Mindat Logo

Bornite

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.



Formula:
Cu
 
5
FeS
 
4
System:OrthorhombicColour:Copper-red to ...
Lustre:MetallicHardness:3
Name:
Originally included with kupferkies in 1725 by Johann Friedrich Henckel. Later assigned various multi-word Latin names by Johan Gottschalk Wallerius in 1747 and variously further translated including "purple copper ore" and variegated copper ore in 1802 by Rene Just Haüy. Also called as buntkupfererz by Abraham Gottlieb Werner in 1791. Named "phillipsite" in 1832 by Wilhelm Sulpice Beudant. Remamed 1845 by Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger in honor of Ignaz von Born (1742-1791), Austrian mineralogist and invertebrate zoologist.


Important copper ore.
Typically found as massive metallic material, it has a copper-red color on fresh exposures which quickly tarnishes to an iridescent purple after exposure to air and moisture.
May be confused with tarnished chalcopyrite.

Classification of Bornite

IMA status:Approved 1962
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/B.02-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.BA.15

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
B : Metal Sulfides, M: S > 1: 1 (mainly 2: 1)
A : With Cu, Ag, Au
Dana 7th edition ID:2.5.2.1
Dana 8th edition ID:2.5.2.1

2 : SULFIDES
5 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.1.23

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
1 : Sulphides etc. of Cu
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-727.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Bornite

Type Locality:Jáchymov (St Joachimsthal), Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal), Krušné Hory Mtns (Erzgebirge), Karlovy Vary Region, Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Czech Republic
Year of Discovery:1725

Occurrences of Bornite

Geological Setting:Common and widespread in copper ore deposits. It also occurs in basic intrusives, in dikes, in contact metamorphic deposits, in quartz veins and in pegmatites.

Physical Properties of Bornite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Copper-red to pinchbeck-brown, quickly tarnishing to an iridescent purplish surface.
Streak:Grey-Black
Hardness (Mohs):3
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=92 kg/mm2
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
In traces on {111}.
Parting:None.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):5.06 - 5.09 g/cm3
Density (calculated):5.09 g/cm3

Crystallography of Bornite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Pbca {P21/b 21/c 21/a}
Cell Parameters:a = 10.95Å, b = 21.862Å, c = 10.95Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.501 : 1 : 0.501
Unit Cell Volume:V 2621.31 ų
Z:16
Morphology:Crystals rare, usually blocky with rough curved faces, pseudo-cubic, pseudo-dodecohedral and rarely pseudo-octahedral. Forms noted: {001}, {011}, {111}, {112}, {223} and {335}.
Twinning:On {111}, often as penetration twins.
Comment:Various, mostly temperature-dependent supercells are known.
Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Bornite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Bornite no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Bornite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Bornite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.31(40)
3.18(60)
2.74(50)
2.50(40)
1.94(100)
1.65(30)
1.26(50)
1.12(5)

Optical Data of Bornite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Weak
Colour in reflected light:Copper-red.
Internal Reflections:Purpulish iridescence.
Pleochroism:Weak

Chemical Properties of Bornite

Formula:
Cu
 
5
FeS
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu5FeS4
Essential elements:Cu, Fe, S
All elements listed in formula:Cu, Fe, S
Analytical Data:Wet chemical analysis of material from Messina, Transvaal given first. Ideal given second.
Cu (63.24)
Fe (11.12)
S (25.54)
Total (90.90)
.
Cu (63.32}
Fe (11.13)
S (25.55)
Total (100.00)
Empirical Formula:
Cu
 
5.00
Fe
 
1.00
S
 
4.00
Common Impurities:Ag,Ge,Bi,In,Pb

Relationship of Bornite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.BA.05Chalcocite
Cu
 
