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Akaganeite

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Formula:
β-Fe
3+
 
O(OH,Cl)
System:MonoclinicColour:Yellowish brown, rusty ...
Name:Named after its discovery locality


Note: The spelling akaganéite is incorrect (Burke, 2008).

Classification of Akaganeite

IMA status:Approved 1962
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/F.06-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.DK.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
K : With large (+- medium-sized) cations; tunnel structures
Dana 8th edition ID:6.1.6.1

6 : HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
1 : XO(OH)
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.20.6

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
20 : Oxides of Fe
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Type Occurrence of Akaganeite

Type Locality:Akagane mine, Esashi City, Iwate Prefecture, Tohoku Region, Honshu Island, Japan
General Appearance of Type Material:fine-grained to powdery masses, consisting of bundles of tiny spindlelike crystals up to 5 µm in length
Geological Setting of type material:oxidation zone of a pyrrhotite-bearing iron sulphide deposit, apparently formed from pyrrhotite by ferric-sulphate-bearing solutions
Associated Minerals at type locality:
Pyrrhotite

Occurrences of Akaganeite

Geological Setting:in oxidation zones of pyrrhotite-bearing iron sulphide deposits, as an important constituent of some soils, in certain geothermal brines and in sea-floor nodules, also formed as corrosion product of some meteorites

Physical Properties of Akaganeite

Lustre:Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Yellowish brown, rusty brown
Streak:Brownish yellow
Density (calculated):3.52 g/cm3

Crystallography of Akaganeite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:a = 10.561Å, b = 3.031Å, c = 10.483Å
β = 90.63°
Ratio:a:b:c = 3.484 : 1 : 3.459
Unit Cell Volume:V 335.54 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:8
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
1.6434 (35)
2.2952 (35)
2.5502 (55)
2.6344 (25)
3.333 (100)
5.276 (30)
7.467 (40)
Comments:Pattern of synthetic β-FeO(OH)

Optical Data of Akaganeite

Type:Biaxial
Dispersion:r > v strong

Chemical Properties of Akaganeite

Formula:
β-Fe
3+
 
O(OH,Cl)
Simplified for copy/paste:β-Fe3+O(OH,Cl)
Idealised Formula:
β-Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
Essential elements:Fe, H, O
All elements listed in formula:Cl, Fe, H, O
Analytical Data:Sample from Akagané Mine, Japan
Other samples from the locality contain significant Cl; Si and Al are probably impurities
SiO2 (3.10)
AlsO3 (1.21)
Fe2O3 (78.23)
FeO (0.82)
Na2O (0.62)
K2O (0.19)
H2O (15.16)

sum 99.33 wt.-%

Relationship of Akaganeite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.DK.05aCoronadite
Pb(Mn
4+
6
Mn
3+
2
)O
 
16
4.DK.05aCryptomelane
K(Mn
4+
7
Mn
3+
 
)O
 
16
4.DK.05aHollandite
Ba(Mn
4+
6
Mn
3+
2
)O
 
16
4.DK.05aManjiroite
Na(Mn
4+
7
Mn
3+
 
)O
 
16
4.DK.05bMannardite
Ba(Ti
4+
6
V
3+
2
)O
 
16
4.DK.05bPriderite
K(Ti
4+
7
Fe
3+
 
)O
 
16
4.DK.05bRedledgeite
Ba(Ti
4+
6
Cr
3+
2
)O
 
16
4.DK.05bHenrymeyerite
Ba(Ti
4+
7
Fe
2+
 
)O
 
16
4.DK.05aStrontiomelane
Sr(Mn
4+
6
Mn
3+
2
)O
 
16
4.DK.10Romanèchite
(Ba,H
 
2
O)
 
2
Mn
 
5
O
 
10
4.DK.10Todorokite
(Ca,K,Na,Mg,Ba,Mn)(Mn,Mg,Al)
 
6
O
 
12
· 3H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.20.1Wüstite
FeO
7.20.2Magnetite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
7.20.3Maghemite
Fe
3+
2
O
 
3
7.20.4Hematite
Fe
 
2
O
 
3
7.20.5Goethite
α-Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
7.20.7Feroxyhyte
Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
7.20.8Lepidocrocite
γ-Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
7.20.9Ferrihydrite
Fe
3+
5
O
 
3
(OH)
 
9
7.20.10Amakinite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(OH)
 
