
    Nickel, Ernest H. (2002): An Unusual Occurrence of Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, and Hg Mineralisation in the Pilbara Region of Western Australia. Canadian Mineralogist. 40: 419-433.
    [MinRec 18:28]
        • Kalgoorlie-Boulder
          • Golden Mile Mines
    Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    Austria
     
    • Styria
      • Neuberg an der Mürz
        • Altenberg an der Rax
          • Eselberg
    Postl, W. & Paar, W.H. (1997)
    Bolivia
     
    • Potosí Department
      • Antonio Quijarro Province
    [MinRec 21:137]; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    Brazil
     
    • Pará
      • Carajás mineral province
        • Curionópolis
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 40, pp. 1451-1463
    Canada
     
    • Saskatchewan
      • Beaverlodge Region
    J. Traill (1952) Synthesis and x-ray study of uranium sulphate minerals . American Mineralogist 37:394-406.
          • Melville Lake
            • Eagle shaft area
    http://www.ir.gov.sk.ca/dbsearch/MinDepositQuery/default.aspx?ID=1371
        • Lake Athabasca
          • Uranium City
    Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    China
     
    • Gansu Province
      • Gannan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Luqu Co.
    Minzhi Yang (2000): Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 19(4), 381-383
    • Hubei Province
      • Enshi Autonomous Prefecture (E'xi Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Enshi Co.
    Feng Caixia, Liu Jiajun, Hu Ruizhong, and Liu Shen (2004): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 23(3), 255-264.
    • Sichuan Province
      • Liangshan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Huili Co.
    Zhi Li, Zhenjie Chen, and Fengge Wang (1973): Geology and Prospecting 10(2), 20-24
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
    Duda, Rejl, Slivka: "Mineralien", 1991; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    Josef Vajdak (2008) Mineral News, 24, #3, 15. (collected on dump by Pavel Skacha)
      • Plzeň Region
        • Planá u Mariánských Lázní (Plan)
    Scharmová, M., Scharm, B.: Minerály selenu na uranovém ložisku Zadní Chodov. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1995, roč. 3, s. 43-47.
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Olomouc Region
        • Javorník (Jauernig)
    Sejkora, J., Plášil, J., Litochleb, J., Škácha, P., Pavlícek, R. (2012): A selenide association with macroscopic umangite from the abandoned uranium deposit Zálesí, Rychlebské hory Mountains (Czech Republic). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 20, 187-196 (in Czech with English abstract).
      • South Moravia Region
        • Tišnov
    Šouba, M.: Příspěvek k mineralizacu dislokací v okolí Tišnovské Nové Vsi. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1984, roč. 29, č. 2, s. 185-191.uraninite, coffinite
      • Vysočina Region
        • Nové Město na Moravě
    Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38. ; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38.
    Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38.
        • Rožná deposit
    Vavřín, I.: Nové poznatky o selenidech Českého masívu. Bulletin Mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1994, roč. 2, s. 82-89. ; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38. ; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    Petr Pauliš
    Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38. ; Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38.
    Vavřín, I.: Nové poznatky o selenidech Českého masívu. Bulletin Mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1994, roč. 2, s. 82-89.
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Katanga (Shaba)
      • Katanga Copper Crescent
        • Kolwezi District
          • Kolwezi
    Can.Min. 46,19-31(2008)
        • Shinkolobwe
    Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Baden-Baden
    No reference listed
    • Bavaria
      • Franconia
        • Fichtelgebirge
          • Weißenstadt
            • Großschloppen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Upper Palatinate
        • Schwandorf
          • Wölsendorf Fluorite mining District
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Bad Sachsa
          • Zorge
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
        • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
          • Burgstatt veins
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
          • Rosenhof veins
            • Lerbach
    Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
        • St Andreasberg District
          • St Andreasberg
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Harz
        • Gernrode
          • Rieder
    Schaarschmidt, H. (2007): Weltweit einmalig: Clausthalit als freie Kristalle aus dem Harz. Lapis 32 (3), 41-42. (in German); Heider, J. & Siemroth, J. (2012): Die Selenidmineralisation im Grauwacke-Tagebau Rieder bei Gernrode, Harz. Aufschluss, 63, 213-223.
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
    American Mineralogist (1983): 68: 280-281.
    Can Min 40, 4, (2002), 1161-1170
            • Shaft 366
    The Canadian Mineralogist, V 42, 2004, pp. 1719-1732.
    FÖRSTER et al. (2003) Canadian Mineralogist 41, 1433-1444
    Indonesia
     
    • Sumatera Island (Sumatra Island)
      • Bengkulu Province (Benkoelen Province; Benkulen Province)
        • Rejang Lebong District (Rediang Lebong District)
    Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    Mexico
     
    • Durango
      • Mun. de Mapimí
        • Mapimí
    Panczner(1987):112-384.
    Moore, T.P. and Megaw, P.K.M. (2003): Famous mineral localities: The Ojuela mine, Mapimi, Durango, Mexico. The Mineralogical Record, 34(5), 1-91
    Thomas P. Moore (2008) Lapis, 33, #7-8, 33-40.
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Kłodzko District
    Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Irkutskaya Oblast'
          • Bodaibo
            • Lena Gold District
              • Kropotkinsky ore cluster
    http://www.igem.ru/igem/chem/pt/sukhloge.htm
    Sweden
     
    • Östergötland
      • Valdemarsvik
    [MinRec 19:295]; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    • Värmland
      • Arvika
    Scherbina, A. S. (1941): The gold-rich chalcocite-bornite deposit of Glava in Vermland, Sweden, and its geological setting. Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Geol., Beilage-Band, 76A, 377-458.
    Switzerland
     
    • Aargau
      • Rheinfelden
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 76
    UK
     
    Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
    USA
     
    • Nevada
      • Elko Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Mineral Co.
        • Aurora District
          • Durant vein
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Washington
      • Chelan Co.
        • Wenatchee District
          • Wenatchee
            • Squillchuck Creek
    Lasmanis, R. (1995): Mineral News: A Compendium of Wenatchee District Mineralogy, Chelan County, Washington, p.6-7
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