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Biotite

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Lustre:
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1847 by Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann in honour of the French physicist, mathematician, meteoriticist, astronomer, and mineralogist, Jean Baptiste Biot [April 21, 1774 Paris, France - February 3, 1862 Paris, France], who studied the optical properties of the micas. Biot and his associate, Félix Savart, discovered that an electric current in a wire produced a magnetic field. Biot received many awards in his lifetime in recognition of the value of his scientific researches.
A series or subgroup of the Mica Group.

The CNMMN Subcommittee on Nomenclature of the Micas (1998, 1999) has recommended that the name biotite be used for a series between the joins Annite-Phlogopite and Siderophyllite-Eastonite, and is therefore no longer to be regarded as a species name. Fluorophlogopite and Fluorotetraferriphlogopite should be included. The name is most commonly used for the micas on the Fe-rich end of the series, including Annite, Fluorannite, Tetra-ferri-annite and Siderophyllite.

The name "biotite" is also used as a generic field term for any incompletely analysed dark mica.

Classification of Biotite

Discredited 1999
Explanation of status:
The CNMMN Subcommittee on Nomenclature of the Micas (1998, 1999) has recommended that the name biotite be used for a series including phlogopite, siderophyllite, annite and eastonite, and is therefore no longer to be regarded as a species name.
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Crystallographic forms of Biotite

Crystal Atlas:
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Biotite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Relationship of Biotite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2
AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Annite-Phlogopite Series
AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
BalestraiteKLi2V5+Si4O12
BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2
Brammallite(Na,H3O)(Al,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2
CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2
Chernykhite(Ba,Na)(V3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2
ChromceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)(Cr,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2
ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2
EastoniteKMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
EphesiteLiNaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
FerroaluminoceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)(Si4O10)(OH)2
FerroceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2
Ferrokinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH,F)2
FluoranniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
Ganterite(Ba,Na,K)(Al,Mg)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al,Fe3+)4O10)(OH)2
HendricksiteK(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Kinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Mn2+,Al)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Lepidolite
LuanshiweiiteKLiAl1.5□0.5(Si3.5Al0.5)O10(OH,F)2
MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4
MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite-Celadonite Series
NanpingiteCsAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
Natro-glauconite(Na,K)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2
NorrishiteKLiMn23+(Si4O10)O2
Oxykinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(O,OH,F)2
OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2
ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phengite
PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
PreiswerkiteNaMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2
ShirozuliteK(Mn2+,Mg)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiderophylliteKFe22+Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
SokolovaiteCsLi2Al(Si4O10)F2
Suhailite(NH4)Fe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2
TetraferrianniteKFe32+((Fe3+,Al)Si3O10)(OH)2
TetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH,F)2
Tobelite(NH4,K)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
VoloshiniteRb(LiAl1.51.5)(Al0.5Si3.5)O10F2
Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4
YangzhumingiteKMg2.5(Si4O10)F2
ZinnwalditeKLiFe2+Al(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2

Other Names for Biotite

Name in Other Languages:
Catalan:Biotita
Czech:Biotit
Dutch:Biotiet
Estonian:Biotiit
Finnish:Biotiitti
French:Biotite
Galician:Biotita
Italian:Biotite
Japanese:黒雲母
Korean:흑운모
Lithuanian:Biotitas
Polish:Biotyt
Portuguese:Biotita
Romanian:Biotit
Russian:Биотит
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Биотит
Simplified Chinese:黑云母
Slovak:Biotit
Turkish:Biyotit
Ukrainian:Біотит

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Biotite

Reference List:
Parry, W.T. and Nackowski, M.P. (1963) Copper, lead, and zinc in biotites from Basin and Range quartz monzonites. Economic Geology: 58: 1126-1144.

Dodge, F.C.W., V.C. Smith & R.E. May (1969), Biotites from the granitic rocks of the central Sierra Nevada batholith: Journal of Petrology: 10: 250-271.

Lovering, T.G., Cooper, J.R., Drewes, H.D., and Cone, G.C. (1970) Copper in biotite from igneous rocks in southern Arizona as an ore indicator. USGS Professional Paper 700-B: 1-8.

Giardini, A.A., Hurst, V.J., Melton, C.E., John, C., and Stormer, J. (1974) Biotite as a primary inclusion in diamond: Its nature and significance American Mineralogist: 59: 783-789.

Kesler, S.E., Issigonis, M.J., Brownlow, A.H., Damon, P.E., Moore, W.J., Northcote, K.E., and Preto, V.A. (1975) Geochemistry of biotites from mineralized and barren intrusive systems. Economic geology: 70: 559-567.

Rehrig, W.A. and McKinney, C.N. (1976) The distribution and origin of anomalous copper in biotite. Mining Engineering: 27, 68 pp.

Ohta, T., Takeda, H., and Takéuchi, Y. (1982) Mica polytypism: similarities in the crystal structures of coexisting 1M and 2M 1 oxybioites. American Mineralogist: 67: 298-310.

Dymek, R.F. (1983) Titanium, aluminium and interlayer cation substitution in biotite from high-grade gneisses, West Greenland. American Mineralogist: 68: 880-899.

Banfield, J.F. and Eggleton, R.A. (1988) Transmission electron microscope study of biotite weathering. Clays and Clay Minerals: 36: 47-60.

Walmsley, J.C. and Lang, A.R. (1992b) Oriented biotite inclusions in diamond coat. Mineralogical Magazine: 56: 108-111.

Rieder, M. et al. (1998): Nomenclature of the Micas. The Canadian Mineralogist 36, 905-912.
and
Rieder, M. et al. (1999): Nomenclature of the Micas. Mineralogical Magazine, 63, 267-267.

Li, G., Peacor, D.R., and Essene, E.J. (1998) The formation of sulfides during alteration of biotite to chlorite-corrensite. Clays and Clay Minerals: 46: 649-657.

Ibhi, A. and Nachit, H (2000) The substitution mechanism of Ba and Ti into phyllosilicate phases: the example of barium-titanium biotite. Annals of Chim. Sci. Mat. 25, 627-634.

Parry, W.T., Wilson, P.N., Moser, D., and Heizler, M.T. (2001) U-Pb dating of zircon and 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite at Bingham, Utah. Economic Geology: 96: 1671-1683.

http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/IMA/ima98(10%29.pdf

Internet Links for Biotite

Localities for Biotite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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