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Birnessite

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Formula:
(Na,Ca)
 
0.5
(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
O
 
4
· 1.5H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Black; dark brown in ...
Hardness:
Name:Named in 1956 by L. H. P. Jones and Angela Alice Milne for the type locality at Birness, Scotland, UK.

Classification of Birnessite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/F.11-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.FL.45

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
L : Hydroxides with H2O +- (OH); sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 8th edition ID:7.5.3.1

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
5 : (AB)2X3
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.18.11

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
18 : Oxides of Mn
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Type Occurrence of Birnessite

Type Locality:Birness, Ellon, Buchan Grampian (Aberdeenshire), Scotland, UK

Occurrences of Birnessite

Geological Setting:A major manganese-bearing mineral of many soils; a common alteration product of manganese-rich mineral deposits; a component of bacterially-precipitated manganese oxides; an important constituent of "desert varnish" and marine manganese nodules.

Physical Properties of Birnessite

Lustre:Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Black; dark brown in transmitted light
Hardness (Mohs):
Density (measured):3 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.4 g/cm3

Crystallography of Birnessite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/m {B1 1 2/m} {C2/m} {C1 2/m 1}
Cell Parameters:a = 5.175Å, b = 2.85Å, c = 7.337Å
β = 103.18°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.816 : 1 : 2.574
Unit Cell Volume:V 105.36 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:1
Morphology:Rarely in platelets, to 50 µm; commonly extremely finely crystalline, spherulitic, cellular.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
7.08 (100)
2.333 (43)
1.711 (29)
3.547 (28)
2.031 (24)
2.468 (17)
1.426 (17)
Comments:Recorded on a marine nodule from the Caribbean Sea; all reflections are typically very broad.

Optical Data of Birnessite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.730 nε = 1.690
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.040

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:weak to moderate
Comments:The mineral is pseudo-uniaxial (-); an identification by optical properties is impossible.

Chemical Properties of Birnessite

Formula:
(Na,Ca)
 
0.5
(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
O
 
4
· 1.5H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4·1.5H2O
Essential elements:H, Mn, Na, O
All elements listed in formula:Ca, H, Mn, Na, O
Analytical Data:Electron microprobe analysis of a marine nodule from the Caribbean Sea; total Mn calculated as MnO2, H2O content calculated from the mass balance
SiO2   (0.9)
MnO2  (75.8)
FeO    (0.55)
CoO    (0.14)
NiO    (0.80)
CuO    (0.33)
MgO    (6.2)
CaO    (0.39)
Na2O   (1.9)
K2O    (1.8)
Cl     (0.1)
H2O   (10.89)
S      (0.2)

sum   100.00 wt.-%
Common Impurities:Cl,Co,Cu,Fe,K,Ni,Mg,S,Si

Relationship of Birnessite to other Species

Structurally related to group(s):
Birnessite Group
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.FL.Trébeurdenite
Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
4
O
 
2
(OH)
 
10
CO
 
3
·3H
 
2
O
4.FL.05Woodallite
Mg
 
6
Cr
 
2
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
4.FL.05Iowaite
Mg
 
6
Fe
3+
2
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
4.FL.05Jamborite
(Ni
2+
 
,Ni
3+
 
,Co,Fe)(OH)
 
2
(OH,S,H
 
2
O)
4.FL.05Meixnerite
Mg
 
6
Al
 
2
(OH)
 
16
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
4.FL.05Muskoxite
Mg
 
7
Fe
 
4
O
 
13
· 10H
 
2
O
4.FL.05Fougèrite
Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
2
(OH)
 
12
[CO
 
3
]·3H
 
2
O
4.FL.10Hydrocalumite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
2
(OH)
 
12
(Cl,CO
 
3
,OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
4.FL.15Kuzelite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
2
(OH)
 
12
[SO
 
4
] · 6H
 
2
O
4.FL.20Aurorite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ag,Ca)Mn
4+
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
4.FL.20Chalcophanite
(Zn,Fe,Mn)Mn
 
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
4.FL.20Ernienickelite
NiMn
 
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
4.FL.20Jianshuiite
(Mg,Mn)Mn
 
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
4.FL.25Woodruffite
Zn(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
5
O
 
10
·3½H
 
2
O
4.FL.30Asbolane
(Ni,Co)
 
2-x
Mn
4+
 
(O,OH)
 
