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Boleite

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Formula:
KPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
System:
Isometric
Colour:
Deep prussian blue to ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
3 - 3½
Name:
For the type locality, Boleo, near Santa Rosalia, Baja California.
Closely related to pseudoboleite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Boleite.

Classification of Boleite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
3.DB.15

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
B : With Pb, Cu, etc.
10.6.6.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
6 : AmBn(O,OH)pXq
8.8.18

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
8 : Halides of Pb
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Type Occurrence of Boleite

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
National School of Mines, Paris, France
Geological Setting of Type Material:
In the oxidized zone of a Pb-Cu deposit, formed through reaction of chloride with primary sulphides
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Occurrences of Boleite

Geological Setting:
In the oxidized zone of Pb-Cu deposits; in smelter slags immersed in and leached by sea water

Physical Properties of Boleite

Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Colour:
Deep prussian blue to indigo; bluish green in transmitted light
Streak:
Blue, with greenish tint
Hardness (Mohs):
3 - 3½
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {001}; good on {101}; poor on {100}.
Density:
5.054 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.062 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Boleite

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Pm3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.29Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 3,574.56 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1
Morphology:
Crystals cubic, to 2 cm, rarely modified by {111} and {011}.

Epitaxial Relationships of Boleite

Epitaxial Minerals:
PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48
CumengeitePb21Cu20Cl42(OH)40 · 6H2O
Epitaxy Comments:
commonly surficially layered with or overgrown by cumengite or pseudoboléite, mutually parallel to {001}.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.415 (100)
3.821 (80)
3.505 (35)
2.702 (60)
2.547 (40)
2.330 (35)
1.990 (35)
Comments:
Recorded on a sample from Boleo, Mexico (ICDD 27-1206). The pattern may be totally obscured by the pattern of intergrown pseudoboléite.

Optical Data of Boleite

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
n = 2.05
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
Very High
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Boleite

Formula:
KPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Chemical analysis of a sample from Boleó, Mexico
AgCl   (12.03)
Pb     (49.16)
CuO    (17.17)
Cl     (17.04)
K2O      n.d.
H2O     (4.35)
insol.  (0.21)

sum     99.96 wt.-%
Empirical Formula:
Pb25.88Ag9.16Cu23.54Cl61.58O49.87H52.65

Relationship of Boleite to other Species

3.DB.RickturneritePb7O4[Mg(OH)4](OH)Cl3
3.DB.05DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4
3.DB.10PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48
3.DB.20CumengeitePb21Cu20Cl42(OH)40 · 6H2O
3.DB.25BideauxitePb2AgCl3(F,OH)2
3.DB.30ChloroxiphitePb3CuO2Cl2(OH)2
3.DB.35HematophanitePb4Fe3O8(OH,Cl)
3.DB.40AsisitePb7SiO9Cl2
3.DB.40ParkinsonitePb7MoO9Cl2
3.DB.45MurdochitePbCu6O8-x(Cl,Br)2x where x<=0.5
3.DB.50YedlinitePb6Cr3+Cl6(O,OH,H2O)8
8.8.1AbhuriteSn21Cl16(OH)14O6
8.8.2MatlockitePbFCl
8.8.3LaurelitePb7F12Cl2
8.8.4CotunnitePbCl2
8.8.5MendipitePb3Cl2O2
8.8.6DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2
8.8.7LaurionitePbCl(OH)
8.8.8ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
8.8.9PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)
8.8.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
8.8.11BlixitePb2(O,OH)2Cl
8.8.12PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4
8.8.13DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4
8.8.14PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48
8.8.15ChloroxiphitePb3CuO2Cl2(OH)2
8.8.17BideauxitePb2AgCl3(F,OH)2
8.8.19AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2O
8.8.20YedlinitePb6Cr3+Cl6(O,OH,H2O)8
8.8.21KolaritePbTeCl2
8.8.22HematophanitePb4Fe3O8(OH,Cl)

Other Names for Boleite

Name in Other Languages:
Russian:Болеит
Simplified Chinese:银铜氯铅矿
Traditional Chinese:銀銅氯鉛礦

Other Information

Other Information:
Inert in water. Soluble in HNO3.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Boleite

Reference List:
Mallard and Cumenge (1891) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 113: 519.

