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Botryogen

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Formula:
MgFe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 7H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Light to dark orange-red.
Hardness:2 - 2½
Name:From the Greek βότρυς = "bunch of grapes" and γεννάν = "to bear", in allusion to the appearance of the original botryoidal and stalactitic masses found at Falun, Sweden.
This page provides mineralogical data about Botryogen.

Classification of Botryogen

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/D.10-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.DC.25

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
C : With only medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 8th edition ID:31.9.6.1

31 : HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
9 : (AB)(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.11.19

25 : Sulphates
11 : Sulphates of Fe and other metals
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Type Occurrence of Botryogen

Type Locality:Falun mine, Falun, Dalarna, Sweden

Physical Properties of Botryogen

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Light to dark orange-red.
Streak:Ocher-yellow
Hardness (Mohs):2 - 2½
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {010}, perfect; on {110}, good.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.14 g/cm3

Crystallography of Botryogen

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Morphology:Crystals prismatic [001]; smaller crystals commonly long prismatic; large crystals short prismatic with {_101} large and often striated [100]. The vertical zone is striated [001]. Reniform, botryoidal, or globular aggregates with a radiating structure and crystalline surfaces.

Optical Data of Botryogen

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.522 nβ = 1.529 nγ = 1.577
2V:Measured: 41° , Calculated: 44°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.055

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:none
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:X = b = Colourless to light brown
Y = Cinnamon-brown
Z ^c +12° = Golden yellow

Chemical Properties of Botryogen

Formula:
MgFe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 7H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:MgFe3+(SO4)2(OH)·7H2O
Essential elements:Fe, H, Mg, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Fe, H, Mg, O, S

Relationship of Botryogen to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.DC.05Aluminite
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.DC.05Meta-aluminite
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
7.DC.10Butlerite
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
7.DC.10Parabutlerite
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
7.DC.15Fibroferrite
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)(OH) · 5H
 
2
O
7.DC.20Xitieshanite
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)Cl · 6H
 
2
O
7.DC.25Zincobotryogen
(Zn,Mg,Mn
2+
 
)Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 7H
 
2
O
7.DC.30Chaidamuite
ZnFe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
7.DC.30Guildite
CuFe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.11.1Natrojarosite
NaFe
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
25.11.2Sideronatrite
Na
 
2
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 3H
 
2
O
25.11.3Metasideronatrite
Na
 
2
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · H
 
2
O
25.11.4Ferrinatrite
Na
 
3
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 3H
 
2
O
25.11.5Amarillite
NaFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
25.11.6Yavapaiite
KFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.11.7Krausite
KFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.11.8Goldichite
KFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
25.11.9Jarosite
KFe
3+
 
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
25.11.10Voltaite
K
 
2
Fe
2+
5
Fe
3+
3
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 18H
 
2
O
25.11.11Ungemachite
K
 
3
Na
 
8
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
6
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
25.11.12Metavoltine
Na
 
6
K
 
2
FeFe
 
6
(SO
 
4
)
 
12
O
 
2
· 18H
 
2
O
25.11.13Sabieite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.11.14Ammoniojarosite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
25.11.15Clairite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Fe
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
· 3H
 
2
O
25.11.16Mohrite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
25.11.17Lonecreekite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
25.11.18Godovikovite
(NH
 
4
)Al(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.11.21Slavíkite
(H
 
3
O
+
 
)
 
3
Mg
 
6
Fe
 
15
(SO
 
4
)
 
21
(OH)
 
18
· 98H
 
2
O
25.11.23Sturmanite
Ca
 
6
(Fe
3+
 
,Al,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
[B(OH)
 
4
](OH)
 
12
· 25H
 
2
O
25.11.24Millosevichite
(Al,Fe)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
25.11.25Aluminocopiapite
Al
 
2/3
Fe
3+
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)
 
2
· 20H
 
2
O
25.11.26Halotrichite
FeAl
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
25.11.27Idrizite
(Mg,Fe)(Al,Fe)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
· 15H
 
