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Bornite

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Ignaz von Born
Formula:
Cu5FeS4
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Copper-red to ...
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
3
Name:
Originally included with kupferkies in 1725 by Johann Friedrich Henckel. Later assigned various multi-word Latin names by Johan Gottschalk Wallerius in 1747 and variously further translated including "purple copper ore" and variegated copper ore in 1802 by Rene Just Haüy. Also called as buntkupfererz by Abraham Gottlieb Werner in 1791. Named "phillipsite" in 1832 by Wilhelm Sulpice Beudant. Remamed 1845 by Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger in honor of Ignaz von Born (1742-1791), Austrian mineralogist and invertebrate zoologist.
Important copper ore.
Typically found as massive metallic material, it has a copper-red color on fresh exposures which quickly tarnishes to an iridescent purple after exposure to air and moisture.
May be confused with tarnished chalcopyrite.

Classification of Bornite

Approved 1962
2.BA.15

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
B : Metal Sulfides, M: S > 1: 1 (mainly 2: 1)
A : With Cu, Ag, Au
Dana 7th ed.:
2.5.2.1
2.5.2.1

2 : SULFIDES
5 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
3.1.23

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
1 : Sulphides etc. of Cu
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First Recorded Occurrence of Bornite

Year of Discovery:
1725

Occurrences of Bornite

Geological Setting:
Common and widespread in copper ore deposits. It also occurs in basic intrusives, in dikes, in contact metamorphic deposits, in quartz veins and in pegmatites.

Physical Properties of Bornite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Copper-red to pinchbeck-brown, quickly tarnishing to an iridescent purplish surface.
Streak:
Grey-Black
Hardness (Mohs):
3
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=92 kg/mm2
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
In traces on {111}.
Parting:
None.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
5.06 - 5.09 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.09 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Bornite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pbca
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.95Å, b = 21.862Å, c = 10.95Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.501 : 1 : 0.501
Unit Cell Volume:
V 2621.31 ų
Z:
16
Morphology:
Crystals rare, usually blocky with rough curved faces, pseudo-cubic, pseudo-dodecohedral and rarely pseudo-octahedral. Forms noted: {001}, {011}, {111}, {112}, {223} and {335}.
Twinning:
On {111}, often as penetration twins.
Comment:
Various, mostly temperature-dependent supercells are known.

Crystallographic forms of Bornite

Crystal Atlas:
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Bornite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Bornite no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Bornite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Bornite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.31(40)
3.18(60)
2.74(50)
2.50(40)
1.94(100)
1.65(30)
1.26(50)
1.12(5)

Optical Data of Bornite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Weak
Colour in reflected light:
Copper-red.
Internal Reflections:
Purpulish iridescence.
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of Bornite

Formula:
Cu5FeS4
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Wet chemical analysis of material from Messina, Transvaal given first. Ideal given second.
Cu (63.24)
Fe (11.12)
S (25.54)
Total (90.90)
.
Cu (63.32}
Fe (11.13)
S (25.55)
Total (100.00)
Empirical Formula:
Cu5.00Fe1.00S4.00
Common Impurities:
Ag,Ge,Bi,In,Pb

