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Pimelite

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Formula:
Ni
 
3
Si
 
4
O
 
10
(OH)
 
2
·4H
 
2
O
System:HexagonalColour:Bright green, apple ...
Lustre:Waxy, GreasyHardness:
Member of:Smectite Group
Name:Named by Dietrich Ludwig Gustav Karsten in 1800 for the Greek word for "fat", in allusion to the mineral's appearance. Pimelite was determined to be a smectite as early as 1938 [also American Mineralogist 51:279 [1966]. Later erroneously ascribed to nickel-rich talc (American Mineralogist 64:615 [1979]). Both nickel-bearing talc, intermediate nickeloan nontronite, and nickel dominant smectite occur at the type locality. A re-validation research project has begun.

A significant literature exists verifying that pimelite is nickel-dominant smectite, although there are studies which misidentified the starting material as "pimelite" and reached erroneous conclusions. Often thought to be a colouring agent in chrysoprase, but probably rarely present in that material.


Dark grass to forest-green masses of pimelite are found in colour-zoned pods (to 1 meter) with yellow-green nickeloan nontronite associated with red-brown hematite-stained nontronite and adjacent to bright white montmorillonite pods in a weathering profile.

Classification of Pimelite

IMA status:Rejected 2006
Explanation of status:Pimelite was discredited as a mineral species by the IMA in 2006, in an article which suggests that “pimelite” specimens are probably willemseite (which is approved), or kerolite (which is also discredited). This was a mass discreditation, and not based on any re-examination of the type material (assuming any exists). Nevertheless, a considerable number of papers have been written, verifying that pimelite is a nickel-dominant smectite. The mineral was erroneously assumed to be a nickel-rich talc (willemseite) in a paper published in the American Mineralogist in 1979, but it had already been determined to be a smectite as early as 1938, and this was confirmed in another article in the American Mineralogist in 1966. Both nickel-bearing talc and nickel dominant smectite occur at the type locality, Szklary, Ząbkowice Śląskie County, Lower Silesia, Poland.
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/H.09-65

8 : Silicates
H : Phyllosilicates (layered), Tetragonal or pseudotetragonal layered structures [Si4O10]4- and others
09 : Talc series
Dana 8th edition ID:71.3.1b.5

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
3 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
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Type Occurrence of Pimelite

Type Locality:Szklary (Gläsendorf), Ząbkowice (Frankenstein), Ząbkowice District, Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie), Poland
Year of Discovery:1788

Physical Properties of Pimelite

Lustre:Waxy, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:Bright green, apple green, yellow-green
Streak:White to pale green
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Waxy
Cleavage:Perfect
[0001]
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):2.23-2.98 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.68 g/cm3

Crystallography of Pimelite

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Cell Parameters:a = 5.256Å, c = 14.822Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.82
Unit Cell Volume:V 354.61 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:1
Morphology:Fine-grained
Comment:Expands to 17.35 A using glycol
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
15.1 (100)
4.56 (40)
3.34 (20)
2.66 (40)
2.27 (20)
1.72 (10)
1.52 (80)
Comments:ICDD 43-664

Optical Data of Pimelite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.592 nγ = 1.615
2V:Measured: 30° to 80°
Birefringence:0.014-0.025
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.023

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:none
Optical Extinction:Can appear isotropic
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:Pale green colorless to light yellow green

Chemical Properties of Pimelite

Formula:
Ni
 
3
Si
 
4
O
 
10
(OH)
 
2
·4H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Ni3Si4O10(OH)2·4H2O
Essential elements:H, Ni, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:H, Ni, O, Si
Analytical Data:Analysis of magnesian pimelite from the type locality (various studies including The Hydrous Nickel-Magnesium Silicates - The Garnierite Group, George T. Faust, American Mineralogist (1966) v 51, 279-298.)
SiO2 (47.20)
NiO (27.66)
MgO (11.42)
Al2O3 (0.22)
Fe2O3 (0.20)
CaO (0.16)
H2O+ (9.38)
H2O- (3.64)

Relationship of Pimelite to other Species

Member of:Smectite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Aliettite
Ca
 
0.2
Mg
 
6
((Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
20
)(OH)
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
Beidellite
(Na,Ca
 
