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Bieberite

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Formula:
CoSO4 · 7H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Red-pink, flesh-red; ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Earthy
Hardness:
2
Name:
After the discovery locality, Bieber, Hessen, Germany.
Melanterite Group.

A secondary mineral formed through the oxidation of sulfide and arsenide ores containing cobalt. Often a post-mining product.

May dehydrate to moorhouseite.

Classification of Bieberite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7.CB.35

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations
29.6.10.4

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
6 : AXO4·xH2O
25.12.1

25 : Sulphates
12 : Sulphates of Co and Ni
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First Recorded Occurrence of Bieberite

Year of Discovery:
1845

Physical Properties of Bieberite

Vitreous, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Comment:
Luster/texture becomes mealy upon dehydration to the hexahydrate.
Colour:
Red-pink, flesh-red; colourless to pale rose in transmitted light.
Hardness (Mohs):
2
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {001} perfect; on {110} fair.
Density:
1.96 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.83 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Bieberite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 14.04Å, b = 6.49Å, c = 10.92Å
β = 105.27°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.163 : 1 : 1.683
Unit Cell Volume:
V 959.90 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
As crusts and stalactites.

Crystallographic forms of Bieberite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Bieberite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Optical Data of Bieberite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.477 nβ = 1.483 nγ = 1.489
2V:
Measured: 88° , Calculated: 88°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.012
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of Bieberite

Formula:
CoSO4 · 7H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Soluble in water.

Relationship of Bieberite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Alpersite(Mg,Cu)[SO4] · 7H2O
BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2O
MelanteriteFeSO4 · 7H2O
Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.05Dwornikite(Ni,Fe)SO4 · H2O
7.CB.05GunningiteZnSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05KieseriteMgSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05Poitevinite(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO4 · H2O
7.CB.05SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05CobaltkieseriteCoSO4 · H2O
7.CB.07SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2O
7.CB.10BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2O
7.CB.15Aplowite(Co,Mn,Ni)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15Boyleite(Zn,Mg)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15DrobeciteCdSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15CranswickiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.20ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.25Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite(Mn,Mg)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Moorhouseite(Co,Ni,Mn)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.30RetgersiteNiSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.35BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35MelanteriteFeSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35Alpersite(Mg,Cu)[SO4] · 7H2O
7.CB.40EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.40GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.40MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.45AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
7.CB.45Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
7.CB.50AluminocoquimbiteFeAl(SO4)3 · 9H2O
7.CB.55CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
7.CB.55ParacoquimbiteFe2(SO4)3 · 9H2O
7.CB.55Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
7.CB.60KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2O
7.CB.65QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 10H2O
7.CB.70LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2O
7.CB.75LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
7.CB.75RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
7.CB.80RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2O
7.CB.85ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85BíliniteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85Redingtonite(Fe2+,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)2(SO4)4·22H2O
7.CB.85Wupatkiite(Co,Mg,Ni)Al2(SO4)4·22H2O
7.CB.90MeridianiiteMgSO4 · 11H2O
25.12.2CobaltzippeiteCo(UO2)2(SO4)O2 · 3.5H2O
25.12.3Aplowite(Co,Mn,Ni)SO4 · 4H2O
25.12.4Moorhouseite(Co,Ni,Mn)SO4 · 6H2O
25.12.5RetgersiteNiSO4 · 6H2O
25.12.6MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2O
25.12.7NickelblöditeNa2(Ni,Mg)(SO4)2 · 4H2O
25.12.8Nickelboussingaultite(NH4)2Ni(SO4)2 · 6H2O
25.12.9NickelzippeiteNi(UO2)2(SO4)O2 · 3.5H2O (?)
25.12.10Dwornikite(Ni,Fe)SO4 · H2O
25.12.11Honessite(Ni1-xFex3+)(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2O
25.12.12Hydrohonessite(Ni1-xFex3+)(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2O
25.12.13Nickelhexahydrite(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O

Other Names for Bieberite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Bieberite

Reference List:
Sage (1791) Le Journal de physique et le radium, Paris: 39: 53 (as Cobalt Vitriol).

Klaproth, M.H. (1797): Untersuchung des natürlichen Kobaltvitriols von Herrengrund, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Zweiter Band, Rottmann Berlin, pp. 320

Kopp (1808) Allgemeines Journal der Chemie, Berlin 1798-1803 (Scherer’s Journal): 6: 157 (as Kobaltvitriol).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 481 (as Rhodhalose).

