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Boracite

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Formula:
Mg
 
3
(B
 
7
O
 
13
)Cl
System:OrthorhombicColour:Green, blue, colourless, ...
Lustre:Adamantine, VitreousHardness:7 - 7½
Member of:Boracite Group
Name:Named in allusion to the composition, containing BORon.
Dimorph of:Trembathite


Boracite Group. Boracite-Ericaite Series. The magnesium analogue of Ericaite and Chambersite. The orthorhombic dimorph of Trembathite.

Boracite is found in evaporite deposits, usually associated with gypsum, anhydrite and/or halite.



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Classification of Boracite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/L.04-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:6.GA.05

6 : BORATES
G : Heptaborates and other megaborates
A : Tekto-heptaborates
Dana 7th edition ID:25.6.1.1
Dana 8th edition ID:25.6.1.1

25 : ANHYDROUS BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
6 : Hexaborates
Hey's CIM Ref.:10.1.5

10 : Borates with other anions
1 : Borates with halide
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Type Occurrence of Boracite

Type Locality:Lüneburger Kalkberg, Lüneburg, Lower Saxony, Germany
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Mining academy of Freiberg 19324
Geological Setting of type material:Bedded sedimentary deposit of gypsum and anhydrite.
Associated Minerals at type locality:
GypsumAnhydrite

Occurrences of Boracite

Geological Setting:Bedded sedimentary deposits of gypsum and anhydrite; salt deposits; potash deposits of the oceanic type.

Physical Properties of Boracite

Lustre:Adamantine, Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Green, blue, colourless, grey, blue, white; dark green (ferroan); colourless in transmitted light
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):7 - 7½
Cleavage:None Observed
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.91 - 3.1 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.97 g/cm3

Crystallography of Boracite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mm2 - Pyramidal
Space Group:Pca21
Cell Parameters:a = 8.577(6) Å, b = 8.553(8) Å, c = 12.09(1) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.003 : 1 : 1.414
Unit Cell Volume:V 882.47 ų
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals usually isolated in matrix; less often in groups. Small individuals may project from the face-centers of larger single crystals. Often cubic; also dodecahedral, tetrahedral; pseudo-octahedral or cuboctahedral with {111} commonly larger and brighter than {111}. Fine granular, fibrous to plumose aggregates. NOTE: above 265° the crystal system is isometric-hex'tetrahedral - 43_m.
Twinning:On {111} as penetration twins, rare.
Crystal Atlas:
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Boracite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Boracite no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Boracite no.41 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Optical Data of Boracite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.658 - 1.662 nβ = 1.662 - 1.667 nγ = 1.668 - 1.673
2V:Measured: 82°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.010 - 0.011

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:weak

Chemical Properties of Boracite

Formula:
Mg
 
3
(B
 
7
O
 
13
)Cl
Simplified for copy/paste:Mg3(B7O13)Cl
Essential elements:B, Cl, Mg, O
All elements listed in formula:B, Cl, Mg, O
Common Impurities:Fe(II)

Relationship of Boracite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Ericaite (see here)
Member of:Boracite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Chambersite
Mn
2+
3
(B
 
7
O
 
13
)Cl
Congolite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
(B
 
7
O
 
13
)Cl
Ericaite
Fe
2+
3
(B
 
7
O
 
13
)Cl
Trembathite
(Mg,Fe)
 
3
(B
 
7
O
 
13
)Cl
Common Associates:
MagnesiteKainiteHilgarditeHaliteGypsum
DanburiteCarnalliteAnhydrite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
6.GA.05Chambersite
Mn
2+
3
(B
 
7
O
 
13
)Cl
6.GA.05Ericaite
Fe
2+
3
(B
 
7
O
 
13
)Cl
6.GA.10Congolite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
(B
 
7
O
 
13
)Cl
6.GA.10Trembathite
(Mg,Fe)
 
3
(B
 
7
O
 
13
)Cl
6.GA.30Korzhinskite
Ca(B
 
2
O
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
10.1.1Teepleite
Na
 
2
[B(OH)
 
4
]Cl
10.1.2Bandylite
Cu[B(OH)
 
4
]Cl
10.1.3Berborite
Be
 
2
(BO
 
3
)(OH,F) · H
 
2
O
10.1.4Fluoborite
Mg
 
3
(BO
 
3
)(F,OH)
 