0.5
)
 
0.3
Al
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
Ferrosaponite
Ca
 
0.3
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
Hectorite
Na
 
0.3
(Mg,Li)
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
Montmorillonite
(Na,Ca)
 
0.33
(Al,Mg)
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
Nontronite
Na
 
0.3
Fe
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
Saliotite
(Li,Na)Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
5
Saponite
Ca
 
0.25
(Mg,Fe)
 
3
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
Sauconite
Na
 
0.3
Zn
 
3
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
Stevensite
(Ca,Na)
 
x
Mg
 
3-x
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Swinefordite
Li(Al,Li,Mg)
 
4
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
· nH
 
2
O
Volkonskoite
Ca
 
0.3
(Cr,Mg,Fe)
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
Yakhontovite
(Ca,Na)
 
0.5
(Cu,Fe,Mg)
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
Zincsilite
Zn
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
Common Associates:
StevensiteNépouiteLizarditeKeroliteGarnierite
ClinochloreAntigorite
Related Minerals - Strunz Grouping):

- +
8/H.09-10Pyrophyllite
Al
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
8/H.09-20Ferripyrophyllite
Fe
3+
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
8/H.09-30Macaulayite
(Fe,Al)
 
24
Si
 
4
O
 
43
(OH)
 
2
8/H.09-40Talc
Mg
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
8/H.09-50Minnesotaite
(Fe,Mg)
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
8/H.09-60Willemseite
(Ni,Mg)
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
8/H.09-70Kegelite
Pb
 
8
Al
 
4
(Si
 
8
O
 
20
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(OH)
 
8

Other Names for Pimelite

Synonyms:
Desaulesite
Other Languages:
German:Pimelit
Spanish:Pimelita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Pimelite

Reference List:

- +
Spangenberg, Kurt, 1938, Die wasserhaltigen Nickelsilicate, Cent. Mineral. Abt. A., p. 360-364.

George T. Faust,, 1966, The Hydrous Nickel-Magnesium Silicates - The Garnierite Group, American Mineralogist, v 51, 279-298.

Manceau, Alain and Calas, Georges, 1985, Heterogeneous Distribution of Nickel in Hydrous Silicates from New Caledonia Ore Deposits, American Mineralogist (1985): 70: 549-558. [Studies not performed on "pimelite".]

Clays and Clay Minerals (1987): 35: 1.

Burke, Ernest A.J. (2007) A Mass Discreditation of GQN Minerals. Canadian Mineralogist: 44(6): 1557-1560.

Internet Links for Pimelite

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  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • Pimelite specimens for sale - minfind.com
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  • Localities for Pimelite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Colombia
     
    • Córdoba Department
      • Mun. de Montelíbano
    Econ Geol (2004) 99:1197-1213
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • South Bohemia Region
        • České Budějovice (Budweis)
    Čech, V., Koutek, J.: Geologické a genetické poměry ložisek železné a niklové rudy u Křemže v jižních Čechách. Sborník St. geol. úst. ČSR, 1946, sv. 13,
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Vysočina Region
        • Bystřice nad Pernštejnem
    Pelíšek, J.: Ni-nerosty v serpentinitu západní Moravy. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1987, roč. 32, č. 2, s. 207.
    Indonesia
     
    • Sulawesi Island (Celebes Island)
      • Sulawesi Selatan Province (South Sulawesi Province)
        • Soroako
    Sufriadin, S. (2012). Thermal and Infrared Studies of Garnierite from the Soroako Nickeliferous Laterite Deposit, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Geology, 7(2).
    Sufriadin, S. (2012). Thermal and Infrared Studies of Garnierite from the Soroako Nickeliferous Laterite Deposit, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Geology, 7(2).
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
      • Karkaralinsk Rayon
        • Karkaralinsk (Qarqaraly; Karsakpaj; Qarsaqpaj; Kaskelen)
    Gaines et al. 1997, Dana's System of Mineralogy
    Morocco
     
    • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
      • Ouarzazate Province
        • Tazenakht
          • Bou Azer District (Bou Azzer District)
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1205-1215.
    New Caledonia
     