2
S
2.BA.05Djurleite
Cu
 
31
S
 
16
2.BA.05Geerite
Cu
 
8
S
 
5
2.BA.05Roxbyite
Cu
 
9
S
 
5
2.BA.10Anilite
Cu
 
7
S
 
4
2.BA.10Digenite
Cu
 
9
S
 
5
2.BA.20Bellidoite
Cu
 
2
Se
2.BA.20Berzelianite
Cu
 
2
Se
2.BA.25Athabascaite
Cu
 
5
Se
 
4
2.BA.25Umangite
Cu
 
3
Se
 
2
2.BA.30Rickardite
Cu
 
7
Te
 
5
2.BA.30Weissite
Cu
 
2-x
Te
2.BA.35Acanthite
Ag
 
2
S
2.BA.40Mckinstryite
Ag
 
5-x
Cu
 
3+x
S
 
4
2.BA.40Stromeyerite
AgCuS
2.BA.40dUM2003-13-S:AgAuCu
Ag
 
6
AuCu
 
2
S
 
5
2.BA.45Jalpaite
Ag
 
3
CuS
 
2
2.BA.45Selenojalpaite
Ag
 
3
CuSe
 
2
2.BA.50Eucairite
AgCuSe
2.BA.55Aguilarite
Ag
 
4
SeS
2.BA.55Naumannite
Ag
 
2
Se
2.BA.60Cervelleite
Ag
 
4
TeS
2.BA.60Hessite
Ag
 
2
Te
2.BA.60Chenguodaite
Ag
 
9
Fe
3+
 
Te
 
2
S
 
4
2.BA.65Henryite
Ag
 
3
Cu
 
4
Te
 
4
2.BA.65Stützite
Ag
 
5-x
Te
 
3
, x = 0.24-0.36
2.BA.70Argyrodite
Ag
 
8
GeS
 
6
2.BA.70Canfieldite
Ag
 
8
SnS
 
6
2.BA.70Putzite
(Cu
 
4.7
Ag
 
3.3
)GeS
 
6
2.BA.75Fischesserite
Ag
 
3
AuSe
 
2
2.BA.75Penzhinite
(Ag,Cu)
 
4
Au(S,Se)
 
4
2.BA.75Petrovskaite
AuAg(S,Se)
2.BA.75Petzite
Ag
 
3
AuTe
 
2
2.BA.75Uytenbogaardtite
Ag
 
3
AuS
 
2
2.BA.80Bezsmertnovite
(Au,Ag)
 
4
Cu(Te,Pb)
2.BA.80Bilibinskite
PbCu
 
2
Au
 
3
Te
 
2
2.BA.80Bogdanovite
(Au,Te,Pb)
 
3
(Cu,Fe)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.1.1Chalcocite
Cu
 
2
S
3.1.2Djurleite
Cu
 
31
S
 
16
3.1.3Digenite
Cu
 
9
S
 
5
3.1.4Anilite
Cu
 
7
S
 
4
3.1.5Roxbyite
Cu
 
9
S
 
5
3.1.6Spionkopite
Cu
 
39
S
 
28
3.1.7Geerite
Cu
 
8
S
 
5
3.1.8Covellite
CuS
3.1.9Berzelianite
Cu
 
2
Se
3.1.10Bellidoite
Cu
 
2
Se
3.1.11Umangite
Cu
 
3
Se
 
2
3.1.12Yarrowite
Cu
 
9
S
 
8
3.1.13Athabascaite
Cu
 
5
Se
 
4
3.1.14Klockmannite
CuSe
3.1.15Krut'aite
CuSe
 
2
3.1.16Weissite
Cu
 
2-x
Te
3.1.17Rickardite
Cu
 
7
Te
 
5
3.1.18Vulcanite
CuTe
3.1.19Bambollaite
Cu(Se,Te)
 
2
3.1.20Lautite
CuAsS
3.1.21Mgriite
Cu
 
3
AsSe
 
3
3.1.22Cubanite
CuFe
 
2
S
 
3
3.1.24Fukuchilite
Cu
 
3
FeS
 
8
3.1.25Chalcopyrite
CuFeS
 
2
3.1.26Mooihoekite
Cu
 
9
Fe
 
9
S
 
16
3.1.27Haycockite
Cu
 
4
Fe
 
5
S
 
8
3.1.28Isocubanite
CuFe
 
2
S
 
3
3.1.29Idaite
Cu
 
5
FeS
 
6
3.1.30Nukundamite
Cu
 
3.4
Fe
 
0.6
S
 
4
3.1.31Putoranite
Cu
 
9
(Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
16
3.1.32Orickite
2CuFeS
 
2
· H
 
2
O
3.1.33Eskebornite
CuFeSe
 
2
3.1.34Chaméanite
(Cu,Fe)
 
4
As(Se,S)
 
4
3.1.35Talnakhite
Cu
 
9
(Fe,Ni)
 
