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Bixbyite

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Formula:
Mn23+O3
System:
Isometric
Colour:
Black
Hardness:
6 - 6½
Name:
For Maynard Bixby (1853-1935), prospector, miner, mine broker, author, explorer of the Thomas Range, and mineral dealer of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, who collected and provided the first specimens. He published several editions of the authoritative "Catalogue of Utah Minerals and Localities" and authored articles on several mineral localities in the western states.
This page provides mineralogical data about Bixbyite.

Classification of Bixbyite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
4.CB.10

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
B : With medium-sized cations
4.3.7.2

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
7.19.1

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
19 : Oxides of Mn and Fe
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First Recorded Occurrence of Bixbyite

Place of Conservation of First Recorded Material:
Yale University, New haven, Connecticut, USA: 1.6369.
Year of Discovery:
1897
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
In lithophysal cavities in rhyolite
Associated Minerals at First Recorded Locality:

Occurrences of Bixbyite

Geological Setting:
In rhyolites; in metamorphosed manganese ores

Physical Properties of Bixbyite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Black
Streak:
Black
Hardness (Mohs):
6 - 6½
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=946 - 1402 kg/mm2
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
on {111}, in traces
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
4.945 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.031 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Bixbyite

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3 (2/m 3) - Diploidal
Space Group:
Ia3
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.411Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 833.50 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
16
Morphology:
Cubes, rarely modified by {112} or {111}, commonly striated and occasionally deeply pitted, to 6 cm; also massive.
Twinning:
On {111}, as penetration twins.

Crystallographic forms of Bixbyite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Bixbyite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.72 (100)
1.664 (30)
3.84 (25)
2.01 (14)
1.845 (14)
1.4191 (14)
2.35 (12)
Comments:
Recorded on synthetic Mn2O3

Optical Data of Bixbyite

Type:
Isotropic
Type:
Isotropic
Reflectivity:
400 nmR=24.7%
420 nmR=24.1%
440 nmR=23.5%
460 nmR=23.0%
480 nmR=22.8%
500 nmR=22.9%
520 nmR=23.3%
540 nmR=23.6%
560 nmR=23.5%
580 nmR=23.2%
600 nmR=22.9%
620 nmR=22.7%
640 nmR=22.4%
660 nmR=22.2%
680 nmR=22.2%
700 nmR=22.1%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 24.7%.

Chemical Properties of Bixbyite

Formula:
Mn23+O3
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
(1) Averages of two analyses of material from Thomas Range, Utah, USA
(2) Electron microprobe analysis of material from Postmasburg, South Africa
(3) Theoretical values for (Mn,Fe)2O3 with Mn:Fe = 1:1
          (1)      (2)      (3)

SiO2     (1.21)   (0.00)
TiO2     (1.70)
Al2O3    (2.53)   (2.02)
Fe2O3   (47.98)  (14.86)  (50.29)
Mn2O3            (82.56)  (49.71)
MnO     (42.05)
MgO      (0.10)   (0.07)
O        (4.38)

