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Calderite

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Formula:
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
System:IsometricColour:Dark reddish brown to ...
Member of:Garnet Structural Group
Name:Named in honor of James Calder, an early writer on the geology of India. The name calderite was first applied to a garnet-bearing rock, and later to a poorly defined massive garnet from India (Clark 1993). Dana 6th (1892) page 433 gave an analysis of the Indian mineral but it is not calderite (it only shows trace Mn). Calderite has faded from the literature and was not regarded as a valid species (Fleischer 1971, 1975), until the a manganese-iron garnet reported by Vermass (1952) from Namibia and the calderite reported from Labrador by Klein (1966) was reinvestigated by Dunn (1979). Dunn recommended revalidation of the species citing the data only from the Namibian and Canadian localities. He confirmed the Wabush calderite as being closer to end-member composition (61.5-72.8% calderite, 38.5-27.2% andradite) than those from Namibia (51% calderite, 36% grossular and 13% spessartine).
This page provides mineralogical data about Calderite.

Classification of Calderite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/A.08-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AD.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:51.4.3a.6

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.18.34

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
18 : Silicates of Mn and Na, K, Mg, Ca or Fe
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Type Occurrence of Calderite

Co-type Localities:Wabush iron formation, Labrador, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
Otjosondu, Otjozondjupa Region, Namibia
Year of Discovery:1909

Physical Properties of Calderite

Colour:Dark reddish brown to dark yellowish, brown-yellow

Crystallography of Calderite

Crystal System:Isometric
Cell Parameters:a = 11.81Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,647.21 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Calderite

Type:Isotropic

Chemical Properties of Calderite

Formula:
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3
Essential elements:Fe, Mn, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, O, Si
Common Impurities:Ti,Mg

Relationship of Calderite to other Species

Member of:Garnet Structural Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Almandine
Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Andradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Berzeliite
NaCa
 
2
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Bitikleite
Ca
 
3
SbSn(AlO
 
4
)
 
3
Blythite
Mn
2+
3
Mn
3+
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
3
Dzhuluite
Ca
 
3
SbSnFe
3+
3
O
 
12
Elbrusite
Ca
 
3
U
6+
 
ZrFe
3+
2
Fe
2+
 
O
 
12
Goldmanite
Ca
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Grossular
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Henritermierite
Ca
 
3
(Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
Hutcheonite
Ca
 
3
Ti
 
2
(SiAl
 
2
)O
 
12
Irinarassite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
Al
 
2
SiO
 
12
Katoite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
Kerimasite
Ca
 
3
Zr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
Khoharite
Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Kimzeyite
Ca
 
3
(Zr,Ti)
 
2
((Si,Al,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
Knorringite
Mg
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Majorite
Mg
 
3
(Fe
2+
 
,Si,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Menzerite-(Y)
{(Y,REE),(Ca,Fe
2+
 
)}
 
3
{(Mg,Fe
2+
 
),(Fe
3+
 
,Al)}
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
3
Momoiite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Morimotoite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
Palenzonaite
(Ca,Na)
 
3
CaMn
2+
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Pyrope
Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Schäferite
Ca
 
2
NaMg
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Schorlomite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
Skiagite
Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
3
Spessartine
Mn
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Toturite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
Usturite
Ca
 
3
SbZr(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
3
Uvarovite
Ca
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Yafsoanite
Ca
 
3
Zn
 
3
(TeO
 
6
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AD.05Larnite
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
9.AD.10Calcio-Olivine
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
9.AD.15Merwinite
Ca
 
3
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.20Bredigite
Ca
 
7
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
9.AD.25Andradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Almandine
Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Goldmanite
Ca
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Grossular
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Henritermierite
Ca
 
3
(Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.AD.25Hibschite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Hydroandradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Katoite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Kimzeyite
Ca
 
3
(Zr,Ti)
 
2
((Si,Al,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Knorringite
Mg
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Majorite
Mg
 
3
(Fe
2+
 
,Si,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Morimotoite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Pyrope
Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Schorlomite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Spessartine
Mn
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Uvarovite
Ca
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Wadalite
(Ca,Mg)
 
6
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
4
((Si,Al)O
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
4
Cl
 
