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Bischofite

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Formula:
MgCl
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless to white; ...
Hardness:1 - 2
Name:For Karl Gustav Bischof (1792-1870), German geologist and mineral chemist, Professor of Chemistry in the University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany, and for F. Bischof, director of the Stassfurt salt works


A relatively rare constituent of saline deposits. Secondary in origin in part. Formed by alteration of Carnallite by water.

Classification of Bischofite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/A.12-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.BB.15

3 : HALIDES
B : Simple halides, with H2O
B : M:X = 1:2
Dana 8th edition ID:9.2.9.1

9 : NORMAL HALIDES
2 : AX2
Hey's CIM Ref.:8.4.3

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
4 : Halides of the alkaline earths and Mg
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Type Occurrence of Bischofite

Type Locality:Leopoldshall, Stassfurt, Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
Year of Discovery:1877
Associated Minerals at type locality:
KieseriteHaliteCarnallite

Occurrences of Bischofite

Geological Setting:In saline deposits; probably in part formed from carnallite

Physical Properties of Bischofite

Lustre:Vitreous, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colourless to white; colourless in transmitted light
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):1 - 2
Hardness Data:Measured
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):1.591 - 1.604 g/cm3
Density (calculated):1.5895 g/cm3

Crystallography of Bischofite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/m {B1 1 2/m} {C2/m} {C1 2/m 1}
Cell Parameters:a = 9.8607Å, b = 7.1071Å, c = 6.0737Å
β = 93.758°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.387 : 1 : 0.855
Unit Cell Volume:V 424.74 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals short prismatic along [001]; commonly foliated, fibrous, crystalline granular, also massive
Twinning:May twin polysynthetically under pressure
Crystal Atlas:
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Bischofite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Bischofite no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
4.095 (100)
2.646 (69)
2.880 (58)
2.732 (39)
2.305 (39)
2.228 (27)
3.553 (26)
Comments:Recorded on synthetic material

Optical Data of Bischofite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.495 nβ = 1.507 nγ = 1.528
2V:Measured: 79° , Calculated: 76°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.033

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:r > v, weak

Chemical Properties of Bischofite

Formula:
MgCl
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:MgCl2·6H2O
Essential elements:Cl, H, Mg, O
All elements listed in formula:Cl, H, Mg, O
Analytical Data:Wet chemical analysis of material from Leopoldshall, Germany (1) and electron microprobe analysis of material from Stassfurt, Germany (2); water contents calculated from the mass balances.

Deliquescent.
       (1)      (2)

Mg   (11.86)  (11.5)
Ca             (0.9)
Cl   (35.04)  (34.2)
H2O  (53.10)  (51.4)
SO3            (2.0)

sum  100.00   100.00 wt.-% 
Common Impurities:Ca,S

Relationship of Bischofite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.BB.05Eriochalcite
CuCl
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
3.BB.10Rokühnite
FeCl
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
3.BB.20Nickelbischofite
NiCl
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
3.BB.25Sinjarite
CaCl
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
3.BB.30Antarcticite
CaCl
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
3.BB.35Tachyhydrite
CaMg
 
2
Cl
 
6
· 12H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
8.4.1Sellaite
MgF
 
2
8.4.2Neighborite
NaMgF
 
3
8.4.4Korshunovskite
Mg
 
2
Cl(OH)
 
3
· 4H
 
2
O
8.4.5Carnallite
KMgCl
 
3
· 6H
 
2
O
8.4.6Tachyhydrite
CaMg
 
2
Cl
 
6
· 12H
 
2
O
8.4.7Fluorite
CaF
 
2
8.4.8Sinjarite
CaCl
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
8.4.9Antarcticite
CaCl
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.4.10Chlorocalcite
KCaCl
 
3
8.4.11Rorisite
CaFCl
8.4.12Jarlite
Na(Sr,Na)
 
7
MgAl
 
6
F
 
32
(OH,H
 
2
O)
 
2
8.4.13Calcjarlite
Na(Ca,Sr)
 
3
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
2
F
 
14
8.4.14Tikhonenkovite
Sr[AlF
 
4
(OH)(H
 
2
O)]
8.4.15Acuminite
Sr[AlF
 
4
(OH)(H
 
2
O)]
8.4.16Frankdicksonite
BaF
 
2
8.4.17Usovite
Ba
 
2
CaMgAl
 
2
F
 
14
8.4.18Bøgvadite
Na
 
2
SrBa
 
2
Al
 
4
F
 
20

Other Names for Bischofite

Synonyms:
Bischofite (of Ochsenius)
Other Languages:
German:Bischofit
Russian:Бишофит
Simplified Chinese:水氯镁石
Spanish:Bischofita
Varieties:
Brom-bischofite

Other Information

Other Information:Readily soluble in alcohol and in water.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Bischofite

Reference List:

- +
Ochsenius, C. (1877): Die Bildung der Steinsalzlager und ihrer Mutterlaugensalze unter specieller Berücksichtigung der Flöze von Douglashall in der Egeln´schen Mulde. Verlag Pfeffer (Halle), 172 p.