Haidinger (1845): 489 (as Bieberit).

Winkelblech (1845) Ann. Chem.: 13: 265.

Marignac (1855) Mém. soc. phys. nat. Genève: 14: 245 (re: artificial material).

Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 1: 194.

Larsen, E.S. and Glenn (1920) American Journal of Science: 50: 225.

Westenbrink (1926) Proceedings of the Academy of Science Amsterdam: 29: 1223.

Porter (1928), Festschr. V. Goldschmidt, Heidelberg: 210.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 505-507.

Periodico di Mineralogia (1985): 54: 1.

Internet Links for Bieberite

Localities for Bieberite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Rauris valley
        • Hüttwinkl valley
          • Alteck - Hoher Sonnblick area
            • Kolm-Saigurn
A. Strasser: Die MInerale Salzburgs (1989)
Niedermayr, G. & Wittern, A. (2009): Mineralreiches Österreich - Tirol, Salzburg, Vorarlberg. Bode Verlag, Haltern, 144 pp.
    • Saalfelden
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 507; Poeverlein, R. & Hochleitner, R. (1987): Die Sekundärmineralien von Leogang. LAPIS 12 (9), 25-32 + 58
  • Styria
    • Liesing - Palten valley
      • Kalwang
        • Langteichengraben (Lange Teichen)
          • Teichen Mine
peter neschen collection
Chile
 
  • Atacama Region
    • Copiapó Province
      • Chimberos
        • Tres Puntas district
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 507.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
          • Jáchymov (St Joachimsthal)
Lapis 2002(7/8)
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Katanga (Shaba)
    • Katanga Copper Crescent
      • Katanga
Lapis 17(3), 13-40 (1992)
France
 
  • Corsica
    • Haute-Corse
      • Corte
        • Ghisoni
Fiche BSS BRGM n° 11183X4002/GT
  • Midi-Pyrénées
    • Hautes-Pyrénées
Le Règne Minéral 47: 5-21
Gourault C. (1997), Indice de Beyrède-Jumet (Hautes Pyrénées), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°2, pp: 5-9
  • Rhône-Alpes
    • Isère
      • Allemont
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 507; http://www.zampano.com/minmax/fundort.php3?lang=US&fp=1322&foid=1066.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Alpirsbach
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
      • Schenkenzell
        • Wittichen
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
  • Hesse
    • Spessart
      • Gelnhausen
        • Bieber
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 507; Periodico di Mineralogia, 54, 1 (1985); Nickel & Nichols, 1991 - "Mineral Reference Manual", p22.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Bergisches Land
      • Eckenhagen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
      • Reichshof
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
      • Rösrath
        • Altenrath
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Eifel
      • Düren
        • Untermaubach
Graf, HW., (1982): Die Mineralien von Maubach, Emser Hefte, Vol. 4, Nr. 2
      • Mechernich
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Siegerland
      • Müsen
Weiss: Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
Weiss. "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Der Aufschluss 2000(2), 71-123
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 507.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Siegerland
      • Wissen
        • Niederhövels
Dana 7:II:506.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Schlema-Hartenstein District
        • Schlema
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
No reference listed
  • Thuringia
    • Saalfeld
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
Skarpelis, N. and Argyraki, A. (2009): The geology and origin of supergene ores in Lavrion (Attica, Greece). Resource Geology, 59, 1-14.
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Sestri Levante
Carbone, C. , Marescotti, P., Cabella, R., Lucchetti, G. (2002): Sulfide alteration and related secondary minerals from the Libiola mine (Eastern Liguria, Italy). Poster at the 82° SIMP Congress , Arcavacata di Rende (CS) 18-20/09/2002. Abstract in Plinius 28 , 88-89.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Trento Province
      • Valsugana
        • Levico Terme
Exel, R. (1987): Guida mineralogica del Trentino e del Sudtirolo. Athesia, Bolzano, 204 pp.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Elba Island
        • Capoliveri
C.L. Garavelli (1957) – Minerali di cobalto nel giacimento elbano di Capo Calamita – Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., P.V., 64: 16-32.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Yamanashi Prefecture
        • Kitakoma-gun
          • Horai-mura
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
    • Kinki Region
      • Nara Prefecture
        • Yoshino-gun
          • Totsukawa village
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
Portugal
 