4
· nH
 
2
O
4.FL.35Buserite
Na
 
4
Mn
 
14
O
 
27
· 21H
 
2
O
4.FL.40Ranciéite
(Ca,Mn)Mn
 
4
O
 
9
· 3H
 
2
O
4.FL.40Takanelite
(Mn,Ca)Mn
 
4
O
 
9
· H
 
2
O
4.FL.55Cianciulliite
Mn(Mg,Mn)
 
2
Zn
 
2
(OH)
 
10
· 2-4H
 
2
O
4.FL.60Jensenite
Cu
 
3
[TeO
 
6
] · 2H
 
2
O
4.FL.65Leisingite
Cu(Mg,Cu,Fe,Zn)
 
2
[TeO
 
6
] · 6H
 
2
O
4.FL.70Akdalaite
4Al
 
2
O
 
3
· H
 
2
O
4.FL.75Cafetite
(Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)
 
2
Ti
 
4
O
 
12
· 4H
 
2
O
4.FL.80Mourite
UMo
 
5
O
 
12
(OH)
 
10
4.FL.85Deloryite
Cu
 
4
(UO
 
2
)(MoO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.18.1Manganosite
MnO
7.18.2Hausmannite
MnMn
 
2
O
 
4
7.18.3Pyrolusite
MnO
 
2
7.18.4Ramsdellite
Mn
4+
 
O
 
2
7.18.5Akhtenskite
ε-Mn
4+
 
O
 
2
7.18.6Feitknechtite
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
7.18.7Manganite
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
7.18.8Groutite
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
7.18.9Nsutite
(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)(O,OH)
 
2
7.18.10Pyrochroite
Mn(OH)
 
2
7.18.12Aurorite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ag,Ca)Mn
4+
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
7.18.13Cianciulliite
Mn(Mg,Mn)
 
2
Zn
 
2
(OH)
 
10
· 2-4H
 
2
O

Other Names for Birnessite

Synonyms:
delta-MnO2δ-MnO2Manganous Manganite
Other Languages:
German:Birnessit
Japanese:バーネス鉱
Russian:Бернессит
Simplified Chinese:水钠锰矿
钠水锰矿
Spanish:Birnessita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Birnessite

Reference List:

- +
Jones, L. H. P. and Milne, A. A. (1956): Birnessite, a new manganese oxide mineral from Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Mineralogical Magazine 31, 283-288. - American Mineralogist (1990), 75, 477-489 (abstract).

Glover, E. D. (1977): Characterization of a marine birnessite. American Mineralogist 62, 278-285.

Chukhrov, F. V., Gorshkov, A. I., Rudnitskaya, E. S., Beresovskaya, V. V., and Sivtsov, A. V. (1980): Manganese minerals in clay: a review. Clays and Clay Minerals 28, 346-453.

Golden, D. C., Dixon, J. B. and Chen, C. C. (1986): Ion exchange, thermal transformations, and oxidizing properties of birnessite. Clays and Clay Minerals 34, 511-520.

Golden, D. C., Chen, C. C., and Dixon, J. B. (1987): Transformation of birnessite to buserite, todorokite, and manganite under mild hydrothermal treatment. Clays and Clay Minerals 35, 271-280.

Post, J. E., and Veblen, D. R. (1990): Crystal structure determinations of synthetic sodium, magnesium and potassium birnessite using TEM and the Rietveld method. American Mineralogist 75, 477-489.

Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 58.

Lanson, B., Drits, V. A., E. Silvester, E., and Manceau, A. (2000): Structure of H-exchanged hexagonal birnessite and its mechanism of formation from Na-rich monoclinic buserite at low pH. American Mineralogist 85, 826-838.

Lanson, B., Drits, V. A., Gaillot, A., Silvester, E., Plançon, A., and Manceau, A. (2002): Structure of the heavy-metal sorbed birnessite: Part I. Results from X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist 87, 1631-1645.

Johnson, E. A., and Post, J. E. (2006): Water in the interlayer region of birnessite: Importance in cation exchange and structural stability. American Mineralogist 91, 609-618.