Schultze (1892) Chemiker-Zeitung Cöthen: 16: 1953 (as Argentopercylite).

Carmichael and Armstrong in Liversidge (1894) Journal of the Royal Society of New South Wales: 94: 98.

Friedel (1894) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 17: 6.

Friedel (1906) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 29: 14.

Hadding (1919) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 41: 175.

Gossner and Arm (1929) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 72: 202.

Friedel (1930) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 73: 147.

Gossner (1930) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 75: 365.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 78-79.

Rouse, R. C. (1973): The crystal structure of boleite - a mineral containing silver atom clusters. Journal of Solid State Chemistry 6, 86-92.

Winchell, R. E. and Rouse, R. C. (1974): The mineralogy of the boleite group. Mineralogical Record 5, 280-287.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume III. Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 628pp.: 72.

Cooper, M. A. and Hawthorne, F. C. (2000): Boleite: revision of the formula, KPb26Ag9Cu24Cl62(OH)48. Canadian Mineralogist 38, 801-808.

Internet Links for Boleite

Specimens:
The following Boleite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Boleite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 79.
Australian Mineralogist (1997): 3: 1.
      • Northern Broken Hill Block
The Daydream Mine, G.D. Grose, Bungala Press 2002. The reference refers to minerals collected at the mine and identified by John Leach.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
Econ Geol (1991) 86:1222-1237
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 72
      • Santa Catalina
        • Guanaco (Huanaco)
Vincent Bourgoin collection
      • Sierra Gorda District
        • Caracoles
Brugger J, Meisser N, Ansermat S, Krivovichev S V, Kahlenberg V, Belton D, Ryan C G (2012) Leucostaurite, Pb2[B5O9]Cl·0.5H2O, from the Atacama Desert: The first Pb-dominant member of the hilgardite group, and micro-determination of boron minerals by PIGE. American Mineralogist 97, 1206-1212
Handbook of Mineralogy
V. Sapienza collection
Paar, W. H. & Burgstaller, J. (1980): Osarizawaite-beaverite intergrowths from Sierra Gorda, Chile. Mineralogical Record 1980, 101-104
Mr. Terry Szenics.
Collected by Arturo Molina and Maurizio Dini.
M.Dini & A.Molina collection
(M. Dini specimens)
  • Tarapacá Region
Handbook of Mineralogy
    • El Tamarugal Province
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 79.
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 72
    • Iquique Province
      • Iquique
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 55
      • Santa Rosa-Huantajaya District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 22 & 79.
France
 
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Poullaouen
Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
  • Languedoc-Roussillon
    • Lozère
      • Pont-de-Montvert
        • Vialas
Georges FAVREAU collection
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Le Pradet
http://www.mine-capgaronne.fr/site/Mineraux/ListeMineraux.html
trouvaille et collection personnelle
Germany
 
  • Hesse
    • Richelsdorf District
      • Nentershausen
        • Süß
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1991): Mineralogische Notizen V. Aufschluss 42, 155-171.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld Basin
      • Hettstedt
        • Copper-Silver smelter (Gottesbelohnung smelter) slag locality
Mineralien Welt 15 Jg Heft 2-2004and 19 JgHeft 1 2008,Horst Knoll Erfurt
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
No reference listed
        • Sounion area
          • Sounion Mines
Lapis, 24, 7/8 (1999)
Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
        • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Sounion area
Fritz Schreiber Collection
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Vrissaki area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Iran
 
  • Esfahan Province (Isfahan Province; Aspadana Province)
    • Nain County (Nayin County)
      • Anarak District
Italy
 
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
          • Madonna di Fucinaia (Madonna della Fucinaia) slag heaps
http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
      • Piombino
Muenchener Micromounter-Lithothek
Mexico (TL)
 