  • Aveiro District
    • Albergaria-a-Velha
      • Branca
Antonio Jesus Pimentel specimens; www.mindat.org/mesg-25-107652.html
Russia
 
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Orenburgskaya Oblast'
E. Shcherbakova et al. : "The rarest Cobalt-Containing Sulfates from the South Ural, Russia", 5th International Conference "Mineralogy & Museums", Paris, Sept. 5-8th 2004, Bull. de Liaison de la Soc. Franç. de Minéralogie et Cristallographie, 2004, Vol 16, N°2.
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Bystrica Co.
Koděra, M., a kol.: Topografická mineralogie Slovenska. Sv. 3 Sed-Ž, Bratislava, Veda 1990, s. 1247-1256.
    • Banská Štiavnica Co.
Spain
 
  • Valencian Community
    • Castellón
      • Chóvar
Joan Viñals. Barcelona University. analized
Switzerland
 
  • Ticino (Tessin)
    • Riviera
      • Claro
        • Molino Valley
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 77
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Mount's Bay District
        • St Hilary
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Coconino Co.
      • Cameron District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 136; Austin, S.R. (1964), Mineralogy of the Cameron area, Coconino Co., AZ, US Atomic Energy Comm. RME 99. Tech Inf. Serv., Oak Ridge, TN: 99.; Bollin, E. M., & Kerr, P. F. (1958). Uranium mineralization near Cameron, Arizona. In Guidebook of the Black Mesa Basin, northern Arizona: New Mexico Geological Society, 9th Field Conference Society Guidebook (Vol. 9, pp. 161-168).
          • Huskon Mines
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 136.
      • Grand Canyon National Park
        • South Rim
          • Orphan District
            • Grand Canyon Village
Gornitz, V. (2004), Grand Canyon Uranium: The Orphan Mine, Mineral News: 20(6): 7.
    • Mohave Co.
      • Hack Canyon District
        • Hack Canyon
MRDS file #10027310.; Robert B. Scarborough (1981) Radioactive occurrences and uranium production in Arizona GJBX – 143(81)
    • Pima Co.
      • Ajo District
        • Little Ajo Mts
          • Ajo
Thomas, W.J. & R.B. Gibbs (1983), Famous mineral localities: The New Cornelia mine, Ajo, AZ, Min.Rec.: 14: 283-298; Gilluly, J. (1946), The Ajo mining district, Arizona, USGS PP 209: 98.
  • California
    • Nevada Co.
      • Meadow Lake District
J.F. Cooper, P.C.
    • San Luis Obispo Co.
      • Santa Lucia Mts (Santa Lucia Range)
        • Adelaide District (Adelaide Klau District)
          • Adelaida
            • Klau Mine group
Woodhouse, C.D. & R.M. Norris (1957a), A new occurrence of millerite American Mineralogist: 42: 113-115; Davis, Fenelon Francis and E.H. Bailey (1966) Mercury. California Division Mines and Geology Bulletin 191: 267, 270; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 78.
    • Trinity Co.
      • Coastal Range
        • Island Mountain
          • Moose Peak
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 507; Landon, Robert Emmanuel (1927), Roemerite from California: American Mineralogist: 12: 279-283; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 104; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 270.
  • Missouri
    • Iron Co.
      • Viburnum Trend District
        • Bixby
Kevin Conroy Collection
    • Madison Co.
      • Fredericktown District
        • Mine La Motte
Rocks & Minerals: 21: 750-753.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Lebanon Co.
      • Cornwall Borough (Cornwall)
Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
  • Utah
    • Emery Co.
      • San Rafael District (San Rafael Swell)
Am Min 40:201-206
    • Garfield Co.
      • Circle Cliffs
Analyzed by SEM EDS and in the collection of Brent Thorne
    • San Juan Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • White Canyon District
        • White Canyon
          • Copper Point
No reference listed
Zimbabwe
 
  • Mashonaland West
    • Kadoma District
Vetter, U., Weck, H.-D., Weale, T., Klosa, D., Wittich, C. and Hoffmann, K. (1999): A provisional inventory of the Sanyati oxide-zone minerals, Zimbabwe. Z. Angew. Geol. 45, 15-21.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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