Internet Links for Birnessite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Birnessite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Birnessite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Arctic Ocean
     
    Murdmaa, I.O., Bogdanova, O.Y., Gorshkov, A.I., Novikov, G.V. and Shevchenko, V.P. (2000): Lithology and Mineral Resources 35(6), 594-597.
    Atlantic Ocean
     
    • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
      • Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse hydrothermal field (TAG)
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol.26, pp. 697-711 (1988)
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Yancowinna Co.
    No reference listed
    • Northern Territory
      • Roper Gulf Shire
        • Gulf of Carpenteria
          • Groote Eylandt
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 58; Econ Geol (1981) 76:556-567
    • South Australia
      • Mt Lofty Ranges
        • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
          • Noarlunga
    • Victoria
      • Flinders area
    • Western Australia
      • East Pilbara Shire
        • Gregory Ranges District
    Jones, S., McNaughton, n.j., Grguric, B., 2013. Structural controls and timing of fault-hosted manganese at Woodie Woodie, East Pilbara, Western Australia. Ore Geology Reviews. 50, 52-82.
      • Moora Shire
    Sampleite from Jingemia Cave, Western Australia; PJ Bridge, MW Clarke, MB Costello; Mineralogical Magazine 42, pp 369-371, 1978.
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Gurktaler Alpen
        • St Veit an der Glan
          • Tauchendorf
            • Grassendorf
    G. Blass, H. W. Graf: Carinthia II 191./111.:145-147 (2001)
    • Salzburg
      • Abtenau
        • Tennen Mts
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
    • Styria
      • Oberhaag
        • Lieschengraben
    Taucher, J. & Postl, W. (1992), Exel, R. (1993)
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Doce valley
        • Conselheiro Pena
          • Penha do Norte
    Rocks & Minerals (2009) 84:42-45
      • Poços de Caldas alkaline complex
        • Poços de Caldas
    Waber (1991)
    Canada
     
    • Québec
      • Montérégie
        • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
          • Mont Saint-Hilaire
    Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
        • Lajemmerais RCM
          • Varennes & St-Amable
    HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER HORVÁTH, E., GAULT, R.A., and TARASSOFF, P. (1998) Mineralogy of the Saint Amable sill, Varennes and Saint Amable, Québec, Canada. Mineralogical Record, 29, 83 118.
    Horváth, L., Pfenninger-Horváth, E., Gault, R. A., & Tarassoff, P. (1998): Mineralogy of the Saint-Amable Sill, Varennes and Saint-Amable, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 29: 83-118.
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • El Loa Province
        • Calama
          • Chuquicamata District
    R.B. Cook: "Famous mineal locality; Chuquicamata, Chile": Mineralogical Record, sept.-oct. 1973
    China
     
    • Guangdong Province
      • Meizhou Prefecture
    Fengjun Ma (1986): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 1(2)
    • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
      • Baise Prefecture
        • Jingxi Co.
    Ruixia Hao and Guangyue Guan (1995): China's Manganese Industry 13(1)
      • Chongzuo Prefecture
        • Daxin Co.
    Ruixia Hao and Guangyue Guan (1995): China's Manganese Industry 13(1)
      • Guigang Prefecture
        • Guiping Co.
    Guilin Institute of Metallurgical Geology, Rocks & Minerals Department, Manganese Thematic Group (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(5), 47-52
      • Hechi Prefecture
        • Yizhou Co. (Yishan Co.)
    Guilin Institute of Metallurgical Geology, Rocks & Minerals Department, Manganese Thematic Group (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(5), 47-52
    Guilin Institute of Metallurgical Geology, Rocks & Minerals Department, Manganese Thematic Group (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(5), 47-52
      • Liuzhou Prefecture
        • Luzhai Co.
    Guilin Institute of Metallurgical Geology, Rocks & Minerals Department, Manganese Thematic Group (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(5), 47-52
    • Hubei Province
      • Huanggang Prefecture
        • Luotian Co.
          • Hejiawan
    Jingqu Yao (1992): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 11(3), 257-266
    Jingqu Yao (1992): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 11(3), 257-266
      • Wuhan Prefecture
        • Huangpi District
    Jingqu Yao (1992): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 11(3), 257-266
    • Yunnan Province
      • Dali Autonomous Prefecture
        • Heqing Co.
    Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
    Czech Republic
     
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Olomouc Region
    Petr Paulis (2001): Die interessanten mineralogische Fundstellen in Mahren und Schlesien; Kuttna, Kutná Hora p69-73
    Finland
     
