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Brushite

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Formula:
Ca(HPO4) · 2H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colorless, light yellow; ...
Hardness:
Name:
Named by Gideon E. Moore in 1865 in honor of American mineralogist George Jarvis Brush (December 15, 1831 Brooklyn, NY, USA - February 6, 1912 New Haven, CT, USA), Professor, Yale University.
Isostructural with:
The phosphate analogue of pharmacolite.

Classification of Brushite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.CJ.50

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
J : With only large cations
39.1.1.1

39 : HYDRATED ACID PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
1 : A[HXO4]·xH2O
19.4.3

19 : Phosphates
4 : Phosphates of Ca
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Type Occurrence of Brushite

Year of Discovery:
1864
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Cave guano deposit.

Occurrences of Brushite

Geological Setting:
Ins biological phosphate as well as sedimentary phosphate deposits; incrustations on ancient bones and crypts. May form due to run-off from heavily fertilized fields.

Physical Properties of Brushite

Sub-Vitreous, Pearly, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Pearly on cleavages.
Colour:
Colorless, light yellow; colorless in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {010} and {001}, perfect.
Density:
2.30 - 2.33 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.32 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
2.326 (artificial crystals).

Crystallography of Brushite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/b
Space Group Setting:
C2/c
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.265Å, b = 15.19Å, c = 5.814Å
β = 116.47°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.412 : 1 : 0.383
Unit Cell Volume:
V 495.29 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals minute, acicular or prismatic to tabular {010}. Efflorescences, cavity linings. Earthy, pulverulent, foliated.
Comment:
Zeitschrift Krist. 181:205 (1987) structure
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.62 (100)
4.27 (10)
3.80 (30)
3.06 (10)
2.93 (10)
2.63 (10)
2.53 (10)
1.90 (10)
Comments:
ICDD 11-293, also 9-77 (synthetic)

Optical Data of Brushite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.539 - 1.540 nβ = 1.544 - 1.546 nγ = 1.551 - 1.552
2V:
Measured: 59° to 87°, Calculated: 80°
Birefringence:
0.012
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.012
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
r >v , crossed
Optical Extinction:
X ^ c = 30°, Z=b
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Brushite

Formula:
Ca(HPO4) · 2H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Brushite to other Species

8.CJ.05StercoriteNa(NH4)HPO4 · 4H2O
8.CJ.10Mundrabillaite(NH4)2Ca(HPO4)2 · H2O
8.CJ.10Swaknoite(NH4)2Ca(HPO4)2 · H2O
8.CJ.15NabaphiteNaBaPO4 · 9H2O
8.CJ.15NastrophiteNa(Sr,Ba)PO4 · 9H2O
8.CJ.20HaidingeriteCaHAsO4 · H2O
8.CJ.25VladimiriteCa4(AsO4)2(AsO3OH) · 4H2O
8.CJ.30FerrarisiteCa5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2O
8.CJ.35Machatschkiite(Ca,Na)6(AsO4)(HAsO4)3(PO4,SO4) · 15H2O
8.CJ.40PhaunouxiteCa3(AsO4)2 · 11H2O
8.CJ.40RauenthaliteCa3(AsO4)2 · 10H2O
8.CJ.45Brockite(Ca,Th,Ce)PO4 · H2O
8.CJ.45Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(Ce)(Ce,La)(PO4) · H2O
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(La)(La,Ce)(PO4) · H2O
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(Nd)(Nd,Ce,La)(PO4) · H2O
8.CJ.45Tristramite(Ca,U,Fe)(PO4,SO4) · 2H2O
8.CJ.45SmirnovskiteCaTh(PO4)2 · nH2O
8.CJ.50ArdealiteCa2(HPO4)(SO4) · 4H2O
8.CJ.50Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
8.CJ.50PharmacoliteCa(HAsO4) · 2H2O
8.CJ.50Churchite-(Nd)Nd(PO4) · 2H2O
8.CJ.55McneariteNaCa5(AsO4)(HAsO4)4 · 4H2O
8.CJ.60DorfmaniteNa2HPO4 · 2H2O
8.CJ.65SincositeCa(VO)2(PO4)2 · 5H2O
8.CJ.65BariosincositeBa(VO)2(PO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CJ.70CatalanoiteNa2(HPO4) · 8H2O
8.CJ.75GuériniteCa5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2O
8.CJ.85NingyoiteCaU(PO4)2 · 1-2H2O
19.4.1MonetiteCa(HPO4)
19.4.2HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
19.4.4IsoclasiteCa2(PO4)(OH) · 2H2O
19.4.5BuchwalditeNaCa(PO4)
19.4.6CanaphiteNa2Ca(P2O7) · 4H2O
19.4.7Mundrabillaite(NH4)2Ca(HPO4)2 · H2O
19.4.8WhitlockiteCa9Mg(PO4)6(HPO4)
19.4.9BrianiteNa2CaMg(PO4)2
19.4.10Petersite-(Y)(Y,Ce,Nd)Cu6(PO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O