sum      99.85    99.51   100.00 wt.-%
Common Impurities:
Al,Mg,Si,Ti

Relationship of Bixbyite to other Species

Common Associates:
4.CB.05BrizziiteNaSb5+O3
4.CB.05CorundumAl2O3
4.CB.05Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3
4.CB.05EskolaiteCr2O3
4.CB.05GeikieliteMgTiO3
4.CB.05HematiteFe2O3
4.CB.05IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
4.CB.05KarelianiteV23+O3
4.CB.05MelanostibiteMn2+(Sb5+,Fe3+)O3
4.CB.05PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
4.CB.05Akimotoite(Mg,Fe2+)SiO3
4.CB.05AuroantimonateAuSbO3
4.CB.05Romanite(◻,Pb,Ca)UFe22+(Ti,Fe3+)6Ti12O38
4.CB.05UM1998-11-O-AuHSbAu2+Sb3+O2(OH)
4.CB.05TistariteTi23+O3
4.CB.10AvicenniteTl2O3
4.CB.15Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
4.CB.15PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N2S[(Zn,Al,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+,Ti)8O15(OH)]2
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N6S[(Zn,Mg)7(Al,Fe3+,Ti)16O31(OH)]2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S[(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]6
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S[(Mg,Fe2+,Zn)4(Al,Ti,Fe3+)10O19(OH)]2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N2S[(Mg,Fe2+)3[Al7(Ti,Fe3+)]O15(OH)]2
4.CB.20Ferrohögbomite-6N12S[(Fe2+,Mg,Zn)5(Al,Ti,Fe3+)12O23(OH)]6
4.CB.25PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9
4.CB.25KleberiteFeTi6O11(OH)5
4.CB.30BerdesinskiiteV23+TiO5
4.CB.30OxyvaniteV23+V4+O5
4.CB.35Olkhonskite(Cr,V)2Ti3O9
4.CB.35SchreyeriteV23+Ti3O9
4.CB.40KamiokiteFe2Mo3O8
4.CB.40Nolanite(V3+,Fe3+,Fe2+,Ti)10O14(OH)2
4.CB.40RinmaniteZn2Sb2Mg2Fe4O14(OH)2
4.CB.40IseiteMn2Mo3O8
4.CB.40MajindeiteMg2Mo3O8
4.CB.45ClaudetiteAs2O3
4.CB.45StibioclaudetiteAsSbO3
4.CB.50ArsenoliteAs2O3
4.CB.50SénarmontiteSb2O3
4.CB.55ValentiniteSb2O3
4.CB.60BismiteBi2O3
4.CB.65SphaerobismoiteBi2O3
4.CB.70SilléniteBi12SiO20
4.CB.75KyzylkumiteTi2V3+O5(OH)
4.CB.80TietaiyangiteFe43+Fe2+TiO9
7.19.2JangguniteMn5-x(Mn,Fe)1+xO8(OH)6
7.19.3JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
7.19.4Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
7.19.5Galaxite(Mn,Fe,Mg)(Al,Fe)2O4
7.19.6Filipstadite(Sb0.5Fe0.5)Mn2O4
7.19.7Manganochromite(Mn,Fe)(Cr,V)2O4
7.19.8ZenzénitePb3(Fe,Mn)4Mn3O13

Other Names for Bixbyite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Bixbyite

Reference List:
Penfield and Foote (1897), American Journal of Science 4, 105.

Fermor (1909), Geological Survey of India, Rec. 37, 199.

Fermor (1909), Geological Survey of india, Mem. 37, 49.

Pauling and Shappell (1930), Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 75, 128.

Orcel and Pavlovitch (1932), Bull. soc. min. 54, 108.

Cortelezzi, Himmel, and Schroeder (1934), Centralblatt für Mineralogie, 129.

Montgomery, A. (1934): A recent find of bixbyite and associated minerals in the Thomas Range, Utah. American Mineralogist 19, 82-87.

de Villiers (1943), American Mineralogist 28, 336, 468 (as partridgeite).

Palache, C., Berman, H. and Frondel, C. (1944): The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (New York), 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 550-551.

NBS Circ. 539 (1959), 9, 37.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1962), 107, 370-395.

Geller, S. (1971): Structures of alpha-Mn2O3, (Mn0.983Fe0.017)2O3 and (Mn0.37Fe0.63)2O3 and relation to magnetic ordering. Acta Crystallographica 27, 821-828.

Moore, P. B. and Araki, T. (1976): Braunite: its structure and relationship to bixbyite, and some insights on the genealogy of fluorite derivative structures. American Mineralogist 61, 1226-1240.

Mitchell, R. S. (1987) Who's who in mineral names: John George Cowles and Maynard Bixby. Rocks & Minerals, 62, 120-123.

de Villiers, J. P. and Buseck, P. R. (1989): Stacking variations and nonstoichiometry in the bixbyite-braunite polysomatic mineral group. American Mineralogist 74, 1325-1336.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume III. Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 628pp.: 66.

Bevan, D.J.M. & R.L.Martin, The role of the coordination defect: A new structural description of four fluorite-related sesquioxide minerals, bixbyite, braunite, braunite II, parwelite, and their structural relationships. Journal of Solid State Chemistry 181,2250-2259(2008)

Internet Links for Bixbyite

Specimens:
The following Bixbyite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Bixbyite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Argentina
 
  • Chubut
    • Paso de Indios Department
      • Valle de las Plumas
Schiller, W., Abstr. La Existencia de la Bixbyita en la Patagonia, by Sarah Cottelezzi de Muzzo, 20 handwritten pages: NeuesJahrb. Min., Referate f , 133-135 (1931); a Corti, Hercules, Datos sobre una nueva variedad de bixbyita hallada en el Chubut: Anal. Asoc. Quim. Argentina, 19, 109-716 (1931); S Cortelezzi, Juana, Himmel, Hans, and Schroeder, Robert: Bixbyit von Patagonien: Centralbl. Mineral., GeoI., u. Paleon., Ab. A, 129-135 (1934).
Australia
 
