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Brushite

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Formula:
Ca(HPO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Colorless, light yellow; ...
Hardness:
Name:Named by Gideon E. Moore in 1865 in honor of American mineralogist George Jarvis Brush (December 15, 1831 Brooklyn, NY, USA - February 6, 1912 New Haven, CT, USA), Professor, Yale University.
Isostructural with:Gypsum


The phosphate analogue of pharmacolite.

Classification of Brushite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/C.25-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.CJ.50

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
J : With only large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:39.1.1.1

39 : HYDRATED ACID PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
1 : A[HXO4]·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.4.3

19 : Phosphates
4 : Phosphates of Ca
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Type Occurrence of Brushite

Type Locality:Aves Island, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela
Year of Discovery:1864
Geological Setting of type material:Cave guano deposit.

Occurrences of Brushite

Geological Setting:Ins biological phosphate as well as sedimentary phosphate deposits; incrustations on ancient bones and crypts. May form due to run-off from heavily fertilized fields.

Physical Properties of Brushite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Pearly, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Comment:Pearly on cleavages.
Colour:Colorless, light yellow; colorless in transmitted light.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {010} and {001}, perfect.
Density (measured):2.30 - 2.33 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.32 g/cm3
Comment:2.326 (artificial crystals).

Crystallography of Brushite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/b {B1 1 2/b} {C2/c} {C1 2/c 1}
Space Group Setting:C2/c
Cell Parameters:a = 6.265Å, b = 15.19Å, c = 5.814Å
β = 116.47°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.412 : 1 : 0.383
Unit Cell Volume:V 495.29 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals minute, acicular or prismatic to tabular {010}. Efflorescences, cavity linings. Earthy, pulverulent, foliated.
Comment:Zeitschrift Krist. 181:205 (1987) structure
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
7.62 (100)
4.27 (10)
3.80 (30)
3.06 (10)
2.93 (10)
2.63 (10)
2.53 (10)
1.90 (10)
Comments:ICDD 11-293, also 9-77 (synthetic)

Optical Data of Brushite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.539 - 1.540 nβ = 1.544 - 1.546 nγ = 1.551 - 1.552
2V:Measured: 59° to 87°, Calculated: 80°
Birefringence:0.012
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.012

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:r >v , crossed
Optical Extinction:X ^ c = 30°, Z=b
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Brushite

Formula:
Ca(HPO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca(HPO4)·2H2O
Essential elements:Ca, H, O, P
All elements listed in formula:Ca, H, O, P

Relationship of Brushite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.CJ.05Stercorite
Na(NH
 
4
)HPO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CJ.10Mundrabillaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(HPO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
8.CJ.10Swaknoite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(HPO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
8.CJ.15Nabaphite
NaBaPO
 
4
· 9H
 
2
O
8.CJ.15Nastrophite
Na(Sr,Ba)PO
 
4
· 9H
 
2
O
8.CJ.20Haidingerite
CaHAsO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
8.CJ.25Vladimirite
Ca
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(AsO
 
3
OH) · 4H
 
2
O
8.CJ.30Ferrarisite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 9H
 
2
O
8.CJ.35Machatschkiite
(Ca,Na)
 
6
(AsO
 
4
)(HAsO
 
4
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
,SO
 
4
) · 15H
 
2
O
8.CJ.40Phaunouxite
Ca
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
8.CJ.40Rauenthalite
Ca
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.CJ.45Brockite
(Ca,Th,Ce)PO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
8.CJ.45Grayite
(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(Ce)
(Ce,La)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(La)
(La,Ce)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(Nd)
(Nd,Ce,La)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
8.CJ.45Tristramite
(Ca,U,Fe)(PO
 
4
,SO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
8.CJ.45Smirnovskite
CaTh(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
8.CJ.50Ardealite
Ca
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)(SO
 
4
) · 4H
 
2
O
8.CJ.50Churchite-(Y)
Y(PO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
8.CJ.50Pharmacolite
Ca(HAsO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
8.CJ.50Churchite-(Nd)
Nd(PO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
8.CJ.55Mcnearite
NaCa
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)(HAsO
 
4
)
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CJ.60Dorfmanite
Na
 
2
HPO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
8.CJ.65Sincosite
Ca(VO)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
8.CJ.65Bariosincosite
Ba(VO)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CJ.70Catalanoite
Na
 
2
(HPO
 
4
) · 8H
 
2
O
8.CJ.75Guérinite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 9H
 
2
O
8.CJ.85Ningyoite
CaU(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 1-2H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.4.1Monetite
Ca(HPO
 
