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Bismuthinite

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Formula:
Bi
 
2
S
 
3
System:OrthorhombicColour:Lead gray to tin white
Hardness:2 - 2½
Name:From the composition.
Isostructural with:Stibnite

Classification of Bismuthinite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/D.08-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.DB.05

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
D : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 3 :4 and 2:3
B : M:S = 2:3
Dana 8th edition ID:2.11.2.3

2 : SULFIDES
11 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.7.17

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
7 : Sulphides etc. of V, As, Sb and Bi
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Occurrences of Bismuthinite

Geological Setting:Low to high temperature hydrothermal veins

Physical Properties of Bismuthinite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Lead gray to tin white
Comment:Yellowish or iridescent tarnish.
Streak:Lead-gray
Hardness (Mohs):2 - 2½
Tenacity:Flexible
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {010}
imperfect on {100} {110}
Comment:Somewhat sectile
Density (measured):6.78 g/cm3
Density (calculated):6.81 g/cm3

Crystallography of Bismuthinite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:a = 11.12Å, b = 11.25Å, c = 3.97Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.988 : 1 : 0.353
Unit Cell Volume:V 496.65 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Stout prismatic to acicular
Comment:sp. gr. Pbnm
Crystal Atlas:
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Bismuthinite - {110}, {010}, {311}, modified
Bismuthinite - {110}, {010}, modified
Bismuthinite - {110}, {010}, {310}, modified

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.967 (40)
3.569 (100)
3.530 (60)
3.118 (80)
2.812 (50)
2.521 (40)
1.953 (40)
Comments:Synthetic.

Optical Data of Bismuthinite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Strong, especially in oil
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=35.7%R2= 46.2%
420nmR1=36.4%R2= 47.2%
440nmR1=37.2%R2= 47.9%
460nmR1=37.7%R2= 48.3%
480nmR1=37.7%R2= 48.8%
500nmR1=37.6%R2= 49.4%
520nmR1=37.3%R2= 49.6%
540nmR1=37.1%R2= 49.1%
560nmR1=36.9%R2= 48.7%
580nmR1=36.8%R2= 48.3%
600nmR1=36.6%R2= 47.8%
620nmR1=36.4%R2= 47.3%
640nmR1=36.3%R2= 46.8%
660nmR1=36.1%R2= 46.3%
680nmR1=36.0%R2= 45.8%
700nmR1=35.9%R2= 45.4%


Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Peak reflectance is 49.6%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red

Chemical Properties of Bismuthinite

Formula:
Bi
 
2
S
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:Bi2S3
Essential elements:Bi, S
All elements listed in formula:Bi, S
Analytical Data:Riddarhyttan, Västmanland, Sweden.
Bi (79.47)
Cu (0.57)
Fe (0.17)
Te (0.94)
S (18.42)
insol. (0.50)
Total (100.07)
Common Impurities:Pb,Cu,Fe,As,Sb,Se,Te

Relationship of Bismuthinite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Aikinite (see here)
Common Associates:
WolframiteTourmalineStanniteQuartzPyrite
GalenaChalcopyriteCassiteriteBismuthArsenopyrite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.DB.05Antimonselite
Sb
 
2
Se
 
3
2.DB.05Guanajuatite
Bi
 
2
(Se,S)
 
3
2.DB.05Metastibnite
Sb
 
2
S
 
3
2.DB.05Pääkkönenite
Sb
 
2
AsS
 
2
2.DB.05Stibnite
Sb
 
2
S
 
3
2.DB.10Ottemannite
beta Sn
 
2
S
 
3
2.DB.10Suredaite
PbSnS
 
3
2.DB.15Bowieite
(Rh,Ir,Pt)
 
2
S
 
3
2.DB.15Kashinite
(Ir,Rh)
 
2
S
 
3
2.DB.20Montbrayite
(Au,Sb)
 
2
Te
 
3
2.DB.25Edgarite
FeNb
 
3
S
 
6
2.DB.30Tarkianite
(Cu,Fe)(Re,Mo)
 
