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Calaverite

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Formula:
AuTe2
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Grass yellow to silver ...
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Name:
Named in 1868 by Fredrick August Ludwig Karl Wilhelm Genth for the type locality at the Stanislaus Mine, in Calaveras County, California, USA.
Dimorph of:
This page provides mineralogical data about Calaverite.

Classification of Calaverite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
2.EA.10

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
E : Metal Sulfides, M: S <= 1:2
A : M:S = 1:2 - With Cu, Ag, Au
2.12.13.2

2 : SULFIDES
12 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
3.3.1

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
3 : Sulphides etc. of Au
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First Recorded Occurrence of Calaverite

Year of Discovery:
1861

Occurrences of Calaverite

Geological Setting:
Low temperature hydrothermal veins.

Physical Properties of Calaverite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Grass yellow to silver white
Streak:
Greenish to yellowish gray
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=197 - 213 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
9.1 - 9.4 g/cm3 (Measured)    9.31 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Calaverite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.19Å, b = 4.4Å, c = 5.08Å
β = 90.3°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.634 : 1 : 1.155
Unit Cell Volume:
V 160.71 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Bladed and short to slender prisms.
Twinning:
Commonly on {110}, less frequently on {031} and {111}.
Comment:
Space group C2/m or C2. Incommensurately modulated structure.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.02 (10)
2.93 (3)
2.20 (4)
2.09 (8)
1.758 (3)
1.689 (3)
1.506 (3)
Comments:
Similar to the data for muthmannite.

Optical Data of Calaverite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Weak
Colour in reflected light:
White
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of Calaverite

Formula:
AuTe2
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ag

Relationship of Calaverite to other Species

2.EA.05Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
2.EA.15KostoviteCuAuTe4
2.EA.15Krennerite(Au,Ag)Te2
2.EA.20BerndtiteSnS2
2.EA.20KitkaiteNiTeSe
2.EA.20MeloniteNiTe2
2.EA.20Merenskyite(Pd,Pt)(Te,Bi)2
2.EA.20Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
2.EA.20ShuangfengiteIrTe2
2.EA.20SudovikovitePtSe2
2.EA.25VerbeekitePdSe2
2.EA.30DrysdalliteMo(Se,S)2
2.EA.30JordisiteMoS2
2.EA.30MolybdeniteMoS2
2.EA.30TungsteniteWS2
3.3.2Krennerite(Au,Ag)Te2
3.3.3KostoviteCuAuTe4
3.3.4UytenbogaardtiteAg3AuS2
3.3.5FischesseriteAg3AuSe2
3.3.6PetrovskaiteAuAg(S,Se)
3.3.7PetziteAg3AuTe2
3.3.8MuthmanniteAuAgTe2
3.3.9Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
3.3.10Penzhinite(Ag,Cu)4Au(S,Se)4
3.3.11Bezsmertnovite(Au,Ag)4Cu(Te,Pb)
3.3.12BilibinskitePbCu2Au3Te2
3.3.13Bogdanovite(Au,Te,Pb)3(Cu,Fe)
3.3.14Montbrayite(Au,Sb)2Te3

Other Names for Calaverite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Calaverit
Simplified Chinese:碲金矿
Spanish:Calaverita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Gold ore

References for Calaverite

Reference List:
Penfield, Samuel Lewis & William Ebenezer Ford (1902), Über den Calaverit: Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 35: 430-451.

Smith, George Frederick Herbert (1903), Ueber das bemerkenswerthe Problem der Entwickelung der Kristallformer der Calaverit: Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 37: 209-234.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 169: 227-236.

Goldschmidt, Victor, C. Palache & M.A. Peacock (1931), Über Calaverit: Neues Jahrb. F. Min. etc. B.B. 63, Abt. A.: 1-58.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 335-338.

Schutte, W.J. and J.L. de Boer (1988): Valence fluctuations in the incommensurately modulated structure of calaverite AuTe2. Acta Cryst., 44, 486–494.

Reithmayer, K., Steurer, W., Schulz, H., de Boer, J. L. (1993): High-pressure single-crystal structure study on calaverite, AuTe2. Acta Crystallographica, B49, 6-11.

Internet Links for Calaverite

Specimens:
The following Calaverite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Calaverite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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