Mindat Logo

Bismuth

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.



Formula:
Bi
System:TrigonalColour:Reddish-white to ...
Lustre:MetallicHardness:2 - 2½
Member of:Arsenic Group
Name:As chemical element Bismuth was officially discovered in 1753 by French scientist Claude Geoffroy. The origin of the name comes from the German words Weisse Masse meaning white mass. However around 1400 the element name is already present in some scientific treaties. In fact before Geoffroy, also the Swiss scientist Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493 - 1541) probably better known under his latinized name of Paracelsus, mentioned the word “Bisemutum”. He said that the latin word came from a german term “Wissmut”. For him, the word “wissmut” was because in Saxony, around St. Georges, the mineral was extracted (gemutet), in the fields (in den Wiesen). For others, the word comes from another similar german word: Weissmuth = white material, and this is supported by the fact that bismuth is a bright metal of white colour.


Arsenic Group

Classification of Bismuth

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:1/B.01-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:1.CA.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
C : Metalloids and Nonmetals
A : Arsenic group elements
Dana 7th edition ID:1.3.1.5
Dana 8th edition ID:1.3.1.4

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
3 : Semi-metals and non-metals
Hey's CIM Ref.:1.49

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-684.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Bismuth

Type Locality:Schneeberg District, Erzgebirge, Saxony, Germany
Year of Discovery:1546

Occurrences of Bismuth

Geological Setting:In hydrothermal veins with ores of Co, Ni, Ag, and Sn; in pegmatites and topaz-bearing Sn–W quartz veins.

Physical Properties of Bismuth

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Reddish-white to creamy-white; tarnishes iridescent pinkish, yellowish or bluish
Streak:Silver-white
Hardness (Mohs):2 - 2½
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=16 - 18 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Sectile
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect {0001}, Good {1011}, poor {1014}
Density (measured):9.7 - 9.83 g/cm3
Density (calculated):9.753 g/cm3

Crystallography of Bismuth

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:R3m
Cell Parameters:a = 4.55Å, c = 11.85Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.604
Unit Cell Volume:V 212.46 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:6
Morphology:Crystals, to 12 cm, but indistinct, commonly in parallel groupings, or hoppered; reticulated, arborescent, foliated, granular.
Twinning:Polysynthetic
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.28 (100)
2.37 (40)
2.273 (41)
1.868 (23)
1.491 (11)
1.443 (16)
1.330 (11)
Comments:Synthetic.

Optical Data of Bismuth

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Distinct
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=47.0%R2= 58.2%
420nmR1=49.3%R2= 58.8%
440nmR1=51.4%R2= 59.7%
460nmR1=52.9%R2= 60.9%
480nmR1=54.4%R2= 62.4%
500nmR1=56.2%R2= 63.9%
520nmR1=57.8%R2= 65.3%
540nmR1=59.3%R2= 66.6%
560nmR1=60.4%R2= 67.8%
580nmR1=61.4%R2= 69.0%
600nmR1=62.4%R2= 69.9%
620nmR1=63.1%R2= 70.7%
640nmR1=63.6%R2= 71.5%
660nmR1=63.9%R2= 72.2%
680nmR1=64.0%R2= 72.8%
700nmR1=64.1%R2= 73.2%


Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Peak reflectance is 73.2%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:Brilliant creamy white, tarnishing to yellow
Pleochroism:Weak

Chemical Properties of Bismuth

Formula:
Bi
Essential elements:Bi
All elements listed in formula:Bi
Analytical Data:Durango, Mexico.
Bi (98.77)
Sb (0.5)
As (0.19)
S (0.2)
Total (99.66)
Common Impurities:Fe,Te,As,S,Sb

Relationship of Bismuth to other Species

Member of:Arsenic Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Common Associates:
ChalcopyriteArsenopyritePyrrhotitePyriteCobaltite
NickelineBreithauptiteSkutteruditeSaffloriteLöllingite
BismuthiniteSilverCubaniteMolybdeniteSphalerite
GalenaScheeliteWolframiteCalciteBaryte
Quartz
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
1.CA.05Antimony
Sb
1.CA.05Arsenic
As
1.CA.05Stibarsen
AsSb
1.CA.10Arsenolamprite
As
1.CA.10Pararsenolamprite
(As,Sb)
1.CA.15Paradocrasite
Sb
 
3
As
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
1.1Copper
Cu
1.2Silver
Ag
1.5Gold
Au
1.6Auricupride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.7Tetra-auricupride
AuCu
1.8Zinc
Zn
1.9Cadmium
Cd
1.10Danbaite
CuZn
 
2
1.11Zhanghengite
CuZn
1.12Mercury
Hg
1.13Kolymite
Cu
 
7
Hg
 
6
1.14Moschellandsbergite
Ag
 
2
Hg
 
3
1.15Eugenite
Ag
 
11
Hg
 
2
1.16Schachnerite
Ag
 
1.1
Hg
 
0.9
1.17Paraschachnerite
Ag
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.18Luanheite
Ag
 
3
Hg
1.19Weishanite
(Au,Ag)
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.20Indium
In
1.21Aluminium
Al
1.22Khatyrkite
(Cu,Zn)Al
 
2
1.23Cupalite
(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24Diamond
C
1.25Graphite
C
1.26Chaoite
C
1.27Lonsdaleite
C
1.28Silicon
Si
1.29Tin
Sn
1.30Lead
Pb
1.31Anyuiite
Au(Pb,Sb)
 
