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Levinsonite-(Y)

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Formula:
(Y,Nd,La)Al(C
 
2
O
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless
Lustre:Vitreous
Name:
Named in honor of Alfred Abraham Levinson (1927-2005), Professor emeritus of Mineralogy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, the originator of the internationally used nomenclature for rare earth element (REE) minerals.
This page provides mineralogical data about Levinsonite-(Y).

Classification of Levinsonite-(Y)

IMA status:Approved
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:10.AB.70

10 : ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
A : Salts of organic acids
B : Oxalates
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Type Occurrence of Levinsonite-(Y)

Type Locality:Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Sevier Co., Tennessee, USA
Geological Setting of type material:Cave

Physical Properties of Levinsonite-(Y)

Lustre:Vitreous
Colour:Colourless
Streak:White
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
on {101}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (calculated):2.181 g/cm3

Crystallography of Levinsonite-(Y)

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:a = 10.289(1) Å, b = 9.234(1) Å, c = 11.015Å
β = 108.50°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.114 : 1 : 1.193
Unit Cell Volume:V 992.44 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Prismatic crystals, elongate [101] to 1.0 mm in length, and as randomly oriented groups of a few crystals.

Optical Data of Levinsonite-(Y)

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.480 nβ = 1.490 nγ = 1.550
2V:Measured: 7° , Calculated: 46°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.070

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:none

Chemical Properties of Levinsonite-(Y)

Formula:
(Y,Nd,La)Al(C
 
2
O
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:(Y,Nd,La)Al(C2O4)(SO4)2·12H2O
Essential elements:Al, C, H, O, S, Y
All elements listed in formula:Al, C, H, La, Nd, O, S, Y

Relationship of Levinsonite-(Y) to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
10.AB.05Humboldtine
Fe
2+
 
(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
10.AB.05Lindbergite
Mn
2+
 
(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
10.AB.10Glushinskite
Mg(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
10.AB.15Moolooite
Cu(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · 0.4H
 
2
O
10.AB.20Stepanovite
NaMgFe
3+
 
(C
 
2
O
 
4
)
 
3
· 8-9H
 
2
O
10.AB.25Minguzzite
K
 
3
Fe
3+
 
(C
 
2
O
 
4
)
 
3
· 3H
 
2
O
10.AB.30Wheatleyite
Na
 
2
Cu(C
 
2
O
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
10.AB.35Zhemchuzhnikovite
NaMg(Fe
3+
 
,Al)(C
 
2
O
 
4
)
 
3
· 8H
 
2
O
10.AB.40Weddellite
Ca(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
10.AB.45Whewellite
Ca(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
10.AB.50Caoxite
Ca(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · 3H
 
2
O
10.AB.55Oxammite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
(C
 
2
O
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
10.AB.60Natroxalate
Na
 
2
(C
 
2
O
 
4
)
10.AB.65Coskrenite-(Ce)
(Ce,Nd,La)
 
2
(C
 
2
O
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
10.AB.75Zugshunstite-(Ce)
(Ce,Nd,La)Al(C
 
2
O
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
10.AB.80Novgorodovaite
Ca
 
2
(C
 
2
O
 
4
)Cl
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O

Other Names for Levinsonite-(Y)

Synonyms:
IMA1996-057
Other Languages:
German:Levinsonit-(Y)

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in water
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Levinsonite-(Y)

Reference List:

- +
ROUSE, R.C., PEACOR, D.R., ESSENE, E.J., COSKREN, T.D. & LAUF, R.J. (2001) The new minerals levinsonite-(Y) [(Y,Nd,Ce)Al(SO4)2(C2O4)12H2O] and zugshunstite-(Ce) [(Ce,Nd,La,)Al(SO4)2(C2O4)12H2O]: coexisting oxalates with different structures and differentiation of LREE and HREE. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 65, 1101-1115. Abstracted in: American Mineralogist (2001): 86: 1535-1536.

Internet Links for Levinsonite-(Y)

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Levinsonite-(Y) details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Localities for Levinsonite-(Y)

    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    USA
     
    • Tennessee
      • Sevier Co.
        • Great Smoky Mountains National Park
    ROUSE, R.C., PEACOR, D.R., ESSENE, E.J., COSKREN, T.D. & LAUF, R.J. (2001) The new minerals levinsonite-(Y) [(Y,Nd,Ce)Al(SO4)2(C2O4)12H2O] and zugshunstite-(Ce) [(Ce,Nd,La,)Al(SO4)2(C2O4)12H2O]: coexisting oxalates with different structures and differentiation of LREE and HREE. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 65, 1101-1115.Coskren, T. D. & Lauf, R. J. (2000): The Minerals of Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. Mineralogical Record, 31, 163-175.; Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:235
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