Other Names for Brushite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Electrical:
Piezoelectric
Other Information:
Readily soluble in HCl.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Brushite

Reference List:
Shepard (1856) American Journal of Science: 22: 96 (as Epiglaubite).

Julien (1865) American Journal of Science: 40: 369 (as Metabrushite).

Moore (1865) American Journal of Science: 39: 43.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 828.

Klein (1901) Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin: 720 (as Stoffertite).

Lacroix, A. (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 4: 491.

Koehler (1926) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 37: 93.

Chudoba (1928) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 291.

Hintze, Carl (1931) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4B]: 788.

Sekanina (1935) Publications of the Faculty of Science of the University Masaryk, Brno [220].

Hill and Hendricks (1936) Ind. Eng. Chem.: 28: 441.

Terpstra (1937) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 97: 229.

Frondel, C. (1943) American Mineralogist: 28: 215.

Van Tassel (1944) Bulletin of the Museum of Natural History of Belgium: 22, no. 17.

Mélon and Dallemagne (1946) Bulletin de la Sociètè Belge de Gèologie: 69: B19.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 704-706.
American Mineralogist (1956) 41:616.
Belluomini G. (1968) - Brushite in efflorescenze su frammenti ossei umani d'età romana. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 21-29.
Mineralogical Society of London Monograph 4 (1974)
American Mineralogist 76: 1722 (1991).
Zeit. Krist. 181:205 (1987) structure.

Internet Links for Brushite

Localities for Brushite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Algeria
 
Korbel & Novak, 1999. Min. Encylopaedia, p.179
    • Oran
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Princess Elizabeth Land
      • Ingrid Christensen Coast
Gore, D.B., Nichols, G.T., Lehmann, C.E.R., Burgess, J.S., Baird, A.S.&, Creagh, D.C. (2000) An atlas of surficial salts of the Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica: composition, distribution and origin ANARE Report 143. 146 pp
  • Western Antarctica
Barczuk A. & Tatur A. 2003: BIOGENIC PHOSPHATE AND SULPHATE MINERALS IN THESOILS OF ANTARCTIC PENINSULA. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 23, pp. 41-43
Australia
 
  • Victoria
    • Corangamite Shire
      • Skipton
        • Mt. Widderin (Anderson's Hill)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 700.; Webb, J. A., Joyce, E. B., & Stevens, N. C. (1982). Lava caves of Australia. In Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology. International Speleological Foundation, Seattle. p74-85.
    • East Gippsland Shire
      • Buchan
  • Western Australia
    • Dandaragan Shire
      • Jurien Bay
Helictite 13:19-33
    • Dundas Shire
      • Cocklebiddy Roadhouse
Mineralogical Magazine (1973): 39,467-469.; Caves: processes, development, and management By David S. Gillieson
      • Madura Roadhouse
Mineralogical Magazine (1974): 39: 889.-890.
    • Meekatharra Shire
      • Milgun Station
R Bottrill, unpub. data;
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Ankogel group
        • Kleinelend valley
F. Brandstätter, G. Niedermayr: Carinthia II 186./106.:132-133 (1996)
      • Hafner group
        • Pölla valley
          • Lanisch
Pichler, A. (2009): Bergbau in Westkärnten. Eine Bestandsaufnahme der noch sichtbaren Merkmale der historischen Bergbaue in Westkärnten. - Carinthia II, 63. Sh., 416 S., Klagenfurt
PICHLER, A. (2009): Bergbau in Westkärnten. Eine Bestandsaufnahme der noch sichtbaren Merkmale der historischen Bergbaue in Westkärnten. p.88, 92-94
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    • Kreuzeck group
      • Obervellach
Niedermayr (1997)
  • Lower Austria
    • Mostviertel
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Salzburg
    • Werfen
      • Tennen Mts
        • Tenneck
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
  • Styria
    • Niedere Tauern
      • Pöls valley
A.Alker (1968)
    • Schladming
      • Schladminger Tauern
        • Obertalbach valley
          • Eschach Alp (Eschachboden; Martinlager)
Annalen 1999, p.63-70
Bahamas
 