Ochsenius, C. (1877): Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der Chemie und verwandter Theile anderer Wissenschaften: 1284, 1285.

Ochsenius, C. (1877): Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 1: 414.

Przibylla (1904) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 238.

Dewar (1905) Chem. News: 91: 216.

Mügge (1906) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 91.

Görgey (1910) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 29: 200.

Doelter, C. (1928) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie: 4(2): 1212.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 46-47.

Heide, K. and Kühn, W. (1965): Bischofit im carnallitschen Stassfurtlager der stillgelegten Kaliwerke Aschersleben/Anhalt (Schachtanlage V). Chemie der Erde 24, 211-214 (in German).

Sorrell, C. A., and Ramey, R. R. (1974): X-ray powder data and unit cell parameters of MgCl2.6H2O. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data 19, 31-32.

Agron, P. A., and Busing, W. R. (1985): Magnesium dichloride hexahydrate, MgCl2.6H2O, by neutron diffraction. Acta Crystallographica C41, 8-10.

Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 59.

Internet Links for Bischofite

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Bischofite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Bischofite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Canada
     
    • Saskatchewan
      • Rocanville
    G. W. Robinson, V. King (1993) Whats New in Minerals. Mineralogical Record 24:381-395
    China
     
    • Qinghai Province
      • Hainan Autonomous Prefecture
    Sun Da-peng, Li Bing-xiao, Ma Yua-hua, and Lin Qun-zhu (2002): Journal of Salt Lake Research 10(4), 1-12.
      • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
        • Dulan Co.
          • Qarhan salt lake (Chaerhan salt lake)
    Botao Li, Yuanyi Zhao, Zuohua Qian, Pengcheng Jiao, Chenglin Liu, and Shijun Wang (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 669-683
        • Mangnai Co. (Mangya Co.)
    Mily Wang, Yijie Wang, Chenglin Liu, and Yongzhi Chen (1993): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 15(1)
    Germany
     
    • Hesse
      • Fulda
        • Neuhof
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Werra valley
        • Heringen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Phillippsthal
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Celle
        • Hänigsen
    Bode "Mineralien und Fundstellen BRD" from 1989 ISBN 3-925094-24-5 Pg.9
        • Wathlingen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Vienenburg
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 47; Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 59
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Stassfurt Potash deposit
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 59
        • Egeln
          • Tarthun
    No reference listed
        • Stassfurt
    Dana 6:A3:14,43,46; Dana 7:II:430; Zr. Kr.:50(1911):139.
    C. Ochsenius (1877): Die Bildung der Steinsalzlager und ihrer Mutterlaugensalze unter specieller Berücksichtigung der Flötze von Douglashall in der Egeln´schen Mulde.- Halle, Verlag Pfeffer, 172 p.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 47.
    • Thuringia
      • Thuringian Forest
        • Merkers-Kieselbach
    XRD analysis (T. Witzke)
    Hungary
     
    • Heves Co.
      • Mátra Mtns
        • Recsk
    No reference listed
    Italy
     
    • Sicily
      • Caltanissetta Province
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
      • Enna Province
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Aktobe Province (Aqtöbe Oblysy; Aktubinskaya Oblast')
      • Aksai Valley
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
      • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 59; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30; Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
    Netherlands
     
    • Groningen
    T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
    Peru
     
    • Lima Department
    P. Andresen collection, obtained from A. Robbemond, 2004.
    Poland
     
    • Wielkopolskie
    Jirásek, J.: Solný důl Kłodawa (Polsko). Minerál, 2004, roč. 12, č. 2, s. 98-102. ISSN 1213-0710 (excerpted from unpublished thesis Hanczke, T.: Mineralogia i petrografia soli czechstyńskich kopalni "Kłodawa". Doktroská práce, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Instytut nauk geologicznych, 1967.)
    Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)
     
    • Kouilou Department
    Henry Rauche (2009) Updated Reserve and Resource Estimate for MagMinerals Kouilou Potash Project, Republic of Congo
    Russia
     
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
          • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
            • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
    Vergasova L P, Filatov S K, Starova G L, Matusevich Z L, Filosofova T M (1996) Vlodavetsite, AlCa2(SO4)2F2Cl·4H2O, a new mineral from volcanic exhalations, Transactions (Doklady) of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Earth science sections, 343, 173-176 abstract Am Min 81:768
    Ukraine
     
    • Crimea Oblast'
      • Crimea peninsula
        • Krasnoperekopsk Area
    Geologiya SSSR. Poleznye iskopaemye (The geology of USSR. Commercial mineral) - Nedra (Moscou), 1974, vol. VIII, 205 p.
    USA
     
    • New Mexico
      • Eddy and Lea Counties
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
      • Otero Co.
    2008 New Mexico Mineral Symposium abstracts
    • Utah
      • Tooele Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
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    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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