3
9.AD.25Holtstamite
Ca
 
3
(Al,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.AD.25Kerimasite
Ca
 
3
Zr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.25Toturite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.25Momoiite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Eltyubyuite
Ca
 
12
Fe
3+
10
Si
 
4
O
 
32
Cl
 
6
9.AD.25Hutcheonite
Ca
 
3
Ti
 
2
(SiAl
 
2
)O
 
12
9.AD.30Coffinite
(U
4+
 
,Th)(SiO
 
4
)
 
1-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.30Hafnon
HfSiO
 
4
9.AD.30Thorite
(Th,U)SiO
 
4
9.AD.30Thorogummite
(Th,U)(SiO
 
4
)
 
1-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.30Zircon
ZrSiO
 
4
9.AD.30Stetindite
Ce
4+
 
SiO
 
4
9.AD.35Huttonite
ThSiO
 
4
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)
Y
 
4
(Si,H
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
12-x
(OH)
 
4+2x
9.AD.40Eulytine
Bi
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.45Reidite
ZrSiO
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.18.1Nambulite
(Li,Na)Mn
 
4
Si
 
5
O
 
14
(OH)
14.18.2Natronambulite
(Na,Li)(Mn,Ca)
 
4
Si
 
5
O
 
14
OH
14.18.3Zakharovite
Na
 
4
Mn
 
5
Si
 
10
O
 
24
(OH)
 
6
· 6H
 
2
O
14.18.4Norrishite
KLiMn
3+
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)O
 
2
14.18.5Shafranovskite
(Na,K)
 
6
(Mn,Fe)
 
3
Si
 
9
O
 
24
· 6H
 
2
O
14.18.6Abswurmbachite
CuMn
3+
6
(SiO
 
4
)O
 
8
14.18.7Donpeacorite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)Mg[SiO
 
3
]
 
2
14.18.8Kanoite
Mn
2+
 
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
14.18.9Caryopilite
(Mn,Mg)
 
3
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
14.18.10Gonyerite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
Fe
3+
 
(Fe
3+
 
Si
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
14.18.11Tirodite
14.18.12Manganhumite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
14.18.13Bustamite
CaMn
2+
 
(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)
14.18.14Glaucochroite
CaMn
2+
 
SiO
 
4
14.18.15Truscottite
(Ca,Mn)
 
14
Si
 
24
O
 
58
(OH)
 
8
· 2H
 
2
O
14.18.16Santaclaraite
CaMn
 
4
[Si
 
5
O
 
14
OH](OH) · H
 
2
O
14.18.17Ferrobustamite
Ca(Fe
2+
 
,Ca,Mn
2+
 
)(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)
14.18.18Johannsenite
CaMn
2+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
14.18.19Neltnerite
CaMn
3+
6
(SiO
 
4
)O
 
8
14.18.20Orlymanite
Ca
 
4
Mn
 
3
Si
 
8
O
 
20
(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
14.18.21Inesite
Ca
 
2
(Mn,Fe)
 
7
Si
 
10
O
 
28
(OH)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
14.18.22Orientite
Ca
 
2
Mn
2+
 
Mn
3+
2
(Si
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
4
14.18.23Ruizite
Ca
 
2
Mn
3+
2
[(OH)
 
2
|H
 
2
Si
 
4
O
 
13
] · 2H
 
2
O
14.18.24Bostwickite
CaMn
 
6
Si
 
3
O
 
16
· 7H
 
2
O
14.18.25Kittatinnyite
Ca
 
2
Mn
 
2
Mn(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· 9H
 
2
O
14.18.26Lithiomarsturite
LiCa
 
2
Mn
 
2
Si
 
5
O
 
14
(OH)
14.18.27Sérandite
Na(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
2
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
14.18.28Kvanefjeldite
Na
 
4
(Ca,Mn)(Si
 
3
O
 
7
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
14.18.29Marsturite
NaCaMn
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
14
(OH)
14.18.30Raite
Na
 
4
Mn
2+
3
Ti
 
0.25
Si
 
8
O
 
20
(OH)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
14.18.31Richterite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
14.18.32Byelorussite-(Ce)
NaBa
 
2
Ce
 
2
MnTi
 
2
[Si
 
4
O
 
12
]
 