4
S
 
8
2.DB.35Cameronite
AgCu
 
7
Te
 
10
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.7.1Patrónite
VS
 
4
3.7.2Duranusite
As
 
4
S
3.7.3Dimorphite
As
 
4
S
 
3
3.7.4Realgar
As
 
4
S
 
4
3.7.5Pararealgar
As
 
4
S
 
4
3.7.6Alacránite
As
 
8
S
 
9
3.7.7Uzonite
As
 
4
S
 
5
3.7.8Orpiment
As
 
2
S
 
3
3.7.9Jeromite
3.7.10Laphamite
As
 
2
(Se,S)
 
3
3.7.11Getchellite
AsSbS
 
3
3.7.12Wakabayashilite
[(As,Sb)
 
6
S
 
9
][As
 
4
S
 
5
]
3.7.13Pääkkönenite
Sb
 
2
AsS
 
2
3.7.14Stibnite
Sb
 
2
S
 
3
3.7.15Metastibnite
Sb
 
2
S
 
3
3.7.16Tellurantimony
Sb
 
2
Te
 
3
3.7.18Nevskite
Bi(Se,S)
3.7.19Guanajuatite
Bi
 
2
(Se,S)
 
3
3.7.21Ikunolite
Bi
 
4
(S,Se)
 
3
3.7.22Laitakarite
Bi
 
4
Se
 
2
S
3.7.23Poubaite
PbBi
 
2
(Se,Te,S)
 
4
3.7.24Tellurobismuthite
Bi
 
2
Te
 
3
3.7.25Součekite
PbCuBi(S,Se)
 
3
3.7.26Tsumoite
BiTe
3.7.27Pilsenite
Bi
 
4
Te
 
3
3.7.28Hedleyite
Bi
 
7
Te
 
3
3.7.29Tetradymite
Bi
 
2
Te
 
2
S
3.7.30Joséite
Bi
 
4
TeS
 
2
3.7.31Joséite-B
Bi
 
4
Te
 
2
S
3.7.32Ingodite
Bi
 
2
TeS
3.7.33Sulphotsumoite
Bi
 
3
Te
 
2
S
3.7.34Kawazulite
Bi
 
2
Te
 
2
Se
3.7.36Skippenite
Bi
 
2
TeSe
 
2
3.7.37Kochkarite
PbBi
 
4
Te
 
7
3.7.38Rucklidgeite
(Bi,Pb)
 
3
Te
 
4
3.7.39Aleksite
PbBi
 
2
Te
 
2
S
 
2
3.7.40Junoite
Cu
 
2
Pb
 
3
Bi
 
8
(S,Se)
 
16

Other Names for Bismuthinite

Synonyms:
Bismuth GlanceBismuthineBismutholampriteBismutinite
Other Languages:
Basque:Bismutinita
Catalan:Bismutinita
Dutch:Bismutiniet
Finnish:Vismuttihohde
German:Bismuthinit
Wismutglanz
Italian:Bismutina
Polish:Bizmutyn
Russian:Висмутин
Simplified Chinese:辉铋矿
Spanish:Bismuthinita
Swedish:Vismutglans
Ukrainian:Бісмутин
Varieties:
Antimonian BismuthiniteArgentiferous BismuthiniteHorobetsuite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Bismuth ore.

References for Bismuthinite

Reference List:

- +
Groth (1880) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 5: 252.

Peacock (1933) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 86: 203.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 275-278.

Kupčik, V. and Veselá-Nováková, L. (1970) Zur Kristallstruktur des Bismuthinits, Bi2S3. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 14: 55-59.

Mozgova, N.N., Nenasheva, S.N., Christykova, N.I., Mogilevkin, S.B., and Sivtsov, A.V. (1990) Compositional fields of minerals in the bismuthinite-aikinite series. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1990: 35-45.

Petrícek, Vaclav and Emil Makovicky (2006), Interpretation of selected structures of the bismuthinite – aikinite series as commensurately modulated structures: Canadian Mineralogist: 44(1): 189-206.

Internet Links for Bismuthinite

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