3
10.1.6Karlite
Mg
 
7
(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH,Cl)
 
5
10.1.7Shabynite
Mg
 
5
(BO
 
3
)(OH)
 
5
(Cl,OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
10.1.8/9/10Hilgardite
Ca
 
2
B
 
5
O
 
9
Cl · H
 
2
O
10.1.11Solongoite
Ca
 
2
(H
 
3
B
 
3
O
 
7
)(OH)Cl
10.1.12Hydrochlorborite
Ca
 
4
B
 
8
O
 
15
Cl
 
2
· 21H
 
2
O
10.1.13Ekaterinite
Ca
 
2
(B
 
4
O
 
7
)(Cl,OH)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
10.1.14Volkovskite
KCa
 
4
[B
 
5
O
 
8
OH]
 
4
[B(OH)
 
3
]
 
2
Cl · 4H
 
2
O
10.1.15Chelkarite
CaMgB
 
2
O
 
4
(Cl,OH)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O Or near, with Cl:OH = 3:1
10.1.16Johachidolite
CaAlB
 
3
O
 
7
10.1.17Satimolite
KNa
 
2
Al
 
4
[Cl|B
 
2
O
 
5
]
 
3
· 13H
 
2
O
10.1.18Chambersite
Mn
2+
3
(B
 
7
O
 
13
)Cl
10.1.19Congolite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
(B
 
7
O
 
13
)Cl
10.1.20Ericaite
Fe
2+
3
(B
 
7
O
 
13
)Cl

Other Names for Boracite

Synonyms:
Alpha-boraciteb-BoraciteBeta-boraciteBoracite (of Werner)Borate of Magnesia
MetaboraciteParasite
Other Languages:
Dutch:Boraciet
French:Borate magnésiocalcaire
Magnésie boratée
Quartz cubique
German:Boracit
b-Boracit
Borazit
Kubische Quarzkrystalle
Lüneburger Sedativ-Spath
Metaboracit
Parasit
Würfelstein
Italian:Boracite
Japanese:万硼石
Polish:Boracyt
Russian:Борацит
Simplified Chinese:方硼石
Spanish:b-Boracita
Boracita
Metaboracita
Parasita
Traditional Chinese:方硼石
Varieties:
BromboracitFerroan BoraciteStassfurtite

Other Information

Electrical:Strongly piezoelectric and pyroelectric.
Thermal Behaviour:Pyroelectric. At 265° the crystal system reverts to a high-temperature phase and the material becomes isotropic.
Other Information:Slowly but completely soluble in HCl. Very slowly decomposed by water.

Forms pseudomorphs after quartz (Douglashall).
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Boracite

Reference List:

- +
Lasius (1787) Crell’s Chemical Journal, London: 2: 333 (as Kubische Quarzkrystalle).

Werner (1789) Bergmaennusches Journal, Freiberg (Neues Bergmannische Journal): 393 (as Borazit).

Werner (1790) Bergmaennusches Journal, Freiberg (Neues Bergmannische Journal): 234.

Westrumb (1789) Kl. phys.-ch. Abh.: 3: 167 (as Lüneburger Sedativ-Spath).

Westrumb (1801) Annales de chimie, Paris: (1): 2: 101 (as Borate magnésiocalcaire).

Kirwan, R. (1810) Elements of Mineralogy, third edition, 2 volumes, 452, 459pp.: 1: 155.

Brewster (1821) Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Edinburgh: 5: 217.

Haüy, R.J. (1822) Traité de minéralogie, second edition, 4 volumes, with fol. Atlas: 2: 56 (as Magnésie boratée).

Hankel (1840) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 50: 471.

Biot (1842) Ac. sc. Paris, Mém: 18: 667.

Hankel (1844) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 61: 282.

Volger, G.H.O. (1854) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 92: 77 (as Parasit).

Rose (1856) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 97: 632 (Stassfurtit).

Huyssen (1865) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 329 (Eisenstassfurtit).

Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 596, 799 (as Huyssenite, Iron-boracite).

Schultze (1871) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 844.

Schrauf, Albrecht (1873) Atlas der Krystall-Formen des Mineralreiches. Vienna: Plate 36, figure 6.

Mallard (1876) Annales des mines: (7): 10: 93.