2
1.31Novodneprite
AuPb
 
3
1.32Leadamalgam
Pb
 
0.7
Hg
 
0.3
1.33Arsenic
As
1.34Arsenolamprite
As
1.35Paxite
CuAs
 
2
1.36Koutekite
Cu
 
5
As
 
2
1.37Domeykite
Cu
 
3
As
1.38Algodonite
(Cu
 
1-x
As
 
x
)
1.39Novakite
Cu
 
20
AgAs
 
10
1.40Kutinaite
Ag
 
6
Cu
 
14
As
 
7
1.41Antimony
Sb
1.42Stibarsen
AsSb
1.43Paradocrasite
Sb
 
3
As
1.44Horsfordite
Cu, Sb
1.45Cuprostibite
Cu
 
2
(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum
(Ag
 
1-x
Sb
 
x
)
1.47Aurostibite
AuSb
 
2
1.48Dyscrasite
Ag
 
3
Sb
1.50Maldonite
Au
 
2
Bi
1.51Sulphur
S
 
8
1.52Rosickýite
S
1.53Selenium
Se
1.54Tellurium
Te
1.55Chromium
Cr
1.56Rhenium
Re
1.57Iron
Fe
1.58Chromferide
Fe
 
3
Cr
 
1-x
(x=0.6)
1.59Ferchromide
Cr
 
3
Fe
 
1-x
1.60Wairauite
CoFe
1.61Nickel
Ni
1.62Kamacite
(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite
(Fe,Ni)
1.64Tetrataenite
FeNi
1.65Awaruite
Ni
 
3
Fe
1.66Palladium
(Pd,Pt)
1.67Potarite
PdHg
1.68Paolovite
Pd
 
2
Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite
(Pd,Cu)
 
3
Sn
 
2
1.70Cabriite
Pd
 
2
CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I
(Pd,Cu,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.72Atokite
(Pd,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.73Rustenburgite
(Pt,Pd)
 
3
Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite
(Pd,Pt,Au)
 
3
(Pb,Sn)
1.75Plumbopalladinite
Pd
 
3
Pb
 
2
1.76Osmium
(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium
(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82Platinum
Pt
1.83Hongshiite
PtCu
1.84Niggliite
PtSn
1.85Isoferroplatinum
Pt
 
3
Fe
1.86Tetraferroplatinum
PtFe
1.87Tulameenite
Pt
 
2
CuFe
1.88Ferronickelplatinum
Pt
 
2
FeNi
1.89Rhodium
(Rh,Pt)
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
1.3.1.1Arsenic
As
1.3.1.2Arsenolamprite
As
1.3.1.3Stibarsen
AsSb
1.3.1.4Antimony
Sb
1.3.1.6Pararsenolamprite
(As,Sb)

Other Names for Bismuth

Synonyms:
Native Bismuth
Other Languages:
Arabic:بزموت
Armenian:Բիսմութ
Azeri:Bismut
Basque:Bismuto
Belarusian:Вісмут
Bengali:বিসমাথ
Bosnian (Latin Script):Bizmut
Bulgarian:Бисмут
Catalan:Bismut
Chuvash:Висмут
Corsican:Bismutu
Croatian:Bizmut
Czech:Bismut
Danish:Bismuth
Dutch:Bismut
Esperanto:Bismuto
Estonian:Vismut
Finnish:Vismutti
French:Bismuth
Friulian:Bismût
Galician:Bismuto
German:Bismut
Gediegen Wismut
Oktoedrisches Wismuth
Wismut
Greek:Βισμούθιο
Hebrew:ביסמוט
Hungarian:Bizmut
Icelandic:Bismút
Ido:Bismuto
Indonesian:Bismut
Irish Gaelic:Biosmat
Italian:Bismuto
Japanese:自然ビスマス
Javanese:Bismut
Korean:비스무트
Kurdish (Latin Script):Bîzmût
Latin:Bisemutum
Latvian:Bismuts
Lithuanian:Bismutas
Lojban:jinmrbismu
Luxembourgish:Bismuth
Manx:Bismut
Marathi:बिस्मथ
Norwegian (Bokmål):Vismut
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Vismut
Occitan:Bismut
Persian:بیسموت
Polish:Bizmut
Portuguese:Bismuto
Quechua:Wismutu
Romanian:Bismut
Russian:Висмут
Saterland Frisian:Bismuth
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Бизмут
Serbo-Croatian:Bizmut
Sicilian:Bismutu
Simplified Chinese:自然铋
Slovak:Bizmut
Slovenian:Bizmut
Spanish:Bismuto
Swahili:Bismuthi
Swedish:Vismut
Thai:บิสมัท
Turkish:Bizmut
Ukrainian:Бісмут
Urdu:بسمیتھ
Vietnamese:Bitmut
Welsh:Bismwth
Varieties:
Antimonian Bismuth

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Bismuth

Reference List:

- +
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 134-135.

Internet Links for Bismuth

Search Engines:
  • Look for Bismuth on Google
  • Look for Bismuth images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Look for Bismuth on Webmineral
  • Look for Bismuth on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Bismuth on Wikipedia
  • Look for Bismuth on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Bismuth details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • Top quality minerals from Kristalle of California
  • rare and unusual minerals mainly crystallized
  • Buy from McDougall Minerals
  • High-end worldwide specimens & outstanding customer service
  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • SpiriferMinerals.com - high quality low prices
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Bismuth specimens
  • Search for Bismuth on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Buy from David K Joyce minerals
  • Buy fine minerals and gemstones from Pala International
  • Buy RARE Minerals from Rocks of Africa
  • Bismuth specimens for sale - minfind.com
  • Specimens:The following Bismuth specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Bismuth

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    Mineral and/or Locality  
    Search Google  
    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
    Current server date and time: October 20, 2014 01:12:21
    Mineral and Locality Search
    Mineral:
    and/or Locality:
    Options
    Fade toolbar when not in focusFix toolbar to bottom of page
    Hide Social Media Links
    Slideshow frame delay seconds