2
7.20.11Magnesioferrite
MgFe
3+
2
O
 
4
7.20.12Muskoxite
Mg
 
7
Fe
 
4
O
 
13
· 10H
 
2
O
7.20.13Srebrodolskite
Ca
 
2
Fe
3+
2
O
 
5
7.20.14Hercynite
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
O
 
4
7.20.15Brownmillerite
Ca
 
2
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
O
 
5

Other Names for Akaganeite

Synonyms:
IMA1962-004
Other Languages:
German:Akaganeit
Japanese:赤金鉱
Russian:Акаганеит
Simplified Chinese:四方纤铁矿
β-羟铁矿
Spanish:Akaganeita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Akaganeite

Reference List:

- +
Mackay, A. L. (1962): β-ferric ohyhydroxide - akaganéite. Mineralogical Magazine 33, 270-280. - American Mineralogist (1963), 48, 711 (abstract).

American Mineralogist (1971), 56, 659.

Murad, E. (1979): Mössbauer and X-ray data on β-FeOOH (akaganéite). Clay Minerals 14, 273-284.

Buchwald, V. F. and Clarke, R. S., Jr. (1989): Corrosion of Fe-Ni alloys by Cl-containing akaganéite (β-FeOOH): the Antarctic meteorite case. American Mineralogist 74, 656-667.

Post, J. E. and Buchwald, V. F. (1991): Crystal structure refinement of akaganéite. American Mineralogist 76, 272-277.

Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 7.

Burke, E. A. J. (2008): Tidying up Mineral Names: An IMA scheme for Suffixes, Hyphens and Diacritical Marks. Mineralogical Record, 39, 131-135.

Internet Links for Akaganeite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Akaganéite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Akaganeite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Chaco
      • Doce de Octubre Department
        • Gran Chaco
    J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997)
    Atlantic Ocean
     
    • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
    Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
    Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
    Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
    Belgium
     
    • Liège Province
      • Visé
    1./ A.M. Fransolet, J Jedwab and R. Van Tassel, 1974, Inventaire minéralogique de Richelles, Belgique, Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique, Tome 27, pp. 23-26.
    Brazil
     
    • Santa Catarina
      • São Francisco do Sul
        • Morro do Rócio
    [Mandarino, 1997]
    Canada
     
    • Ontario
      • Sudbury District
        • Levack Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    Chile
     
    • Tarapacá Region
      • El Tamarugal Province
        • Salar Grande
    samples analysed by Anthony Kampf, Curator Emeritus of Mineral Sciences at NHM of LAC, California; Kampf, A.R., Sciberras, M.J., Williams, P.A., Dini, M. & Molina Donoso, A.A. (2013): Leverettite from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Provence, Chile: the Co-analogue of herbertsmithite. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 3047-3054.
    China
     
    • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
      • Hechi Prefecture
        • Nandan Co.
          • Lihu - Yaochai area
    B Hendriksen collection
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Rankach valley
    Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Goslar
          • Astfeld
    No reference listed
    Schnorrer, G. (1993): Mineralogische Notizen VI. Aufschluss, 44, 44-58.
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Sauerland
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H.W. (1993): Neue Funde. Mineralien-Welt, 4 (2), 57-60.
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Marienberg District
          • Wolkenstein
    Tony Nickischer
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1991): Neue Funde aus den antiken Schlacken von Lavrion, Griechenland. Lapis, 16 (6), 21-23; 58.
          • Passa Limani area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Sounion area
    No reference listed
          • Thorikos area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Vrissaki area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    India
     
    • Uttar Pradesh
    Organizing Committee IMA-IMAGOD meetings '70. Editorial Committee (1970) Introduction to Japanese Minerals. Geological Survey of Japan
    Italy
     
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Campiglia Marittima
    Int. Assoc. of Collectors of Slag Minerals, 10 (2), 4-6.
          • Sassetta
    Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
        • Piombino
    Cerutti, G. and Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20 (4), 13-18; 50 (in German).
    • Veneto
      • Belluno Province
        • Auronzo di Cadore
    Ara, D., Sanna, L., Rossi, A., Galli, E., & De Waele, J. (2013). Minerali secondari in ambiente sotterraneo: la miniera dell’Argentiera (Sardegna nord-occidentale).
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Tohoku Region
        • Iwate Prefecture
          • Esashi City
    [Min.Mag.(1961) 33, 270-280; Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index, 3rd Edition"]
    Mars
     
    • Aeolis quadrangle
      • Gale Crater
        • Aeolis Palus
    Several papers on: Science Express, www.sciencemag.org , 9 December 2013, summarized by Dr Vivien Gornitz, Bulletin of the New York Mineralogical Club, February 2014.
    Mexico
     