Baumhauer (1879) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 3: 337.

Curie, J. and Curie, P. (1880) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 3: 90.

Klein (1880) Jb. Min.: II: 209.;

Mallard (1882) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 5: 214.

Friedel and Curie (1883) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 6: 191.

Mallard (1883) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 6: 122-129.

Klein (1884) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 235.

Mack (1884) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 8: 503.

Bücking (1895) Sitzungsbarichte der Deutchen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin: 28: 533.

Bücking (1889) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 15: 574.

Ochsenius (1889) Jb. Min.: I: 271.

Rinne (1900) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: II: 108 (ferroan boracite).

Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 1: 211.

Marbach (1913) Inaugural Dissertation, Leipzig.

Marbach in: Hintze, Carl (1921) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 113.

Doelter, C. (1922) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 3[2]: 418.

Rinne (1924) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 60: 67.

Gruner (1928) American Mineralaogist: 13: 481.

Gruner (1929) American Journal of Science: 17: 453.

Feng (1930) Neue Beobacht. an Boraciten, Rostock.

Hocart (1934) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 57: 62.

Mehmel (1934) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 87: 239 (as Alpha-boracite).

Mehmel (1934) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 88: 1 (as Beta-boracite).

Shôji (1937) Science Report of Tôhoku University: (1): 26: 86.

Guppy (1944) Mineralogical Magazine: 27: 51.

Cady (1946) Piezoelectricity, New York, 230.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 378-381.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 138: 64-99.

Burns, P.C. and Carpenter, M.A. (1996) Phase transitions in the series boracite-trembathite-congolite: phase relations. Canadian Mineralogist: 34: 881-892.

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 78.

Best Localities for Boracite

Best of Species:Boracite

Internet Links for Boracite

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    Localities for Boracite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Tasmania
      • Rosebery district
        • Colebrook Hill
    Bottrill, RS, unpub data 2001
    Bolivia
     
    • Cochabamba Department
      • Chapare Province
    [MinRec 32:461]
          • Cristalmayu subdistrict
            • Chocolatal (Rocko Rancho)
              • Minasmayu valley
    (unpublished thesis)
            • Cristalmayu
              • Boston mine
    Alfredo Petrov, field collected specimens.
              • Cristalmayu valley
    Federico Ahlfeld and Alfredo Petrov specimens.
    Canada
     
    • New Brunswick
      • Kings Co.
        • Cardwell Parish
          • Penobsquis
    Canadian Mineralogist (1996): 34: 657-665.; Canadian Mineralogist (1996): 34: 881-892
        • Studholm Parish
    Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1469-1487.
    • Nova Scotia
      • Cumberland Co.
        • Pugwash
    R.C. Boehner, "Salt and Potash Resources in Nova Scotia", N.S. Dept. Mines and Energy, Bulletin 5, 1986.
    China
     
    • Yunnan Province
      • Pu'er Prefecture
        • Jiangcheng Co.
    Xiaosong Xu and Jialing Wu (1983): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 5(1)
    Colombia
     
    • Boyacá Department
      • Vasquez-Yacopí Mining District
        • Mun. de Muzo
    France
     
    • Lorraine
      • Meurthe-et-Moselle
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 380.
    Germany
     