2
O or near
25.11.28Lishizhenite
ZnFe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 14H
 
2
O
25.11.29Zincovoltaite
K
 
2
Zn
 
5
Fe
3+
3
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 18H
 
2
O

Other Names for Botryogen

Synonyms:
BotriteBotryiteBotryogeniteBotryteKubeite
PalacheiteQueteniteRed Iron Vitriol
Other Languages:
French:Fer sulfaté rouge
Neoplase
German:Botrit
Botryit
Botryogenit
Botryt
Cubeïte
Palacheit
Quetenit
Italian:Botriogeno
Japanese:ボトリオゲン
Russian:Ботриоген
Simplified Chinese:赤铁矾
Spanish:Alcaparossa Amarilla
Botrita
Botryita
Botryogenita
Palacheita
Quetenita
Swedish:Rother Eisen-Vitriol

Other Information

Other Information:Partially soluble in boiling water, rendering an ocherous residue. Soluble in HCl.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Botryogen

Reference List:

- +
Berzelius (1815) Afhandlingar I Fysik, Kemi och Mineralogi, Stockholm: 4: 307 (as Rother Eisen-Vitriol).

Haidinger (1828) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 12: 491.

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 483 (as Neoplase).

Cleve (1862) Upsala University Åarskrift: 22.

Blaas (1883) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 87: 161.

Hockauf (1886) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 12: 251.

Darapsky (1890) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 65 (as Rubrite).

Frenzel (1890) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 11: 217 (as Quetenite).

Darapsky (1898) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 163 (as Kubeite).

Eakle (1903) University of california Department of Geology Bull.: 3: 231 (as Palacheite).

Bandy (1938) American Mineralogist: 23: 749 (as Kubeite).

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 617-618.

Acta Crystallographica: 24B: 760-767.

Internet Links for Botryogen

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Botryogen details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Botryogen

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • San Juan
      • La Alcaparrosa
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 480, 609, 618, 1014.
    Australia
     
    • Queensland
      • Mount Isa - Cloncurry area
    [MinRec 19:478]
    Sielecki, R. (1988) The Mount Isa-Cloncurry mineral field. Mineralogical Record, Vol. 19, pg. 469-490.
    Austria
     
    • Tyrol
      • East Tyrol
        • Puster valley
          • Sillian
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
        • Sierra Gorda District
    Rob Lavinky samples; analysed by XRD methods in USA
      • El Loa Province
        • Calama
          • Cerritos Bayos
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618.; Kampf, A.R.; Mills, S.J.; Housley, R.M.; Williams, P.A.; Dini, M. (2012): Alcaparrosaite, K3Ti4+Fe3+(SO4)4O(H2O)2, a new hydrophobic Ti4+ sulfate from Alcaparrosa, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine 76, 851-861.
          • Chuquicamata District
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618; Mineralogical Record: 9: 329.
            • Toki Cu deposit (Toki Cluster)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618; Mineralogical Record: 14: 356.
    • Arica and Parinacota Region
      • Arica Province
        • Los Camarones
    Kampf, A. R., Mills, S. J., Nash, B. P., Housley, R. M., Rossman, G. R., Dini, M. and Gatta G.D. (2013): Camaronesite, [Fe3+(H2O)2(PO3OH)]2(SO4)•1–2H2O, a new phosphate-sulfate from the Camarones Valley, Chile, structurally related to taranakite. Mineral. Mag. 77, 453-465.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618.
    • Tarapacá Region
      • El Tamarugal Province
        • Pampa del Tamarugal
    Peter G. Seroka collection
    China
     
    • Gansu Province
      • Baiyin Prefecture
        • Baiyin District
          • Baiyinchang ore field
            • Baiyinchang Cu deposit
    Bingbin Yang (1979): Geology and Prospecting 15(2), 54-58
    Bingbin Yang (1979): Geology and Prospecting 15(2), 54-58
    • Qinghai Province
      • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
        • Da Qaidam Co. (Dachaidan Co.)
          • Xitieshan
    Qingtong Ye (1983): Acta Geologica Sinica 57(4)
    France
     
    • Alsace
      • Bas-Rhin
        • Villé Valley
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618.
    Germany
     
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Goslar
          • Rammelsberg
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618.
    • Thuringia
      • Gera
        • Ronneburg U deposit
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    Hungary
     
    • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
      • Rudabányai Mtns
        • Rudabánya
    Sánoor Szakáll, Mária Foldvári, Gábor Papp, Péter Kovács-pálffy, Árpád Kovács (1997) Secondary Sulphate Minerals From Hungary. Acta Mineralogica-petrographica, Szeged, Xxxviii, Supplementum, 7-63.
    • Heves Co.
      • Mátra Mtns
        • Gyöngyösoroszi
    Own found,2005
    • Nógrád Co.
      • Cserhát Mtns
    Geoda - Journal of the Hungarian Friends of Minerals, 2007 august.
    Iran
     