  • Baja California Sur (BC Sur)
    • Mun. de Mulegé
      • Boleo District
Bull. Soc. fr. Min. Crist. (1891): 14, 283; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 79.
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; 2009 New Mexico Mineral Symposium abstracts
Panczner(1987):117.
Panczner(1987):92-350.
  • Sonora
    • Mun. de Arizpe
      • Arizpe
Panczner(1987):83-359.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Verkhoyansk Fold Belt
        • Verkhoyansk Silver Province
          • Deputatsky ore cluster
Zhdanov Yu.Ya., Solov'ev L.I. (1998): Geology and mineralogical composition of the oxidized zone in the Deputatsk tin ore deposit. Otechestvennaya Geol. (6), 77-79 (in Russian).
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
      • Níjar
        • Rodalquilar
          • Cerro de los Guardias
Calvo, M. (2006): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. III, Halogenuros. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Álava, 267 pp.
Turkmenistan
 
  • Balkan Province
    • Cheleken Peninsula
Handbook of Mineralogy
UK
 
  • England
    • Co. Durham
      • North Pennines
        • Derwent Valley
          • Castleside
R. S. W. Braithwaite, R. P. H. Lamb & A. L. Nattrass (2006): Heavy metals and their weathering products in residues from Castleside Smelting Mill, County Durham, including a new slag mineral, copper antimonate. Journal of the Russell Society, 9, 54-61. ; Norman Wilson collection
    • Cornwall
      • Mount's Bay District
        • Porthleven
George Eric Stanley Curtis discovery
G.Curtis collection
      • St Agnes District
        • Crantock
BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
        • Newquay
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 72
      • Wadebridge District
        • Padstow
          • Gunver Head
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
        • St Minver
          • Rock
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 72
      • Wendron & Falmouth District
        • Falmouth
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 72; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Gila Co.
      • Globe-Miami District
        • Globe Hills District
          • Globe Hills
            • Burch area
              • Radium
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 141, 146, 291; Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of Arizona, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 3: 53-56.
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Belmont Mts
        • Wickenburg area
In the collection of Brent Thorne.
      • Big Horn Mts
        • Osborn District
          • Tonopah
            • Belmont Mountain
American Mineralogist: 81: 244-248.
      • Painted Rock Mts
        • Painted Rock District
          • Theba
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 141, 425; Wilson, W.E. & D.K. Miller (1974), Minerals of the Rowley Mine, Min.Rec.: 5: 10-30.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Mammoth District
        • Tiger
          • St. Anthony deposit
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 141; Fahey, J.J., et al (1950), Wherryite, a new mineral from the Mammoth mine, AZ, Am.Min.: 35: 93-98; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, AZ, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 141, 202; Palache, C. (1941b), Diaboleite from Mammoth mine, Tiger, AZ, Am.Min.: 26: 605-612; Fahey, J.J., et al (1950), Wherryite, a new mineral from the Mammoth mine, AZ, Am.Min.: 35: 93-98; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 45.
      • Tohono O'odham Indian Reservation
        • Vekol Mts
          • Vekol District
            • Kohatk
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 141.
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Baker
Robert housley collection (ID by PXRD and SEM-EDS by Anthony Kampf at Los Angeles County Natural History Museum)
Joe Marty specimens; Confirmed by XRD.
Rocks & Minerals 86:132-142
      • Soda Lake Mts
        • Baker
Collected by Brent Thorne and EDS analyzed by Bob Housley; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1198–1204, 2009
  • Montana
    • Granite Co.
Encycolpedia of minerals, Roberts,Rapp,Weber, 1974
        • Philipsburg
Brent Thorne; Domenico Preite collection
  • Nevada
    • Esmeralda Co.
Rocks & Minerals, Nov. 1999
      • Rock Hill District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Washington
    • Pierce Co.
      • Tacoma
        • Ruston
Washington Geology, vol.25, no. 3, September 1997.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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