    • Northern Province
      • Houaïlou Commune
    Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., Bliss, J.D., and Moring, B.C., 2011, Ni-Co laterite deposits of the world; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1058.
      • Poum commune
    Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., Bliss, J.D., and Moring, B.C., 2011, Ni-Co laterite deposits of the world; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1058.
      • Poya North Commune
    Gaines et al. 1997, Dana's System of Mineralogy
    Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., Bliss, J.D., and Moring, B.C., 2011, Ni-Co laterite deposits of the world; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1058.
    • Southern Province
      • Yaté Commune
    Wells, Martin A.; Ramanaidou, Erick R.; Verrall, Michael; Tessarolo, Christian (2009): Mineralogy and crystal chemistry of "garnierites" in the Goro lateritic nickel deposit, New Caledonia. European Journal of Mineralogy 21, 467-483. ; Wells, M. A., Ramanaidou, E. R., Verrall, M., & Tessarolo, C. (2009). Mineralogy and crystal chemistry of “garnierites” in the Goro lateritic nickel deposit, New Caledonia. European Journal of Mineralogy, 21(2), 467-483.; Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., Bliss, J.D., and Moring, B.C., 2011, Ni-Co laterite deposits of the world; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1058.
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Gogołów-Jordanów Massif
        • Wiry
    Czeslaw Haranczyk and Karol Prchazka (1974) Hydrous magnesium-nickel silicates from Wiry, Lower Silesia. Prace Muzeum Ziemi, 22, 3-64 (in Polish, with English summary, p.56-62)
      • Ząbkowice District
        • Ząbkowice (Frankenstein)
    Spangenberg, K., and Müller, M. (1949): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 1(5/6), 560-572.
    www.webmineral.com/data/Pimelite.shtml
    Spangenberg, K., and Müller, M. (1949): Die lateritische Zersetzung des Peridotits bei der Bildung der Nickelerzlagerstätte von Frankenstein in Schlesien. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 1(5/6), 560-572
    South Korea
     
    • Gyeonggi-do (Kyonggi-do)
      • Gwancheon city (Kwancheon)
    Song, Y., Moon, H. S., & Chon, H. T. (1995). New occurrence and characterization of Niserpentines in the Kwangcheon area, Korea. Clay Minerals, 30(3), 211-224.
    Song, Y., Moon, H. S., & Chon, H. T. (1995). New occurrence and characterization of Niserpentines in the Kwangcheon area, Korea. Clay Minerals, 30(3), 211-224.
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Málaga
        • Carratraca
    Romero Silva, JC (2003) Minerales y Rocas de la provincia de Malaga. Published by the Malaga County Council CEDMA. 318pp. 1 map
          • Los Jarales
    Romero Silva JC (2003) Minerales y Rocas de la provincia de Malaga. Edita CEDMA County Council Malaga. 318pp
    Romero Silva JC (2003). Minerales y Rocas de la Provincia de Málaga. CEDMA edition County council. Málaga 318pp
        • Mijas
    Romero Silva JC (2003) Minerales y Rocas de la provincia de Malaga. Edita CEDMA County Council Malaga. 318pp
        • Ojén
          • Ojén lherzolite massif
    Romero Silva JC (2003) Minerales y Rocas de la provincia de Malaga España. Edita CEDMA County council ; Romero Silva JC (2003) Minerales y Rocas de la provincia de Malaga. Edita CEDMA County Council Malaga. 318pp
    USA
     
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Franklin
            • Franklin Mine
    Dunn(1995):Pt4:504.
      • Jackson Co.
        • Webster-Balsam
    Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J,1978,Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina,pg35
      • Yancey Co.
        • Day Book
    Wilson,W.F,and McKenzie,B.J,1978,Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina
    • Oregon
      • Douglas Co.
    Gaines et al. 1997, Dana's System of Mineralogy
    • Pennsylvania
      • Lancaster Co.
        • State Line Chromite District
          • Little Britain Township
            • Texas
    Gaines et al. 1997, Dana's System of Mineralogy
    • Vermont
      • Windham Co.
    Morrill & Chaffee, 1957. VT Mines & Mineral Localities.
    Rocks & Min. Vol. 71, (1996)
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