    • Hormozgan Province
      • Bandar-Abbas County
        • Bandar Abbas (Bandar-e Abbas)
          • Haji Abad town
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618.
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Sestri Levante
    Antofilli M., Borgo E., Palenzona A. (1983): I Nostri Minerali. Geologia e Mineralogia in Liguria. Sagep, Ed., Genova, 295 pp.
    • Piedmont
      • Torino Province
        • Lanzo Valleys
          • Grande Valley
            • Chialamberto
    Girolami, C. (2006). I minerali delle Valli di Lanzo. Stampato in proprio.
    • Tuscany
      • Grosseto Province
        • Massa Marittima
    Brizzi G., Capperi M., Masotti A. - La miniera di pirite di Niccioleta, Massa Marittima (GR) - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Milano, Fasc. 4 (1989) e Fasc. 1 - 2(1990)
      • Livorno Province
        • Elba Island
          • Porto Azzurro
    G. D'Achiardi, 1910 - Pickeringite (picroallumogene) dell'Isola d'Elba - Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., P.V., 19, 23-25.
    Japan
     
    • Shikoku Island
      • Ehime prefecture
    Minakawa and Noto (1994) Chigaku Kenkyu, 43, 175-179.
    Slovakia
     
    • Košice Region
      • Gelnica Co.
    Duda, Rejl, Slivka: "Mineralien", 1991
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Huelva
        • Minas de Riotinto
          • Rio Tinto Mines (Riotinto Mines)
    Rui Nunes specimen
    Sweden
     
    • Dalarna
    Ann. Phys. Chem. (Pogg.) (1828): 12: 491; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618, 625; Clark (1993) - "Hey's Mineral Index".
    Ukraine
     
    • Crimea Oblast'
      • Crimea peninsula
        • Balaklava area
    Dobrovolskaya T.I., Polkanov Y.A. The Paleovolcano Fiolent. Giude (2004) - Simferopol, 2004, 19 p. (in Russ.) Oleg V. Zinchenko at al. (2008).The mineralogy of seasonal sulfates in the cape Fiolent - Zapiski Ukrainskogo Mineralogichnogo Tovaristva (Proceeding Ukrainian Mineralogical Society), 2008, #5, p. 75-83 (in Ukr.)
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Mule Mts
          • Warren District
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.:69
    azminerals.com
      • Mohave Co.
        • Hualapai (Hualpai) Mts
          • Hualapai District
            • Arrastra Mt.
    • California
      • Merced Co.
        • Diablo Range
          • Stayton District (McLeod District; Panoche District)
            • Antimony Peak
    Min.Rec.: 20:427-434.
      • Napa Co.
        • Knoxville District
          • Knoxville
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618; Eakle, Arthur Starr (1903a), Palacheite: University of California, Department of Geological Science Bulletin: 3: 231; Eakle, Arthur Starr (1903b), Note on the identity of palacheite and botryogen: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 16: 379-380; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 275.
        • Mayacmas Mts (Mayacamas Mts)
          • Calistoga District (Silverado District)
            • Calistoga
              • The Palisades [range]
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, 7th. edition, Volume II: 618; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 275.
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
          • Calico District (Daggett District)
            • Yermo
              • Mule Canyon
    Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 14-15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 275; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California
    • Nevada
      • Nye Co.
        • Morey District
          • Morey Mine
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Ohio
      • Franklin Co.
        • Columbus
    Van King
    Ernest H. Carlson. Jerret Whitford. "Occurrence And Mineralogy Of Efflorescence In Late Devonian Black Shales, North-Central Ohio." 2002 GSA Meeting: Web: http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002AM/finalprogram/abstract_44706.htm
      • Huron Co.
        • Monroeville
          • West Branch Huron River
    http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002AM/finalprogram/abstract_44706.htm
      • Meigs Co.
        • Langsville
    Minerals of Ohio Bull. 69 ODNR
    • Pennsylvania
      • Lebanon Co.
        • Cornwall Borough (Cornwall)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618.
    • Tennessee
      • Sevier Co.
        • Great Smoky Mountains National Park
    Coskren, T. D. & Lauf, R. J. (2000): The Minerals of Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. Mineralogical Record, 31, 163-175.; Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:235
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