4
)
19.4.2Hydroxylapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
19.4.4Isoclasite
Ca
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
19.4.5Buchwaldite
NaCa(PO
 
4
)
19.4.6Canaphite
Na
 
2
Ca(P
 
2
O
 
7
) · 4H
 
2
O
19.4.7Mundrabillaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(HPO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.4.8Whitlockite
Ca
 
9
Mg(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(HPO
 
4
)
19.4.9Brianite
Na
 
2
CaMg(PO
 
4
)
 
2
19.4.10Petersite-(Y)
(Y,Ce,Nd)Cu
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O

Other Names for Brushite

Synonyms:
EpiglaubiteMetabrushiteStoffertite
Other Languages:
German:Brushit
Epiglaubit
Russian:Брушит
Spanish:Brushita
Epiglaubita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent.
Electrical:Piezoelectric
Other Information:Readily soluble in HCl.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Brushite

Reference List:

- +
Shepard (1856) American Journal of Science: 22: 96 (as Epiglaubite).

Julien (1865) American Journal of Science: 40: 369 (as Metabrushite).

Moore (1865) American Journal of Science: 39: 43.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 828.

Klein (1901) Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin: 720 (as Stoffertite).

Lacroix, A. (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 4: 491.

Koehler (1926) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 37: 93.

Chudoba (1928) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 291.

Hintze, Carl (1931) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4B]: 788.

Sekanina (1935) Publications of the Faculty of Science of the University Masaryk, Brno [220].

Hill and Hendricks (1936) Ind. Eng. Chem.: 28: 441.

Terpstra (1937) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 97: 229.

Frondel, C. (1943) American Mineralogist: 28: 215.

Van Tassel (1944) Bulletin of the Museum of Natural History of Belgium: 22, no. 17.

Mélon and Dallemagne (1946) Bulletin de la Sociètè Belge de Gèologie: 69: B19.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 704-706.
American Mineralogist (1956) 41:616.
Belluomini G. (1968) - Brushite in efflorescenze su frammenti ossei umani d'età romana. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 21-29.
Mineralogical Society of London Monograph 4 (1974)
American Mineralogist 76: 1722 (1991).
Zeit. Krist. 181:205 (1987) structure.

Internet Links for Brushite

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  • Localities for Brushite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Algeria
     
    Korbel & Novak, 1999. Min. Encylopaedia, p.179
      • Oran
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
    Antarctica
     
    • Eastern Antarctica
      • Princess Elizabeth Land
        • Ingrid Christensen Coast
    Gore, D.B., Nichols, G.T., Lehmann, C.E.R., Burgess, J.S., Baird, A.S.&, Creagh, D.C. (2000) An atlas of surficial salts of the Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica: composition, distribution and origin ANARE Report 143. 146 pp
    • Western Antarctica
    Barczuk A. & Tatur A. 2003: BIOGENIC PHOSPHATE AND SULPHATE MINERALS IN THESOILS OF ANTARCTIC PENINSULA. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 23, pp. 41-43
    Australia
     
    • Victoria
      • Corangamite Shire
        • Skipton
          • Mt. Widderin (Anderson's Hill)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 700.; Webb, J. A., Joyce, E. B., & Stevens, N. C. (1982). Lava caves of Australia. In Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology. International Speleological Foundation, Seattle. p74-85.
      • East Gippsland Shire
        • Buchan
    • Western Australia
      • Dandaragan Shire
        • Jurien Bay
    Helictite 13:19-33
      • Dundas Shire
        • Cocklebiddy Roadhouse
    Mineralogical Magazine (1973): 39,467-469.; Caves: processes, development, and management By David S. Gillieson
        • Madura Roadhouse
    Mineralogical Magazine (1974): 39: 889.-890.
      • Meekatharra Shire
        • Milgun Station
    R Bottrill, unpub. data;
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Ankogel group
          • Kleinelend valley
    F. Brandstätter, G. Niedermayr: Carinthia II 186./106.:132-133 (1996)
        • Hafner group
          • Pölla valley
            • Lanisch
    Pichler, A. (2009): Bergbau in Westkärnten. Eine Bestandsaufnahme der noch sichtbaren Merkmale der historischen Bergbaue in Westkärnten. - Carinthia II, 63. Sh., 416 S., Klagenfurt
    PICHLER, A. (2009): Bergbau in Westkärnten. Eine Bestandsaufnahme der noch sichtbaren Merkmale der historischen Bergbaue in Westkärnten. p.88, 92-94
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
      • Kreuzeck group
        • Obervellach
    Niedermayr (1997)
    • Lower Austria
      • Mostviertel
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Salzburg
      • Werfen
        • Tennen Mts
          • Tenneck
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
    • Styria
      • Niedere Tauern
        • Pöls valley
    A.Alker (1968)
      • Schladming
        • Schladminger Tauern
          • Obertalbach valley
            • Eschach Alp (Eschachboden; Martinlager)
    Annalen 1999, p.63-70
    Bahamas
     