    • Eastern Finland Region
      • Tohmajärvi
    Schwertmann, U. et al 1987. Properties of iron oxides in relation to the environment of their formation. Clays and Clay Minerals Vol 35, No 4, 297-307.
    France
     
    • Alsace
      • Haut-Rhin
        • Thur valley (Thann valley)
          • Mollau
    Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
    • Franche-Comté
      • Haute-Saône
        • Faucogney-et-la-Mer
          • Esmoulières
            • Saphoz
    Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
    Perseil, E. A. (1975) - Nature and mineralogical studies of manganese oxides and carbonates in Faucogney (Haute-Saone). Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, D, 280, 1931-1934
    Perseil, E. A. (1975) - Nature and mineralogical studies of manganese oxides and carbonates in Faucogney (Haute-Saone). Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, D, 280, 1931-1934
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Pyrénées-Orientales
        • Corneilla-de-Conflent
          • Plateau d'Ambulla (Las Ambollas)
    Berbain, C., Favreau, G. & Aymar, J. (2005): Mines et minéraux des Pyrénées-Orientales et des Corbières, Association Française de Microminéralogie Ed., 80.
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Ariège
        • Foix
    P. Picot, Z. Johan : "Atlas of Ore Minerals", BRGM, Elsevier, 1982
    P. Picot, Z. Johan : "Atlas of Ore Minerals", BRGM, Elsevier, 1982
        • Saint-Girons
          • Castelnau-Durban
    Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 475-478.
          • Esplas de Serou
    Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 475-478.
      • Haute-Garonne
        • Bagnères-de-Luchon
    Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 475-478.
          • Peyresourde
    Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 475-478.
      • Hautes-Pyrénées
    Le Règne Minéral 47: 5-21
          • Nabias
    Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 475-478.
          • Vielle Aure
    DE ASCENCAO GUEDES R., TIXADOR Y., CASTERET A. & GOUJOU JC. (2002) La mine de Coustou, Vielle-Aure, Hautes-Pyrénées. Le Règne Minéral, 47, 23-31. (in french)
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Rankach valley
    Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Niederzissen
          • Wassenach
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Harz
        • Wernigerode
          • Hasserode
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
    Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
    Greece
     
    • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
      • Kykládes Prefecture
        • Cyclade Islands (Cyclades; Kikladhes; Nomos Kikladhon)
          • Milos Island (Melos)
    Hein, J. R.; Stamatakis, M. G.; Dowling, J. S. (2000): Trace metal-rich Quaternary hydrothermal manganese oxide and barite deposit, Milos Island, Greece. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 109, B67-B76.
          • Syros Island (Syra)
            • Gria Spilia
    Altherr, R., Soder, C., Panienka, S., Peters, D., & Meyer, H. P. (2013). Pink manganian phengite in a high P/T meta-conglomerate from northern Syros (Cyclades, Greece). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 166(5), 1323-1334.
    • Sterea Hellas Department
      • Fthiótis Prefecture
        • Lokris
    Acta Geol. Hung., 44(1), 81–93.
    Greenland
     
    • Kujalleq
      • Narsaq
    Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
    Hungary
     
    • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
      • Szalonnai Mtns
        • Bódvarákó
    • Fejér Co.
      • Szár Hill
        • Kőszárhegy
    Szakáll: Minerals of Szár Hill, 2004
    • Veszprém Co.
      • Bakony Mtns
    Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
    India
     
    • Andhra Pradesh
      • Adilabad District
    Rao, J. S. R. Krishna; Kasipathi, C. (1985): Occurrence of todorokite from Adilabad Manganese Mines, Andhra Pradesh. Current Science 54, 862.
    • Orissa
      • Koraput District
    Acharya, B.C., Rao, D.S., and Sahoo, R.K. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 79-93.
    Indonesia
     
    • Jawa Island (Java Island)
      • Jawa Barat Province (West Java Province)
        • Bogor District
    Milési, J.P., Marcoux, E., Sitorus, T., Simandjuntak, M., Leroy, J., and Bailly, L. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 131-149.
    Israel
     