8
S
 
16

Other Names for Bornite

Synonyms:
Bornite (of Haidinger)ChalcomikliteErubesciteIMA1962-s.p.Lefverslag
Peacock OrePhillipsinePhillipsite (of Beudant)PoikilitePurple Copper
Purple Copper OreVariegated CopperVariegated Copper Ore
Other Languages:
Basque:Bornita
Catalan:Bornita
Czech:Bornit
Dutch:Borniet
French:Cuivre Panaché
German:Bornit
Buntkupfererz
Buntkupferkies
Chalcomiklit
Erubescit
Kupferlasurerz
Kupferlazuerz
Kupfer-Lazul
Kupferlazurerz
Leberschlag
Poikilit
Italian:Bornite
Japanese:斑銅鉱
Lithuanian:Bornitas
Low Saxon:Bornit
Norwegian (Bokmål):Broket kobber
Broket kopper
Polish:Bornit
Portuguese:Bornita
Russian:Борнит
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Борнит
Simplified Chinese:斑铜矿
紫铜矿
Slovak:Bornit
Spanish:Bornita
Chalcomiklita
Cobre Panaceo
Erubescita
Pecho de Palorma
Poikilita
Swedish:Brokig kopparmalm
Traditional Chinese:斑銅礦
Ukrainian:Борніт
Varieties:
Argentiferous Bornite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:A major ore of copper.

References for Bornite

Reference List:

- +
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 195-197.

Acta Crystallographica: 17: 351-360.

Cuthbert, M.E. (1962) Formation of bornite at atmospheric temperature and pressure. Economic Geology: 57: 38-41.

Koto, K. and Morimoto, N. (1975): Superstructure investigation of bornite, Cu5FeS4, by the modified partial Patterson function. Acta Crystallographica, B31, 2268-2273.

Kanazawa, Y., Koto, K., Morimoto, N. (1978): Bornite (Cu5FeS4): stability and crystal structure of the intermediate form. Canadian Mineralogist, 16, 397-404.

Pierce, L. & Buseck, P. R. (1978): Superstructuring in the bornite-digenite series: a high-resolution electron microscopy study. American Mineralogist 63, 1-16.

Jagadeesh, M.S., Nagarathna, H.M., Montano, P.A., and Seehra, M.S. (1981) Magnetic and Mössbauer studies of phase transitions and mixed valences in bornite (Cu4.5Fe1.2S4.7). Phys. Rev.: B23: 2350-2356.

Buckley, A.N. and Woods, R. (1983) An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of the tarnishing of bornite. Australian Journal of Chemistry: 36: 1793-1804.

Robie, R.A., Wiggins, L.B., Barton, P.B., Jr., and Hemingway, B.S. (1985) Low-temperature heat capacity and entropy of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2): estimates of the standard molar enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of formation of chalcopyrite and bornite (Cu5FeS4). Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics: 17: 481-488.

Vaughan, D.J., Tossell, J.A., and Stanley, C.J. (1987) The surface properties of bornite. Mineralogical Magazine: 51: 285-293.

Kratz, T. & Fuess, H. (1989): Simultane Strukturbestimmung von Kupferkies und Bornit an einem Kristall. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 186, 167-169.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 52.

Grguric, B. A. & Putnis, A. (1998): Compositional controls on phase-transition temperatures in bornite: a differential scanning calorimetry study. Canadian Mineralogist, 36, 215-227.

Ding, Y., Veblen, D. R., Prewitt, C. T. (2005): High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study of the 4a and 6a superstructure of bornite Cu5FeS4. American Mineralogist, 90, 1256-1264.

Harmer, S.L., Pratt, A.R., Nesbitt, H.W., and Fleet, M.E. (2005) Reconstruction of fracture surfaces on bornite. Canadian Mineralogist, 43, 1619-1630.

Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., Danyushevsky, L. V., Gilbert, S. (2011): Minor and trace elements in bornite and associated Cu-(Fe)-sulfides: A LA-ICP-MS study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75, 6473-6496.

Internet Links for Bornite

Search Engines:
  • Look for Bornite on Google
  • Look for Bornite images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Look for Bornite on Webmineral
  • Look for Bornite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Bornite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Bornite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Bornite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • Lapis Mineral Magazin
  • Buy RARE Minerals from Rocks of Africa
  • Fine and rare minerals from mintreasure.com
  • Fine Minerals from Weinrich Minerals, Inc.
  • Buy from McDougall Minerals
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Bornite specimens
  • Buy from David K Joyce minerals
  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • Mineral Classics - Worldwide Collector Quality Minerals and Gems
  • rare and unusual minerals mainly crystallized
  • Top quality minerals from Kristalle of California
  • Wilensky Fine Minerals
  • Specimens:The following Bornite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.
    Jobs:
  • Mining & Geology Jobs
  • Localities for Bornite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    Mineral and/or Locality  
    Search Google  
    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
    Current server date and time: March 30, 2014 16:35:47
    Mineral and Locality Search
    Mineral:
    and/or Locality:
    Options
    Fade toolbar when not in focusFix toolbar to bottom of page
    Hide Social Media Links
    Slideshow frame delay seconds