    • San Salvador District
      • San Salvador Island
    Carb.&Evap. v.16 no.1 (2001)
    British West Indies
     
    • Anguilla
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
    Canada
     
    • Yukon Territory
      • Dawson Mining District
    [Mineralogical Record Vol 23 No.4 pp 37]
    Robinson, G.W., Van Velthuizen, J., Ansell, H.G. & Sturman, B.D. (1992): Mineralogy of the Rapid Creek and Big Fish River area, Yukon Territory. Mineralogical Record 23, 1-47.
    Handbook for Mineralogy, v. 4
    Denmark
     
    • Southern Denmark Region
      • Fyn
        • Fyns Amt
    Claus Hedegaard collection
    Finland
     
    • Southern Finland Region
      • Lappeenranta
    Hytönen,K. (1999): Suomen Mineraalit. Geologian tutkimuskeskus. Erillisjulkaisu, Jyväskylä, 399 pp.
    France
     
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Hérault
        • Cevennes Mts
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
    • Limousin
      • Haute-Vienne
        • Limoges
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
    Germany
     
    • Lower Saxony
      • Lüneburg
    A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Eifel
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Schlema-Hartenstein District
          • Schlema
            • Oberschlema
    J. Gröbner and U. Kolitsch (2007): Aktuelle Neufunde aus dem Erzgebirge III. Mineralien-Welt 18 (5), 16-19. (in German)
    Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
    • Thuringia
      • Saalfeld
        • Garnsdorf
    F. Rüger, L. Senf & T. Witzke: Lapis 1995 (1), 15-26
    Hungary
     
    • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
      • Aggteleki Mtns
        • Aggtelek
    • Komárom-Esztergom Co.
      • Gerecse Mtns
        • Lábatlan
    Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
    • Veszprém Co.
      • Balaton Uplands
    Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • La Spezia Province
        • Rocchetta Vara
    Balestra, C., Kolitsch, U., Blaß, G., Callegari, A.M., Baiocchi, M., Armellino, G., Ciriotti, M.E., Ambrino, P., Bracco, R.: Mineralogia ligure 2007-2008: novità caratterizzate dal servizio UK dell'AMI. Micro (UK report) 1/2009 pp. 78-99
    • Puglia
      • Bari Province
    Balenzano, F., Dell'Ann,a L. & Di Pierro, M. (1974a): Ricerche mineralogiche su alcuni fosfati rinvenuti nelle Grotte di Castellana (Bari): strengite alluminifera, vivianite, taranakite, brushite e idrossiapatite. Rendiconti della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrologia, 30(2), 543-573.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kanto Region
        • Kanagawa Prefecture
    Matsubara & Chiba (1982) Shizenkagaku To Hakubutsukan, 49, 151-153.
      • Tohoku Region
        • Iwate Prefecture
          • Kamaishi City
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    • Kyushu Region
      • Kumamoto Prefecture
    Nobuhide Sawamura & Hitoshi Momoi: “Cave minerals and the guano from Kyusendo cave in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan”, Journal of the Speleological Society of Japan; N. Kashiima: “The phosphate minerals from Kyusen-do cave, southern Kyushu”, Journal of the Speleological Society of Japan.)
    Kenya
     
    • Rift Valley Province
      • Suswa Volcano
    Forti, P., E. Galli & A. Rossi (2004):"Minerogenesis of volcanic caves of Kenya" , Int. J. Speleol. 32, 3-18
    Kiribati
     
    Van King
    Van King
    Malaysia
     
    • Borneo Island
      • Sarawak
    Mineralogical Magazine (1983): 47: 79-80.
    Mexico
     
    • Coahuila
      • Mun. de Cuatrociénegas
        • Cuatro Ciénegas (Cuatrociénegas de Carranza; Venustiano Carranza)
          • Limestone caves
    Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
    Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
    Morocco
     
    • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
      • Ouarzazate Province
        • Tazenakht
    WALENTA (1981) Grüner Helvin von Azegour, Der Aufschluß, 32, 443-449
    Namibia
     
    • Khomas Region
      • Windhoek District
        • Windhoek
          • Friedenau Farm 16
    DILL, H.G., PÖLLMANN, H. , BOSECKER, K., HAHN, L. and MWIYA, S.(2002) Supergene mineralization in mining residues of the Matchless cupreous pyrite deposit (Namibia) – A clue to the origin of modern and fossil duricrusts in semiarid climates.- Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 75: 43-70
    • Otjozondjupa Region
      • Grootfontein District
        • Kombat
    Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
    Puerto Rico
     
    • Mayaguez
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
    Wise, W. (1997), J. Cave and Karst Studies, 53,170.
    Réunion Island
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 716.
    Romania
     
    • Bistrița-Năsăud Co.
      • Rodna Mtn (Rodnei Mtn)
    al României, I. G. (2003) The 5 Th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp11-12
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Cerna valley
    Onac, B. P. (2009): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 38/1, 27-39
    B. Onac et al (2009, July) Mineralogical and Stable Isotope Investigations of Minerals from Caves on Cerna Valley (Romania). Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. pp318-323
      • Hunedoara
    European Journal of Mineralogy; April 2009; v. 21; no. 2; p. 507-514; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
    • Maramureș Co.
      • Chioarului District
        • Chioarului Hills
    Neacșu Antonela, Cioacă Mihaela (2007) Gemological occurrences in Romania. PROIECT ROMANIT, Raport 2b. Geologie, p.29-30
    • Sălaj Co.
      • Boiului Plateau
    Tudor Tămaș, Răzvan Ungureanu (2010)-Mineralogy of Speleothems from four caves in the Purcăreț-Boiu Mare Plateau and the Baia Mare Depression (NW Romania). Studia Universitatis Babeș-Boyai, Geologia, 55 (2), 43-49.
    • Suceava Co.
      • Suceava district
        • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
    http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
    Russia
     
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
    [Der Aufschluss 1995:4 p163-180]
    [Der Aufschluss 1995:4 p.163-180]
    Slovakia
     
    • Košice Region
      • Košice Co.
        • Jasov (Jossau; Joss)
    Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
      • Rožňava Co.
        • Ardovo
    Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
        • Kečovo
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
    • Prešov Region
      • Prešov Co.
        • Červenica
          • Dubník
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
    South Africa
    Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995), Minerals of South Africa.
    • Gauteng Province
      • Carletonville
    Minerals of South Africa
      • Oberholzer
    Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, pg 191.
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Ehlanzeni District
        • Nelspruit
    Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997), "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997)
    Spain
     
    • Balearic Islands
    B. Onac et al (2009) Mineral Diversity in Caves from Mallorca Island, Spain. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 325
    • Catalonia
      • Barcelona
        • Baix Llobregat
          • Gavà
            • Bruguers
    Bareche, E (2005) "Els minerals de Catalunya. Segle XX" Ed. Grup Mineralògic Català, Barcelona, 269 p.
    Switzerland
     
    • Bern
      • Emme Valley
        • Burgdorf
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 88
    • Vaud (Waadt)
      • Payerne
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 88
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • St Just District
          • St Just
            • Botallack
              • Botallack Mine
    Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Whetstone Mts
          • Whetstone District
    www.caves.org; Hill, C.A. (1999) Mineralogy of Kartchner Caverns, Arizona, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies: 61(2): 73-78
    • California
      • Mono Co.
        • Mono Lake
    • Illinois
      • Kankakee Co.
        • Bourbonnais
    Handbook for Mineralogy, v. 4
    • New Hampshire
      • Grafton Co.
        • Groton
    Whitmore & Lawrence, 2004. The Pegmatite Mines Known As Palermo, p.95.
    • Tennessee
      • DeKalb Co.
    Handbook for Mineralogy, v. 4
    • Virginia
      • Giles Co.
    Murray, J. W. & Dietrich, R. V. (1956): Brushite and taranakite from Pig Hole Cave, Giles County, Virginia. American Mineralogist 41, 616-626.
    Venezuela
     
    • Aragua
    Urbani, 1997. Bol. Soc. Venezolana de Espeleología, no.30.
    • Miranda
    Urbani, 1997. Bol. Soc. Venezolana de Espeleología, no.30.
    Urbani, 1997. Bol. Soc. Venezolana de Espeleología, no.30.
    • Nueva Esparta
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 705.
    Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
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