    • Lower Saxony
      • Celle
        • Hänigsen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Wathlingen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Elze
    Rob Lavinsky
      • Göttingen
        • Reyershausen
    Braitsch, O. (1961): Beiträge zur Mineralogie und Petrographie 8, 60-66.
      • Hanover
        • Lehrte
    No reference listed
    Weiss: "Mineralienfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Wunstorf
          • Bokeloh
    Andreas Gerstenberg collection
      • Helmstedt
        • Grasleben
    Emser Hefte 1990(1), 11-23
      • Hildesheim
        • Diekholzen Potash works
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 380.
        • Giesen
    Aufschluss 1987(4), 114
        • Sehnde
          • Wehmingen
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 380.
      • Lüneburg
    Bergmänn.Journ. (1789) p. 378; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 380; Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index" p84.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 380.
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Börde
        • Morsleben
    http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/Deutschland/Sachsen-Anhalt/B%C3%B6rde/Morsleben/Schacht%20Bartensleben
      • Stassfurt Potash deposit
        • Aschersleben
    Feit, W. (1889): Ueber Kaliborit, ein neues Borsäure-Mineral.- Chemiker-Zeitung 13, 1188; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 368, 376.
        • Bernburg
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 380; Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 138, 64-99 (1973)
    Günther, W. (1999): Boracit, ein interessantes Mineral der Bernburger Salzlagerstätte. Aufschluss, Sonderband 34, 117-120.
        • Egeln
          • Tarthun
    No reference listed
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 388.
    Naumann, Zirkel: "Elemente der Mineralogie", 13th Ed., 1898; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 380.
        • Stassfurt
    Naumann, Zirkel: "Elemente der Mineralogie", 13th Ed., 1898; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 380.
    • Schleswig-Holstein
      • Bad Segeberg
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 380; Weiss (1990) "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich).
    • Thuringia
    Effmert, G.; Wurth, L. (2007): Bleicherode, Thüringen: Ein Feuerwerk von Gips-Kristallen, Mineralien-Welt 6/2007, p.42-47.
    Horst, U. (1989): Der Aufschluss 40, 115-120; Zeitschrift fUr Kristallographie, Bd. 138, S. 64-99 (1973)
      • Sondershausen
    Christian Bracke and M. Kampf specimens
      • Thuringian Forest
        • Merkers-Kieselbach
    F. Heide & E. Bader (1964): Boracit und Lüneburgit im Werra-Kaligebiet.- Chemie der Erde 23, 219-221
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Aktobe Province (Aqtöbe Oblysy; Aktubinskaya Oblast')
      • Aksai Valley
    Handbook of Mineralogy Vol V p 6; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
      • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30; Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
    • Western Kazakhstan Province (Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Zapadno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
      • Oral Rayon (Uralsk Rayon)
    Handbook of Mineralogy; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Poland
     
    • Kujawsko-Pomorskie
      • Inowrocław
    Praszkier, T. (2010): Mineralien aus dem ehemaligen Salzbergwerk "Solno" bei Inowrocław. Mineralien-Welt 21 (6), 32-43.
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Legnica
        • Lubin District
          • Lubin
    Kucha H. 1979: Anilite, Cu7S4, from Lubin mine, Lower Silesia, Poland. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 10, 89-96; Piestrzynski, A., and Wodzicki, A. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 37-47.
    • Wielkopolskie
    Jirásek, J.: Solný důl Kłodawa (Polsko). Minerál, 2004, roč. 12, č. 2, s. 98-102. ISSN 1213-0710 (excerpted from unpublished thesis Hanczke, T.: Mineralogia i petrografia soli czechstyńskich kopalni "Kłodawa". Doktroská práce, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Instytut nauk geologicznych, 1967.)
    Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)
     
    • Kouilou Department
    Henry Rauche (2009) Updated Reserve and Resource Estimate for MagMinerals Kouilou Potash Project, Republic of Congo
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Irkutskaya Oblast'
          • Lower Tunguska
            • Nepa River basin
    American Mineralogist, Volume 87, pages 1509–1513, 2002
          • Zheleznogorsk
    Mazurov, M.P., Grishina, S.N., Istomin, V.E., and Titov, A.T. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(4), 271-284.; Mazurov et al (2007) Geology of Ore Deposits, 49, 271–284.
    UK
     
    • England
      • North Yorkshire
        • Eskdale
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 380.
        • Loftus
    BMS Collection; UK Journal of Mines and Minerals, No. 14 p4-7; Peter G. Embrey (1978) Fourth Supplementary List of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine 42:169-177
    USA
     
    • Alabama
      • Clarke Co.
    Rocks & Min.: 64:472.
    • California
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
          • Calico District (Daggett District)
            • Borate
    Justin Zzyzx specimen
    Error in 1930s State publication, uncritically copied by several later authors.
    • Louisiana
      • Ascension Parish
    R&M 69:3 pp 156-162
      • Iberville Parish
        • Plaquemine
    Hurlbut, C. S., Taylor, R. E. (1937): Hilgardite, a new mineral species from Choctaw Salt Dome, Louisiana. American Mineralogist. 22, 1052-1057.; American Mineralogist 23:898
      • Plaquemines Parish
    R&M 69:3 pp 156-162
    R&M 69:3 pp 156-162
    R&M 69:3 pp 156-162
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