  • Queensland
    • Mount Isa - Cloncurry area
      • Mary Kathleen district
T.Kwak & P.Abeysinghe: "Rare earth and uranium minera;s present as daughter crystals in fluid inclusions, Mary Kathleen U-REE skarn, Queensland, Australia: Min. Mag. 51,665-670(1987)
  • Western Australia
    • East Pilbara Shire
      • Gregory Ranges District
Jones, S., McNaughton, n.j., Grguric, B., 2013. Structural controls and timing of fault-hosted manganese at Woodie Woodie, East Pilbara, Western Australia. Ore Geology Reviews. 50, 52-82.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Goldberg group
        • Kleine Fleiß valley
          • Zirmsee area
Bergbau in Westkärnten
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Salzburg
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Rauris valley
        • Hüttwinkl valley
          • Alteck - Hoher Sonnblick area
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí Department
    • Sud Chichas Province
      • Atocha-Quechisla District
        • Chocaya-Animas (Animas-Chocaya)
www.mineralmundi.com
Brazil
 
  • Bahia
    • Urandi
Varentsov, I.M. (1996): Manganese ores of supergene zone: Geochemistry of formation. Springer (Berlin, Heidelberg, New York), 342 pp.
China
 
  • Guangdong Province
    • Yunfu Prefecture
      • Luoding Co.
Guicheng Huang, Xiongwu Wang, Shiyi Yang, Longqing Chen, and Jingsheng Ling (2001): Mineral Deposits 20(3), 243-250
  • Hubei Province
    • Wuhan Prefecture
      • Huangpi District
Jingqu Yao (1992): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 11(3), 257-266
  • Hunan Province
    • Yiyang Prefecture
      • Heshan District
Hunan Metallurgical Geology Research Team 236 (1977): Geology and Prospecting 13(8), 20-25, 28
  • Jiangxi Province
    • Jingdezhen Prefecture
      • Leping Co.
Guilin Institute of Metallurgical Geology, Rocks & Minerals Department, Manganese Thematic Group (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(5), 47-52; Hunan Metallurgical Geology Research Team 236 (1977): Geology and Prospecting 13(8), 20-25, 28
  • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Chaoyang Prefecture
      • Chaoyang Co.
Fan, D., Ye, J., and Li, J. (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 15(1), 31-53.
  • Shanxi Province
    • Datong Prefecture
      • Lingqiu Co.
Shaozhi Zhou (1999): Geology and Prospecting 35(3), 6-8, 23
Qingrong Zheng, Xinjun Zhang, and Erhu Sun (2012): Resources & Industries 14(2), 106-111
France
 
  • Franche-Comté
    • Haute-Saône
      • Faucogney-et-la-Mer
        • Esmoulières
          • Saphoz
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
  • Lorraine
    • Vosges
      • Gérardmer
Weil, R. & Siat, A. (1958): Characteristics of the Haut-Poirot manganese deposit. Compt. rend. 247, 937-940 (in French).
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
      • Saint-Paul-sur-Ubaye
        • Maljasset
Bourbon M., Fonteilles M. (1972): Présence de pyrosmaltite et de rhodonite dans un horizon manganésifère oxydé du Crétacé supérieur briançonnais. Bull. Soc. fr. Minéral. cristallogr., 95, 623-624.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Titisee-Neustadt
        • Eisenbach
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
      • Villingen
        • Unterkirnach
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Daun
        • Hinterweiler
Blass, G., Graf , HW., Neue Mineralienfunde aus der Vulkaneifel, MW 1/2001
      • Kelberg
        • Drees
Schüller, W., Die Mineralien des Niveligsberges bei Drees in der Eifel, Der Aufschluß SB 33, 1990
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
[Hentschel, G., Weitere bemerkenswerte Mineralfunde aus quartären Vulkanvorkommen der Eifel, Mainzer geowiss. Mitt. 8, 169-172, 1980] [Lapis, 15 (5), 9-36]
      • Mendig
        • Bell
Schüller, W. (2013): Der Rothenberg bei Bell, Eifel. Lapis 38 (1), 18-26, 39; Blaß, G. & Kruijen, F. (2013): Die Mineralogischen Neuigkeiten aus der Vulkaneifel. Mineralien-Welt 24 (3), 33-41.
  • Thuringia
    • Thuringian Forest
      • Friedrichroda
        • Gottlob Hill
Marcus Voigt Collection (analysed by Dr. Massanek, Bergakademie Freiberg); http://www.mineralienatlas.de/forum/index.php?topic=36727.msg271053;topicseen#new
India
 