    • Sonora
      • Mun. de Trincheras
        • La Mur
    Panczner(1987):87 - 295.
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Waikato
        • Taupo
          • Orakeikorako Thermal Area
    Rod Martin, Minerals of Ruatapu Cave, Orakei Korako, Taupo Volcanic Zone. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Rudawy Janowickie Mts
        • Jelenia Góra District
          • Miedzianka (Kupferberg)
    Gunnar Farber
    • Małopolskie
      • Tarnów
        • Ciężkowice
    Musiał J. 1996: Results of preliminary Mossbauer spectroscopy analysis of ochres from Janowice, Ciężkowice region, Outer Carpathians.Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 27, no. 1
    Red Sea
     
    J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997)
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
    [World of Stones 12:49]
    • North-Western Region
      • Ryazanskaya Oblast'
        • Kasimov District
    Pekov, I.V. et al (2007) European Journal of Mineralogy, 19, 891-898.
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Khibiny Massif
    http://maurice.strahlen.org/kola/khibiny.htm
    Slovakia
     
    • Prešov Region
      • Prešov Co.
    Duda et. all.,1981:Minerály severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovca,Monografia 2,Bratislava, 98 p
    Sweden
     
    • Norrbotten
      • Pajala
        • Kitkiöjärvi
    D. Holtstam and J. Söderhielm : "The Muonionalusta iron meteorite from Lapland, Sweden : New finds and findings", 5th International Conference "Mineralogy & Museums", Paris, Sept. 5-8th 2004, Bull. de Liaison de la Soc. Franç. de Minéralogie et Cristallographie, 2004, Vol 16, N°2.
    The Moon
     
    • Descartes Highlands
    http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/letss/Mineralogy.pdf
    • Mare Crisium
    Mokhov A.V., Kartashov P.M., Bogatikov O.A. (2007) Moon under a microscope, - Moscow, Nauka, p.128 (in Rus.).
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • St Agnes District
          • Perranzabuloe
            • Perran Iron Lode (Great Perran Iron Lode)
    Ryback, G., and Tandy, P.C. (1992): Mineralogical Magazine 56, 261-275; Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
      • Norfolk
        • Wells-next-the-Sea
    J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997)
    Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
    Ukraine
     
    • Crimea Oblast'
      • Crimea peninsula
    Chukhrov F.V., Gorshkov A.I., Berezovskaya V.V., Sivtsov A.V. (1987) New data on mineralogy of Kerch ores, - Izvestiya AN SSSR, ser. geol., 4, p. 60-77 (in Rus.)
          • Kerchenskyi (Fe)-ore basin
            • Kerchenskoe deposit
    Arbuzov V.A. et al. (1967) Kerch Iron-Ore Basin (Kerchenskii Zhelezorydny Bassein)/ - Moscow:Nedra. - 576 h/ (Rus.)
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Greenlee Co.
        • Shannon Mts
          • Copper Mountain District (Clifton-Morenci District)
            • Morenci
    Merritt Stephen Enders (2000) The Evolution of Supergene Enrichment in the Morenci Porphyry Copper Deposit, Greenlee County, Arizona. PhD Thesis, University of Arizona
      • Mohave Co.
        • Cerbat Mts (Cerbat Range)
          • Wallapai District
            • Mineral Park District
              • Ithaca Peak
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 103; Eidel, J.J., et al (1968), Copper-molybdenum mineralization at Mineral Park, Mohave Co., AZ, in J.D. Ridge (ed.), Ore deposits of the United States, 1933-1967, A,I,M.E.: 1258-1281.
      • Santa Cruz Co.
        • Patagonia Mts
          • Patagonia District
            • Washington Camp-Duquesne District
              • San Antonio Canyon
                • Santo Niño Mine area
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 103.
    • Colorado
      • San Juan Co.
        • Eureka District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Massachusetts
      • Franklin Co.
        • Rowe
    Cerato, A.. 2003: Mineralogical Study of Davis Mine, Rowe, MA, Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques
    • Minnesota
      • St. Louis Co.
        • Hibbing
    J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997)
    • Nevada
      • Elko Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Humboldt Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Pershing Co.
        • East Range
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Mexico
      • Taos Co.
    J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997)
    • Pennsylvania
      • Chester Co.
        • Malvern Borough
    Jan H.Bernard and Jaroslav Hyrsl,2004,Minerals and their Localities,pg 349
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