Relationship of Bornite to other Species

2.BA.05ChalcociteCu2S
2.BA.05DjurleiteCu31S16
2.BA.05GeeriteCu8S5
2.BA.05RoxbyiteCu9S5
2.BA.10AniliteCu7S4
2.BA.10DigeniteCu9S5
2.BA.20BellidoiteCu2Se
2.BA.20BerzelianiteCu2Se
2.BA.25AthabascaiteCu5Se4
2.BA.25UmangiteCu3Se2
2.BA.30RickarditeCu7Te5
2.BA.30WeissiteCu2-xTe
2.BA.35AcanthiteAg2S
2.BA.40MckinstryiteAg5-xCu3+xS4
2.BA.40StromeyeriteAgCuS
2.BA.40dUM2003-13-S:AgAuCuAg6AuCu2S5
2.BA.45JalpaiteAg3CuS2
2.BA.45SelenojalpaiteAg3CuSe2
2.BA.50EucairiteAgCuSe
2.BA.55AguilariteAg4SeS
2.BA.55NaumanniteAg2Se
2.BA.60CervelleiteAg4TeS
2.BA.60HessiteAg2Te
2.BA.60ChenguodaiteAg9Fe3+Te2S4
2.BA.65Henryite(Cu,Ag)3+xTe2 , with x ~ 0.40
2.BA.65StütziteAg5-xTe3, x = 0.24-0.36
2.BA.70ArgyroditeAg8GeS6
2.BA.70CanfielditeAg8SnS6
2.BA.70Putzite(Cu4.7Ag3.3)GeS6
2.BA.75FischesseriteAg3AuSe2
2.BA.75Penzhinite(Ag,Cu)4Au(S,Se)4
2.BA.75PetrovskaiteAuAg(S,Se)
2.BA.75PetziteAg3AuTe2
2.BA.75UytenbogaardtiteAg3AuS2
2.BA.80Bezsmertnovite(Au,Ag)4Cu(Te,Pb)
2.BA.80BilibinskitePbCu2Au3Te2
2.BA.80Bogdanovite(Au,Te,Pb)3(Cu,Fe)
3.1.1ChalcociteCu2S
3.1.2DjurleiteCu31S16
3.1.3DigeniteCu9S5
3.1.4AniliteCu7S4
3.1.5RoxbyiteCu9S5
3.1.6SpionkopiteCu39S28
3.1.7GeeriteCu8S5
3.1.8CovelliteCuS
3.1.9BerzelianiteCu2Se
3.1.10BellidoiteCu2Se
3.1.11UmangiteCu3Se2
3.1.12YarrowiteCu9S8
3.1.13AthabascaiteCu5Se4
3.1.14KlockmanniteCuSe
3.1.15Krut'aiteCuSe2
3.1.16WeissiteCu2-xTe
3.1.17RickarditeCu7Te5
3.1.18VulcaniteCuTe
3.1.19BambollaiteCu(Se,Te)2
3.1.20LautiteCuAsS
3.1.21MgriiteCu3AsSe3
3.1.22CubaniteCuFe2S3
3.1.24FukuchiliteCu3FeS8
3.1.25ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
3.1.26MooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16
3.1.27HaycockiteCu4Fe5S8
3.1.28IsocubaniteCuFe2S3
3.1.29IdaiteCu5FeS6
3.1.30NukundamiteCu3.4Fe0.6S4
3.1.31PutoraniteCu9(Fe,Ni)9S16
3.1.32Orickite2CuFeS2 · H2O
3.1.33EskeborniteCuFeSe2
3.1.34Chaméanite(Cu,Fe)4As(Se,S)4
3.1.35TalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16

Other Names for Bornite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
A major ore of copper.

References for Bornite

Reference List:
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 195-197.

Acta Crystallographica: 17: 351-360.

Cuthbert, M.E. (1962) Formation of bornite at atmospheric temperature and pressure. Economic Geology: 57: 38-41.

Koto, K. and Morimoto, N. (1975): Superstructure investigation of bornite, Cu5FeS4, by the modified partial Patterson function. Acta Crystallographica, B31, 2268-2273.

Kanazawa, Y., Koto, K., Morimoto, N. (1978): Bornite (Cu5FeS4): stability and crystal structure of the intermediate form. Canadian Mineralogist, 16, 397-404.

Pierce, L. & Buseck, P. R. (1978): Superstructuring in the bornite-digenite series: a high-resolution electron microscopy study. American Mineralogist 63, 1-16.

Jagadeesh, M.S., Nagarathna, H.M., Montano, P.A., and Seehra, M.S. (1981) Magnetic and Mössbauer studies of phase transitions and mixed valences in bornite (Cu4.5Fe1.2S4.7). Phys. Rev.: B23: 2350-2356.

Buckley, A.N. and Woods, R. (1983) An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of the tarnishing of bornite. Australian Journal of Chemistry: 36: 1793-1804.

Robie, R.A., Wiggins, L.B., Barton, P.B., Jr., and Hemingway, B.S. (1985) Low-temperature heat capacity and entropy of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2): estimates of the standard molar enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of formation of chalcopyrite and bornite (Cu5FeS4). Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics: 17: 481-488.

Vaughan, D.J., Tossell, J.A., and Stanley, C.J. (1987) The surface properties of bornite. Mineralogical Magazine: 51: 285-293.

Kratz, T. & Fuess, H. (1989): Simultane Strukturbestimmung von Kupferkies und Bornit an einem Kristall. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 186, 167-169.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 52.

Grguric, B. A. & Putnis, A. (1998): Compositional controls on phase-transition temperatures in bornite: a differential scanning calorimetry study. Canadian Mineralogist, 36, 215-227.

Ding, Y., Veblen, D. R., Prewitt, C. T. (2005): High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study of the 4a and 6a superstructure of bornite Cu5FeS4. American Mineralogist, 90, 1256-1264.

Harmer, S.L., Pratt, A.R., Nesbitt, H.W., and Fleet, M.E. (2005) Reconstruction of fracture surfaces on bornite. Canadian Mineralogist, 43, 1619-1630.

Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., Danyushevsky, L. V., Gilbert, S. (2011): Minor and trace elements in bornite and associated Cu-(Fe)-sulfides: A LA-ICP-MS study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75, 6473-6496.

Internet Links for Bornite

Specimens:
The following Bornite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Bornite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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