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Vizianagaram District
Econ Geol (1980) 75:1083-1104
Econ Geol (1980) 75:1083-1104
Econ Geol (1980) 75:1083-1104
  • Karnataka
    • Bellary District
      • Bellary-Hospet iron belt
        • Sandur
Rao, J. S. R. K., Naidu, B. V. & Rao, K. V. (1979): Ore microscopic, x-ray and trace elemental data on manganese ores from Sandur, Karnataka, India. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica 24, 91-97.
  • Madhya Pradesh
    • Jabalpur Division
      • Chhindwara District (Chindawara District; Chindwara District)
Roy, S., and Purkait, P.K. (1968): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 20, 86-114.
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 66; Chemical abstracts, Volume 6, Issue 1 By American Chemical Society. Chemical Abstracts Service
    • Jhabua District
Nayak, V. K. (1966): Mineralogy and genesis of the manganese ores of Kajlidongri mine, district Jhabua, Madhya Pradesh, India. Economic Geology 61, 1280-1282.
  • Maharashtra
    • Bhandara District
MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, DECEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 558-60
S.P. Deshpande (1959) Ore-Microscopic Studies of the Manganese Ore-Minerals of Old M.P. I. Dongribuzurg, Bhandara District - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section A, 49, #3, 165-173.
S.P. Deshpande (1959) Ore-Microscopic Studies of the Manganese Ore-Minerals of Old M.P. I. Dongribuzurg, Bhandara District - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section A, 49, #3, 165-173.
  • Orissa
    • Sundargarh District (Sundergarh District)
Nicholson, K., Nayak, V. K., Nanda, J. K. (1997): Manganese ores of the Ghoriajhor-Monmunda area, Sundergarh District, Orissa, India: geochemical evidence for a mixed Mn source. Geological Society Special Publication 119 (Manganese Mineralization: Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Terrestrial and Marine Deposits), 117-121.
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • La Spezia Province
      • Casella-Quaratica
Di Lisi S., Natucci A., Passarino G., 2004. Cristalli di braunite nelle ricerche minerarie di Riccò del Golfo. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 28, 4: 204-211
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
          • Lanterna Valley
            • Lanzada
              • Scerscen Valley
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Japan
 
  • Kyushu Region
    • Nagasaki Prefecture
      • Nishisonogi-gun
Miyahisa (1957) Ehime Daigaku Kiyo, section II, 4, 91-105.
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Mun. de Chihuahua
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 66
  • Durango
    • Mun. de Durango
      • Cerro de los Remedios
        • Victoria de Durango
No reference listed
  • Michoacan
    • Mun. de Coalcomám
Ref.: Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas, volumen 17, número 2, p.143-153 (2000)
  • San Luis Potosí
    • Mun. de Villa de Arriaga
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 66
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib District
      • Spitzkopje Area
Cairncross, B. (2005) Famous Mineral Localities: Klein Spitzkoppe, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 36(4) 317-335
- Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Mineralien und Fundstellen. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, p. 288-290 (in German)
  • Otjozondjupa Region
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 66
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 368 pp. (in English)
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Khabarovskiy Kray
      • Taikan Ridge
        • Ir-Nimi manganese deposit
V.V. Kalinin data
South Africa
 
  • North West Province
    • Ngaka Modiri Molema District
Econ Geol (1990) 85:1172-1185
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Wilson, W.E. & Dunn, P.J., (1978) Famous localities: The Kalahari manganese field. Mineralogical Record 9(3) 137-153
Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:252; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
      • Kuruman
        • N'Chwaning Mines
[Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Minerals of South Africa
Van King
    • Postmasburg manganese field
Minerals of South Africa
Minerals of South Africa
Minerals of South Africa
Mineralogical Magazine (1997): 61: 213-231
Minerals of South Africa
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995), Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 182.
Minerals of South Africa
Minerals of South Africa
Spain
 
  • Catalonia
    • Girona (Gerona)
      • Ripollès
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 66
Sweden
 