  • San Salvador District
    • San Salvador Island
Carb.&Evap. v.16 no.1 (2001)
British West Indies
 
  • Anguilla
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
Canada
 
  • Yukon Territory
    • Dawson Mining District
[Mineralogical Record Vol 23 No.4 pp 37]
Robinson, G.W., Van Velthuizen, J., Ansell, H.G. & Sturman, B.D. (1992): Mineralogy of the Rapid Creek and Big Fish River area, Yukon Territory. Mineralogical Record 23, 1-47.
Handbook for Mineralogy, v. 4
Denmark
 
  • Southern Denmark Region
    • Fyn
      • Fyns Amt
Claus Hedegaard collection
Finland
 
  • Southern Finland Region
    • Lappeenranta
Hytönen,K. (1999): Suomen Mineraalit. Geologian tutkimuskeskus. Erillisjulkaisu, Jyväskylä, 399 pp.
France
 
  • Languedoc-Roussillon
    • Hérault
      • Cevennes Mts
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
  • Limousin
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Limoges
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
Germany
 
  • Lower Saxony
    • Lüneburg
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Eifel
      • Mechernich
        • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Schlema-Hartenstein District
        • Schlema
          • Oberschlema
J. Gröbner and U. Kolitsch (2007): Aktuelle Neufunde aus dem Erzgebirge III. Mineralien-Welt 18 (5), 16-19. (in German)
Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
  • Thuringia
    • Saalfeld
      • Garnsdorf
F. Rüger, L. Senf & T. Witzke: Lapis 1995 (1), 15-26
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
    • Aggteleki Mts
      • Aggtelek
  • Komárom-Esztergom Co.
    • Gerecse Mts
      • Lábatlan
Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
  • Veszprém Co.
    • Balaton Uplands
Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985; USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
Italy
 
  • Apulia
    • Bari Province
      • Altamura
Balenzano F., Dell’Anna L., Di Pierro M., Fiore S. (1984): Ardealite, CaHPO4CaSO4 • 4H2O: a new occurrence and new data. Neues Jahrb. Mineral. Monatsh., 461-467.
Balenzano, F., Dell'Ann,a L. & Di Pierro, M. (1974a): Ricerche mineralogiche su alcuni fosfati rinvenuti nelle Grotte di Castellana (Bari): strengite alluminifera, vivianite, taranakite, brushite e idrossiapatite. Rendiconti della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrologia, 30(2), 543-573.
  • Liguria
    • La Spezia Province
      • Rocchetta Vara
Balestra, C., Kolitsch, U., Blaß, G., Callegari, A.M., Baiocchi, M., Armellino, G., Ciriotti, M.E., Ambrino, P., Bracco, R.: Mineralogia ligure 2007-2008: novità caratterizzate dal servizio UK dell'AMI. Micro (UK report) 1/2009 pp. 78-99
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Kanto Region
      • Kanagawa Prefecture
Matsubara & Chiba (1982) Shizenkagaku To Hakubutsukan, 49, 151-153.
    • Tohoku Region
      • Iwate Prefecture
        • Kamaishi City
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Kyushu Region
    • Kumamoto Prefecture
Nobuhide Sawamura & Hitoshi Momoi: “Cave minerals and the guano from Kyusendo cave in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan”, Journal of the Speleological Society of Japan; N. Kashiima: “The phosphate minerals from Kyusen-do cave, southern Kyushu”, Journal of the Speleological Society of Japan.)
Kenya
 
  • Rift Valley Province
    • Suswa Volcano
Forti, P., E. Galli & A. Rossi (2004):"Minerogenesis of volcanic caves of Kenya" , Int. J. Speleol. 32, 3-18
Kiribati
 
Van King
Van King
Malaysia
 
  • Borneo Island
    • Sarawak
Mineralogical Magazine (1983): 47: 79-80.
Mexico
 
  • Coahuila
    • Mun. de Cuatrociénegas
      • Cuatro Ciénegas (Cuatrociénegas de Carranza; Venustiano Carranza)
        • Limestone caves
Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
Morocco
 
  • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Tazenakht
WALENTA (1981) Grüner Helvin von Azegour, Der Aufschluß, 32, 443-449
Namibia
 
  • Khomas Region
    • Windhoek District
      • Windhoek
        • Friedenau Farm 16
DILL, H.G., PÖLLMANN, H. , BOSECKER, K., HAHN, L. and MWIYA, S.(2002) Supergene mineralization in mining residues of the Matchless cupreous pyrite deposit (Namibia) – A clue to the origin of modern and fossil duricrusts in semiarid climates.- Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 75: 43-70
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein District
      • Kombat
Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
Puerto Rico
 
  • Mayaguez
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
Wise, W. (1997), J. Cave and Karst Studies, 53,170.
Réunion Island
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 716.
Romania
 
  • Bistrița-Năsăud Co.
    • Rodna Mtn (Rodnei Mtn)
al României, I. G. (2003) The 5 Th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp11-12
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Cerna valley
Onac, B. P. (2009): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 38/1, 27-39
B. Onac et al (2009, July) Mineralogical and Stable Isotope Investigations of Minerals from Caves on Cerna Valley (Romania). Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. pp318-323
    • Hunedoara
      • Boșorod
European Journal of Mineralogy; April 2009; v. 21; no. 2; p. 507-514; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
  • Maramureș Co.
    • Chioarului District
      • Chioarului Hills
Neacșu Antonela, Cioacă Mihaela (2007) Gemological occurrences in Romania. PROIECT ROMANIT, Raport 2b. Geologie, p.29-30
  • Sălaj Co.
    • Boiului Plateau
Tudor Tămaș, Răzvan Ungureanu (2010)-Mineralogy of Speleothems from four caves in the Purcăreț-Boiu Mare Plateau and the Baia Mare Depression (NW Romania). Studia Universitatis Babeș-Boyai, Geologia, 55 (2), 43-49.
  • Suceava Co.
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
[Der Aufschluss 1995:4 p163-180]
[Der Aufschluss 1995:4 p.163-180]
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Košice Co.
      • Jasov (Jossau; Joss)
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
    • Rožňava Co.
      • Ardovo
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
      • Kečovo
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
      • Červenica
        • Dubník
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
South Africa
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995), Minerals of South Africa.
  • Gauteng Province
    • Witwatersrand field
      • West Rand District (West Rand)
        • Far West Rand (West Wits Line)
          • Oberholzer
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, pg 191.
          • Western Sector
            • Carletonville
Minerals of South Africa
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Ehlanzeni District
      • Nelspruit
Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997), "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997)
Spain
 
  • Balearic Islands
B. Onac et al (2009) Mineral Diversity in Caves from Mallorca Island, Spain. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 325
  • Catalonia
    • Barcelona
      • Baix Llobregat
        • Gavà
          • Bruguers
Bareche, E (2005) "Els minerals de Catalunya. Segle XX" Ed. Grup Mineralògic Català, Barcelona, 269 p.
Switzerland
 
  • Bern
    • Emme Valley
      • Burgdorf
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 88
  • Vaud (Waadt)
    • Payerne
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 88
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Just District
        • St Just
          • Botallack
            • Botallack Mine
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Whetstone Mts
        • Whetstone District
www.caves.org; Hill, C.A. (1999) Mineralogy of Kartchner Caverns, Arizona, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies: 61(2): 73-78
  • California
    • Mono Co.
      • Mono Lake
Walker, J. (1988) Paoha Island phosphates. Quarterly of San Bernardino County Museum Association, 35, 46–47.
  • Illinois
    • Kankakee Co.
      • Bourbonnais
Handbook for Mineralogy, v. 4
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
Whitmore & Lawrence, 2004. The Pegmatite Mines Known As Palermo, p.95.
  • Tennessee
    • DeKalb Co.
Handbook for Mineralogy, v. 4
  • Virginia
    • Giles Co.
Murray, J. W. & Dietrich, R. V. (1956): Brushite and taranakite from Pig Hole Cave, Giles County, Virginia. American Mineralogist 41, 616-626.
Venezuela
 
  • Aragua
Urbani, 1997. Bol. Soc. Venezolana de Espeleología, no.30.
  • Miranda
Urbani, 1997. Bol. Soc. Venezolana de Espeleología, no.30.
Urbani, 1997. Bol. Soc. Venezolana de Espeleología, no.30.
  • Nueva Esparta
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
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