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Biotite

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Lustre:
Member of:Mica Group
Name:Named in 1847 by Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann in honour of the French physicist, mathematician, meteoriticist, astronomer, and mineralogist, Jean Baptiste Biot [April 21, 1774 Paris, France - February 3, 1862 Paris, France], who studied the optical properties of the micas. Biot and his associate, Félix Savart, discovered that an electric current in a wire produced a magnetic field. Biot received many awards in his lifetime in recognition of the value of his scientific researches.


A series or subgroup of the Mica Group.

The CNMMN Subcommittee on Nomenclature of the Micas (1998, 1999) has recommended that the name biotite be used for a series between the joins Annite-Phlogopite and Siderophyllite-Eastonite, and is therefore no longer to be regarded as a species name. Fluorophlogopite and Fluorotetraferriphlogopite should be included. The name is most commonly used for the micas on the Fe-rich end of the series, including Annite, Fluorannite, Tetra-ferri-annite and Siderophyllite.

The name "biotite" is also used as a generic field term for any incompletely analysed dark mica.

Classification of Biotite

IMA status:Discredited 1999
Explanation of status:The CNMMN Subcommittee on Nomenclature of the Micas (1998, 1999) has recommended that the name biotite be used for a series including phlogopite, siderophyllite, annite and eastonite, and is therefore no longer to be regarded as a species name.
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Crystallography of Biotite

Crystal Atlas:
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Biotite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Relationship of Biotite to other Species

Member of:Mica Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Aluminoceladonite
K(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Al(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Anandite
(Ba,K)(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
((Si,Al,Fe)
 
4
O
 
10
)(S,OH)
 
2
Annite
KFe
2+
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Annite-Phlogopite Series
Aspidolite
NaMg
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Balestraite
KLi
 
2
V
5+
 
Si
 
4
O
 
12
Bityite
LiCaAl
 
2
(AlBeSi
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Boromuscovite
KAl
 
2
(BSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Brammallite
(Na,H
 
3
O)(Al,Mg,Fe)
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Celadonite
K(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Fe
3+
 
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Chernykhite
(Ba,Na)(V
3+
 
,Al,Mg)
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Chromceladonite
K(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)(Cr,Al)(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Chromphyllite
K(Cr,Al)
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,F)
 
2
Clintonite
Ca(Mg,Al)
 
3
(Al
 
3
SiO
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Eastonite
KMg
 
2
Al(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Ephesite
LiNaAl
 
2
(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Ferroaluminoceladonite
K(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Ferroceladonite
K(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(Fe
3+
 
,Al)(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Ferrokinoshitalite
(Ba,K)(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH,F)
 
2
Fluorannite
KFe
2+
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
Fluorophlogopite
KMg
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
Ganterite
(Ba,Na,K)(Al,Mg)
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Glauconite
(K,Na)(Fe
3+
 
,Al,Mg)
 
2
(Si,Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Hendricksite
K(Zn,Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Illite
K
 
0.65
Al
 
2.0
[Al
 
0.65
Si
 
3.35
O
 
10
](OH)
 
2
Kinoshitalite
(Ba,K)(Mg,Mn
2+
 
,Al)
 
3
(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Lepidolite
Luanshiweiite
KLiAl
 
1.5
□0
 
.5
(Si
 
3.5
Al
 
0.5
)O
 
10
(OH,F)
 
2
Margarite
CaAl
 
2
(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Masutomilite
(K,Rb)(Li,Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
Montdorite
(K,Na)
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
Muscovite
KAl
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Muscovite-Celadonite Series
Nanpingite
CsAl
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,F)
 
2
Natro-glauconite
(Na,K)(Fe
3+
 
,Al,Mg)
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Norrishite
KLiMn
3+
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)O
 
2
Oxykinoshitalite
(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(O,OH,F)
 
2
Oxyphlogopite
K(Mg,Ti,Fe)
 
3
[(Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
](O,F)
 
2
Paragonite
NaAl
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Phengite
Phlogopite
KMg
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,F)
 
2
Polylithionite
KLi
 
2
Al(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
Preiswerkite
NaMg
 
2
Al(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Roscoelite
K(V
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Shirokshinite
KNaMg
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)F
 
2
Shirozulite
K(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Siderophyllite
KFe
2+
2
Al(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Sokolovaite
CsLi
 
2
Al(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)F
 
2
Suhailite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
2+
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Tainiolite
KLiMg
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)F
 
2
Tetraferriannite
KFe
2+
3
((Fe
3+
 
,Al)Si
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Tetraferriphlogopite
KMg
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
Si
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,F)
 