  • Lappland
    • Jokkmokk
Mason, B. (1943): Mineralogical aspects of the system FeO-Fe₂O₂-MnO-Mn₂0₂,.Geologiska föreningens i Stockholm förhandlingar. 65, 180p. (p.134);
    • Ultevis
Ödman, O.H. (1950): Manganese mineralization in the Ultevis district, Jokkmokk, North Sweden. Part 2: Mineralogical notes. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning. Serie C 516. 1-27
Ödman, O.H. (1950): Manganese mineralization in the Ultevis district, Jokkmokk, North Sweden. Part 2: Mineralogical notes. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning. Serie C 516. 1-27
Ödman, O.H. (1950): Manganese mineralization in the Ultevis district, Jokkmokk, North Sweden. Part 2: Mineralogical notes. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning. Serie C 516. 1-27
Ödman, O.H. (1950): Manganese mineralization in the Ultevis district, Jokkmokk, North Sweden. Part 2: Mineralogical notes. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning. Serie C 516. 1-27
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Mason, B. (1942): Bixbyite from Långban. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 117-125; Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
Mason, B. (1942): Bixbyite from Långban. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 117-125
Tanzania
 
  • Dodoma Region
    • Kongwa District
      • Kongwa
www.min.uni-kiel.de/petrographie/schenk/projekte/tansania/mautia/dmg_mautia.pdf.
Turkey
 
  • Aegean Region
    • Denizli Province
      • Kale
Öztürk, H. (1997): Ore Geology Reviews 12, 187-203.
  • Mediterranean Region
    • Adana Province
      • Ceyhan
Öztürk, H. (1997): Ore Geology Reviews 12, 187-203.
Öztürk, H. (1997): Ore Geology Reviews 12, 187-203.
UK
 
  • Wales
    • Gwynedd (Caernarvonshire)
      • Lleyn Peninsula
        • Llanfaelrhys
          • Rhiw
No reference listed
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
Graeme, R. (1981), Famous mineral localities: Bisbee, Arizona, Mineralogical Record: 12: 256-319.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 140; Graeme, R. (1981), Famous mineral localities: Bisbee, AZ, Min.Rec.: 12: 256-319.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Dripping Spring Mts
        • Saddle Mountain District
          • Winkelman area
            • Saddle Mountain area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 140, 336, 399; White, Jr., J.S. (1992), An occurrence of bixbyite, spessartine, topaz and pseudobrookite from Ash Creek near Hayden, AZ, Min.Rec.: 23: 487-492.
      • Hayden
MinRecord 23:487-492
    • Yuma Co.
      • Kofa Mts (S.H. Mts)
        • Kofa District
          • Kofa Game Range
            • King of Arizona Mine (King of Arizona property; King of Arizona group of claims; King of Arizona vein; Kofa Mine; Gleason Mine; Homestake claim)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 140.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 140, 339.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 240, 339, 398.
  • Arkansas
    • Independence Co.
Howard, 1987. Mineral Species of Arkansas
  • Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
      • Candelaria District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Catron Co.
      • Taylor Creek District
Min Rec 16:2 p145
        • Sawmill Creek
NMGS 37th Field Conference
    • Sierra Co.
Ron Gibbs
      • Paramount Canyon
Min Rec 16:2 p145
      • Taylor Creek Tin District (Black Range Tin District)
Field collected by Ted French
Northrup, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
  • Texas
    • Presidio Co.
      • Shafter District
GSA Conference (2001) Paper No. 173-0 THE RED HILLS INTRUSIVE SYSTEM, PRESIDIO COUNTY, TEXAS: THE EASTERNMOST LARAMIDE PORPHYRY COPPER-MOLYBDENUM DEPOSIT IN SOUTHWESTERN NORTH AMERICA
  • Utah
    • Beaver Co.
      • Wah Wah Mts
Min Rec 10:5 pp261-278
    • Juab Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Thomas Range
Mineralogical Record, March/April 1995, page 126
Am Min 74 (1989), 1325; Lapis 5 (1986), 5; Bowling, R. (2011) Topaz from Utsh's Maynard Mine Extra Lapis English 14:22-25
Grüll, M. (2014): Weltklasse: Bixbyite aus Utah/USA. Lapis 39 (9), 40-45.
        • Starvation Canyon (Searles Canyon)
Min Rec (2006) 37:311-317
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
J. Holfert, W. Mroch, J. Fuller (1996) A Field Guide to Topaz and Associated Minerals of the Thomas Range, Utah (Topaz Mountain) Vol I HM Publishing 103pp
    • Piute Co.
      • Tushar Mts
        • Marysvale area
Stanley C. Hatfield. Bixbyite, Rutile, and Amethyst Crystals near Marysvale, Piute County. UGS website
    • Tooele Co.
      • Dugway Range
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Zimbabwe
 
  • Mashonaland West
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 66
Mineral and/or Locality  
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