    Hans Niedermeier (2000) Mineralien Welt, 11, #5, 58-62.
    Italy
     
    • Aosta Valley
      • Nus
        • Saint-Barthélemy
    • Barresi, A.A., Kolitsch, U., Ciriotti, M.E., Ambrino, P., Bracco, R., Bonacina, E. (2005): La miniera di manganese di Varenche (Aosta, Italia nord-occidentale): ardennite, arseniopleite, manganberzeliite, pirofanite, sarkinite, thortveitite, nuovo As-Sc-analogo della metavariscite e altre specie. Micro (località), 2/2005, 81-122.
      • Saint-Marcel
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Ne
          • Graveglia Valley
            • Reppia
    Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, (4), 131
    • Marche
      • Macerata Province
    P. Mattias- M. Guerra (2008) - Le miniere nelle Marche II° parte Miniere e mineralizzazioni-Giacimenti e vicende Accademia Nazionale delle Scienze detta dei XL
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chubu Region
        • Aichi Prefecture
    Am Min 48:952-954
      • Kanto Region
        • Tochigi Prefecture
          • Kanuma City
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
        • Tokyo Prefecture
          • Nishi-Tama-gun
            • Okutama-cho
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
      • Kinki Region
        • Shiga Prefecture
          • Ritto City
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 58
      • Tohoku Region
        • Aomori Prefecture
          • Nishi-Tsugaru-gun
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
          • Shimokita peninsula
            • Higashidori
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
        • Iwate Prefecture
          • Karumai
    Nambu M, Tanida K (1967) Manjirōite, a new manganese dioxide mineral, from Kohare Mine, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Journal of the Japanese Association of Mineralogists, Petrologists and Economic Geologists 58, 39-54
          • Kuji City
            • Yamagata
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    Nambu, M. & Tanida, K. (1961): On the progressive alteration of manganese dioxide minerals in the Toyoguchi Mine, Iwate Prefecture. Ganseki Kobutsu Kosho Gakkaishi 45, 39-48. (in Japanese)
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
          • Kuzumaki
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu ore collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
          • Noda
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
          • Shimohei-gun
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
            • Yamada
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    • Kyushu Region
      • Nansei Archipelago
        • Kagoshima Prefecture
          • Mishima village
    • Shikoku Island
      • Ehime Prefecture
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
      • Kochi Prefecture
        • Niyodo
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    • Tokyo Prefecture
      • Izu Archipelago
    Y. Okayama: Hydrothermal manganese oxides from southwest region of Aogashima island. Mining Geology, 42 (3), 194ff
        • Nishi Shichito Ridge
    Jose Carlos Mañuz Sanz collection
    Jordan
     
    • Wadi Arabah (Wadi Araba)
    Qatar Univ. Sci. J. 21:101-117.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Kostanay Province (Qostanay Oblysy; Kostanai Oblast')
    Golubovskaya, E.V. (2003): Lithology and Mineral Resources 38(3), 275-281.
    Mexico
     
    • Chihuahua
      • Mun. de Aldama
    Cross, B. & Culp Zeitner J. (2006), Geodes Natures Treasures, P.26
    • Michoacan
      • Mun. de Coalcomám
    Ref.: Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas, volumen 17, número 2, p.143-153 (2000)
    • Sonora
      • Mun. de Moctezuma
    Lapis 2001(1), 11-40
    Moldova
     
    • Edinet
      • Criva
    Klimchouk, A. (2012). Gypsum karst in the Western Ukraine. International Journal of Speleology, 25(3), 20.
    New Zealand
     
    • Kermadec Islands
    de Ronde, C.E.J.; Hannington, M.D.; Stoffers, P.; Wright, I.C.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Reyes, A.G.; Baker, E.T.; Massoth, G.J.; Lupton, J.E.; Walker, S.L.; Greene, R.R.; Soong, C.W.R.; Ishibashi, J.; Lebon, G.T.; Bray, C.J.; Resing, J.A. 2005 Evolution of a submarine magmatic-hydrothermal system : Brothers volcano, southern Kermadec arc, New Zealand. Economic geology, 100(6): 1097-1133
    • North Island
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
    Norway
     
    • Oppland
      • Lunner
        • Nordmarka
    Raade, G. (2005): Gjerdingen-ekeritten, en unik mineralforekomst. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift nr. 30, 2005, p 17.
    • Oslo
      • Nordmarka
    Neumann, H. (1959): Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway. No.1. An introduction. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 39, 231-236 (p.232)
    • Vestfold
      • Larvik
        • Langesundsfjorden
          • Barkevik area
    K.Eldjarn XRD MGM
    Knut Eldjarn specimen. XRD MGM
    Pacific Ocean
     