2
Tobelite
(NH
 
4
,K)Al
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Trilithionite
K(Li
 
1.5
Al
 
1.5
)(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
Voloshinite
Rb(LiAl
 
1.5
 
1.5
)(Al
 
0.5
Si
 
3.5
)O
 
10
F
 
2
Wonesite
(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)
 
6
((Al,Si)
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
Yangzhumingite
KMg
 
2.5
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)F
 
2
Zinnwaldite
KLiFe
2+
 
Al(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2

Other Names for Biotite

Synonyms:
Biotite-Phlogopite SeriesBlack MicaHydroxylbiotiteLepidomelaneMeroxen
MeroxeneOdeniteOderiteOdite
Other Languages:
Catalan:Biotita
Czech:Biotit
Dutch:Biotiet
Estonian:Biotiit
Finnish:Biotiitti
French:Biotite
Galician:Biotita
German:Biotit
Hydroxylbiotit
Odenit
Oderit
Odit
Rhombenglimmer
Hebrew:ביוטיט
Italian:Biotite
Japanese:黒雲母
Korean:흑운모
Lithuanian:Biotitas
Polish:Biotyt
Portuguese:Biotita
Romanian:Biotit
Russian:Биотит
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Биотит
Simplified Chinese:黑云母
Slovak:Biotit
Spanish:Biotita
Aspidolita
Hydroxylbiotita
Odenita
Oderita
Odita
Turkish:Biyotit
Ukrainian:Біотит
Varieties:
AnomiteBarian-Titanian BiotiteChromian BiotiteEastonite (of Winchell)Heterophyllite
ManganophylliteMg(T) MicaNatronbiotiteOxybiotiteRubellan
TitanbiotiteTitanian Biotite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Biotite

Reference List:

- +
Parry, W.T. and Nackowski, M.P. (1963) Copper, lead, and zinc in biotites from Basin and Range quartz monzonites. Economic Geology: 58: 1126-1144.

Dodge, F.C.W., V.C. Smith & R.E. May (1969), Biotites from the granitic rocks of the central Sierra Nevada batholith: Journal of Petrology: 10: 250-271.

Lovering, T.G., Cooper, J.R., Drewes, H.D., and Cone, G.C. (1970) Copper in biotite from igneous rocks in southern Arizona as an ore indicator. USGS Professional Paper 700-B: 1-8.

Giardini, A.A., Hurst, V.J., Melton, C.E., John, C., and Stormer, J. (1974) Biotite as a primary inclusion in diamond: Its nature and significance American Mineralogist: 59: 783-789.

Kesler, S.E., Issigonis, M.J., Brownlow, A.H., Damon, P.E., Moore, W.J., Northcote, K.E., and Preto, V.A. (1975) Geochemistry of biotites from mineralized and barren intrusive systems. Economic geology: 70: 559-567.

Rehrig, W.A. and McKinney, C.N. (1976) The distribution and origin of anomalous copper in biotite. Mining Engineering: 27, 68 pp.

Ohta, T., Takeda, H., and Takéuchi, Y. (1982) Mica polytypism: similarities in the crystal structures of coexisting 1M and 2M 1 oxybioites. American Mineralogist: 67: 298-310.

Dymek, R.F. (1983) Titanium, aluminium and interlayer cation substitution in biotite from high-grade gneisses, West Greenland. American Mineralogist: 68: 880-899.

Banfield, J.F. and Eggleton, R.A. (1988) Transmission electron microscope study of biotite weathering. Clays and Clay Minerals: 36: 47-60.

Walmsley, J.C. and Lang, A.R. (1992b) Oriented biotite inclusions in diamond coat. Mineralogical Magazine: 56: 108-111.

Rieder, M. et al. (1998): Nomenclature of the Micas. The Canadian Mineralogist 36, 905-912.
and
Rieder, M. et al. (1999): Nomenclature of the Micas. Mineralogical Magazine, 63, 267-267.

Li, G., Peacor, D.R., and Essene, E.J. (1998) The formation of sulfides during alteration of biotite to chlorite-corrensite. Clays and Clay Minerals: 46: 649-657.

Ibhi, A. and Nachit, H (2000) The substitution mechanism of Ba and Ti into phyllosilicate phases: the example of barium-titanium biotite. Annals of Chim. Sci. Mat. 25, 627-634.

Parry, W.T., Wilson, P.N., Moser, D., and Heizler, M.T. (2001) U-Pb dating of zircon and 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite at Bingham, Utah. Economic Geology: 96: 1671-1683.

http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/IMA/ima98(10%29.pdf

Internet Links for Biotite

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  • Localities for Biotite

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