2
O
 
2
(F,OH) · H
 
2
O
14.18.33Deerite
(Fe,Mn)
 
6
(Fe,Al)
 
3
[Si
 
6
O
 
17
]O
 
3
(OH)
 
5
14.18.35Pyroxmangite
MnSiO
 
3
14.18.36Dannemorite
14.18.37Neotocite
(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO
 
3
· H
 
2
O
14.18.38Babingtonite
Ca
 
2
(Fe,Mn)FeSi
 
5
O
 
14
(OH)
14.18.39Manganbabingtonite
Ca
 
2
(Mn,Fe)FeSi
 
5
O
 
14
(OH)
14.18.40Örebroite
Mn
2+
3
(Sb
5+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(SiO
 
4
)(O,OH)
 
3

Other Names for Calderite

Synonyms:
Calderite (of Fermor)
Other Languages:
German:Calderit
Russian:Кальдерит
Spanish:Calderita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Calderite

Reference List:

- +
Dana 6th (1892), 433.

Fermor, L. L. (1926): On the composition of some Indian garnets. Records Geol. Surv. India, 59, Pt. 2, 191-207.

VERMASS, F.H.S. (1952): Manganese-iron garnet from Otjosondu, South-West Africa. Mineralogical Magazine 29, 946-951.

KLEIN, C. (1966): Mineralogy and petrology of the metamorphosed Wabush iron formation, southwest Labrador. Journal of Petrology 7, 246-305.

DUNN, P.J. (1979): On the validity of calderite. Canadian Mineralogist 17, 569-571. American Mineralogist: 66: 1280.

CLARK, A.M. (1993): Hey's Mineral Index (3rd ed.). Chapman and Hall, London, U.K. (107).

Internet Links for Calderite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Calderite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Calderite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Calderite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Canada
     
    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      • Labrador
    KLEIN, C. (1966): Mineralogy and petrology of the metamorphosed Wabush iron formation, southwest Labrador. Journal of Petrology 7, 246-305. DUNN, P.J. (1979): On the validity of calderite. Canadian Mineralogist 17, 569-571.
    India
     
    • Jharkhand
      • Hazaribagh District
    DUNN, P.J. (1979): On the validity of calderite. Canadian Mineralogist 17, 569-571. CLARK, A.M. (1993): Hey's Mineral Index (3rd ed.). Chapman and Hall, London, U.K. (107).
    • Madhya Pradesh
      • Balaghat District
    Dasgupta, S., Bhattacharya, P. K., Banerjee, H., Fukuoka, M., Majumdar, N., & Suprya, R. (1987). Calderite-rich garnets from metamorphosed manganese silicate rocks of the Sausar Group, India, and their derivation. Mineral Mag, 51, 577-583.
    Italy
     
    • Aosta Valley
      • Saint-Marcel
    Cenki-Tok, B. & Chopin, C. (2006): Coexisting calderite and spessartine garnets in eclogite-facies metacherts of the Western Alps. Mineralogy and Petrology, 88, 47-68.
      • Valtournanche Valley
        • Valtournanche
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    Namibia
     
    • Otjozondjupa Region
    VERMASS, F.H.S. (1952): Manganese-iron garnet from Otjosondu, South-West Africa. Mineralogical Magazine 29, 946-951. DUNN, P.J. (1979): On the validity of calderite. Canadian Mineralogist 17, 569-571. CLARK, A.M. (1993): Hey's Mineral Index (3rd ed.). Chapman and Hall, London, U.K. (107).
    Romania
     
    • Suceava Co.
      • Suceava district
        • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
    http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
    Serbia
     
    Lauf, R. J. (2013) Deerite, Howieite, and Zussmanite. Mineral News, 29, 31, 1-10.
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
    Minerals of South Africa
    Switzerland
     
    • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
      • Hinterrhein Valley
        • Ferrera Valley
          • Ausserferrera
          • Starlera Valley
    Lapis 36 (2) (2011) p. 14; Brugger J. (1996): The Fe, Mn, (V, Sb, As, Be, W) deposits of Val Ferrera (Graubünden, Switzerland). Unpublished PhD Thesis, Univ. Basel. 188 p.
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