    • Clarion-Clipperton zone
      • Clipperton Island (Ile de Clipperton; Ile de la Passion)
        • USA-4
    Mee Burns, V., Burns, R.G. (1978) Authigenic todorokite and phillipsite inside deep-sea manganese nodules. American Mineralogist, 63, 827-831.
    • East Pacific Rise
      • Juan de Fuca Ridge complex
    Novikov, G.V., Vikent’ev, I.V., and Bogdanova, O.Y. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(4), 304-325.
    • Kermadec-Tonga trench
    A. G. Reyes, C.E.J. DE Ronde, and C. W. R. Soong (2004) a Submarine Magmatic-hydrothermal System at Brothers Volcano, Kermadecs. Proceedings 26th NZ Geothermal Workshop pp 46-52
    • South California Borderland
    Hein, J.R., Reid, J.A., Conrad, T.A., Dunham, R.E., Clague, D.A., Schulz, M.S., and Davis, A.S. (2010): USGS Open-File Report 10-1069
    Hein, J.R., Reid, J.A., Conrad, T.A., Dunham, R.E., Clague, D.A., Schulz, M.S., and Davis, A.S. (2010): USGS Open-File Report 10-1069
    Hein, J.R., Reid, J.A., Conrad, T.A., Dunham, R.E., Clague, D.A., Schulz, M.S., and Davis, A.S. (2010): USGS Open-File Report 10-1069
    Romania
     
    • Bistrița-Năsăud Co.
      • Rodna Mtn (Rodnei Mtn)
    al României, I. G. (2003) The 5 Th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp11-12
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Hunedoara
    Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., and Bourgier, V. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 31-36.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
    • Suceava Co.
      • Suceava district
        • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
    http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
    Russia
     
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Magadanskaya Oblast'
        • Kolyma River Basin
          • Ducat District
            • Omsukchan
              • Ducat ore field
    http://www.igem.ru/lmin/fil/metal.htm
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm
    Slovakia
     
    • Košice Region
      • Rožňava Co.
        • Ochtiná (Achten)
    Cílek V., Bosák P., Melka K., Žák K., Langrolvá A., Osborne A.,1998: Mineralogické výskumy v Ochtinské aragonitové jeskyni. Aragonit, 3,7 - 12
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
    Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Minerals of South Africa
    Spain
     
    • Aragón
      • Huesca
        • Estopiñán del Castillo
    Mata-Perelló,J.M. (1979).- "Las Mineralizaciones de manganeso de Estopiñan y de Natchá" Acta Geol. Hispánica, t. XIV (tomo homenaje al Dr., Luis Sole y Sabaris), 4p. Barcelona.
    • Cantabria
      • Sierra de Arnero
        • La Florida mining area
    Rossi, C., Lozano, R.P., Isanta, N. y Hellstrom, J. (2010). Manganese stromatolites in caves: El Soplao (Cantabria, Spain). Geology, 38, 1119–1122
    • Castile-La Mancha
      • Ciudad Real
    A. Crespo & R. Lunar (1997): Terrestrial hot-spring Co-rich Mn mineralization in the Pliocene-Quaternary Calatrava Region (central Spain). Geological Society, London, Special Publications, vol. 119, 253-264.
        • Pozuelo
    Calvo, M. (2009): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. IV, Óxidos e Hidróxidos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid - Fundación Gómez Pardo. 752 pp.
    • Valencian Community
      • Valencia
        • Requena
          • Campo Arcís
    Mata Perelló, J.M., 1994, Geogaceta. 16: 154-155
    Sweden
     
    • Värmland
      • Filipstad
        • Persberg district
          • Pajsberg
    H.Folvik(2002); Pers.report to the Långban Society
    Switzerland
     
    • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
      • Albula Valley
        • Oberhalbstein (Surses; Sursass)
          • Tinizong (Tinzen)
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 409.
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 409.
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Turtmann Valley
        • Pipjitälli
    The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 44, pp. 000 (2006) page 205; Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • Callington District
          • Lezant
    Famous British Mineral Localities: Greystone Quarry, Lezant, Cornwall. N Elton, D Green, J Hooper & S Weiss. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals No 24 2004, pp 9-28
        • Liskeard District
          • Altarnun
    Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
        • Mount's Bay District
          • St Hilary
    Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
    Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
      • Buchan Grampian (Aberdeenshire)
        • Ellon
    Mineralogical Magazine 1956 31 : 283-288.
      • Scottish Borders (Peeblesshire)
    Livingstone, A. (2002) : Minerals of Scotland - past and present, NMS Publications Ltd., p. 96
      • Strathclyde (Renfrewshire)
        • Gourock
    Notes about Gourock, chiefly historical By David Macrae
    • Wales
      • Gwynedd (Caernarvonshire)
        • Lleyn Peninsula
          • Llanfaelrhys
            • Rhiw
    No reference listed
    Ukraine
     
    • Crimea Oblast'
      • Crimea peninsula
    Chukhrov F.V., Gorshkov A.I., Berezovskaya V.V., Sivtsov A.V. (1987) New data on mineralogy of Kerch ores, - Izvestiya AN SSSR, ser. geol., 4, p. 60-77 (in Rus.)
    USA
     
    • Alabama
      • Coosa Co.
    Rocks & Minerals: 70(5): 320-333.
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Dragoon Mts
          • Turquoise District (Courtland-Gleeson District)
            • Courtland
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 137.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 398.
    • California
      • Kern Co.
        • Kramer District
    AmMin 56:1057
    Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 168; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 168 (photo 4-5).
      • Trinity Co.
        • Coastal Range
          • Three Forks
    Huebner, J. Stephen; Flohr, Marta J. (1990) Microbanded manganese formations; protoliths in the Franciscan Complex, California; USGS Professional Paper 1502.
    • Colorado
      • Custer Co.
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 58
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Lake Co.
        • Leadville District
          • Leadville
            • Carbonate Hill
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Summit Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Connecticut
      • Middlesex Co.
        • Haddam
    Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
    • Maine
    King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, p.63.
    • Massachusetts
      • Hampshire Co.
        • Cummington
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 58
        • Plainfield
    Kim, Soo Jin (1991). New characterization of takanelite (American Mineralogist, Volume 76, pages 1426-1430); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
    • Montana
      • Granite Co.
        • Philipsburg District (Flint Creek District)
    H.A. Barrett and M.P.S. Krekeler (2011) The 38th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 14-17, 2011, lecture abstracts, page 9.
    • Nevada
      • White Pine Co.
        • White Pine District
          • Silver Belt
            • Treasure Hill
              • Summit area
    NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Hampshire
      • Grafton Co.
        • Groton
    Rocks & Minerals (Sept/Oct 1981).
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Ogdensburg
            • Sterling Hill
    Frondel, et al: Am. Min.:45:871-875 (1960); Dunn(1995):Pt4:584.
    Frondel, et al: Am. Min.:45:871-875 (1960); Dunn(1995):Pt4:584.
    • New Mexico
      • Colfax Co.
        • Springer
          • Point of Rocks Mesa (Pecks Mesa)
    Rocks & Min.: 60:229.
    • New York
      • Warren Co.
    Geological Society of America Bulletin January 1971 v. 82 no. 1 p. 101-110
    • North Carolina
      • Cleveland Co.
        • Kings Mountain District
    Rocks and Minerals, (1985) 60:76-82; Carolina Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook 1981, 39-48
    • Rhode Island
      • Providence Co.
        • Lincoln
          • Lime Rock
    Michael W. Kieron collection
    Museum of Natural History & Planetarium, Roger Williams Park collection
    • Utah
      • San Juan Co.
        • White Canyon District
          • White Canyon
    R&M 75:4 p240-248
      • Tooele Co.
        • Deep Creek Mts
          • Gold Hill District (Clifton District)
            • Gold Hill
    Mineral News: 13(9): 1.
    Collected by and in the collection of Brent Thorne.
      • Utah Co.
        • East Tintic Mts
          • East Tintic District
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Washington Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Virginia
      • Alleghany Co.
        • Clifton Forge Iron District
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Rockbridge Co.
        • Lyndhurst-Vesuvius District
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Wisconsin
      • Oneida Co.
        • Hazelhurst
    Bowser, Carl J., E. Callender and Ronald Rossmann, 1970, "Electron Probe and X-ray Studies of Fresh Water Ferromaganese Nodules from Wisconsin and Michigan", Geol. Soc. Am. , Abstracts with Programs, vol. 2, part 7, p. 500-501.
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