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Caledonite

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Formula:
Pb
 
5
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
System:OrthorhombicColour:Dark blue to ...
Lustre:Vitreous, ResinousHardness:2½ - 3
Name:Named in 1832 after "Caledonia," an ancient name for Scotland, in view of the initial discovery of the species in Scotland.


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Classification of Caledonite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/B.09-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.BC.50

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
Dana 7th edition ID:32.3.2.1
Dana 8th edition ID:32.3.2.1

32 : COMPOUND SULFATES
3 : Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Hey's CIM Ref.:12.2.15

12 : Carbonates with other anions
2 : Carbonates with sulphate
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Type Occurrence of Caledonite

Type Locality:Leadhills, South Lanarkshire, Strathclyde (Lanarkshire), Scotland, UK
Year of Discovery:1832

Occurrences of Caledonite

Geological Setting:A rare mineral found in the oxidized zones of copper-lead deposits as a secondary mineral.

Physical Properties of Caledonite

Lustre:Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Dark blue to bluish-green; light bluish green in transmitted light.
Streak:Greenish-blue to bluish-white, paler than the sample.
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {010}; incomplete on {100} and {101}.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):5.75 - 5.77 g/cm3
Density (calculated):5.689 g/cm3
Comment:5.6 value on Mammoth Mine, AZ, material.

Crystallography of Caledonite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mm2 - Pyramidal
Space Group:Pmn21
Cell Parameters:a = 20.089(7) Å, b = 7.146(3) Å, c = 6.56Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 2.811 : 1 : 0.918
Unit Cell Volume:V 941.73 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Prismatic crystals, elongated [001], often striated and with vicinal faces in the [001] zone. Crystals often tiny and aggregated into divergent groups; coatings; rarely massive.
Twinning:None reported.
Crystal Atlas:
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Caledonite no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Caledonite no.9 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
4.69(60)
3.15(40)
3.14(100)
3.03(60)
2.75(50)
2.27(30)
2.23(40)
1.86(60)

Optical Data of Caledonite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.818(3) nβ = 1.866(3) nγ = 1.909(3)
2V:Measured: 85° , Calculated: 84°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.091

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:very weak r < v
Pleochroism:Weak

Chemical Properties of Caledonite

Formula:
Pb
 
5
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
Simplified for copy/paste:Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Essential elements:C, Cu, H, O, Pb, S
All elements listed in formula:C, Cu, H, O, Pb, S

Relationship of Caledonite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.BC.05D'Ansite
Na
 
21
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
10
Cl
 
3
7.BC.10Alunite
KAl
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Ammonioalunite
(NH
 
4
)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Ammoniojarosite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Argentojarosite
AgFe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Cu)
Pb(Fe
3+
 
,Cu)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Dorallcharite
(Tl,K)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Huangite
Ca
 
0.5
Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Hydroniumjarosite
(H
 
3
O)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Jarosite
KFe
3+
 
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Natroalunite-2c
(Na,Ca
 
0.5
,K)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Natroalunite
(Na,K)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Natrojarosite
NaFe
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Osarizawaite
Pb(Al,Cu)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Plumbojarosite
Pb
 
0.5
Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Schlossmacherite
(H
 
3
O)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Walthierite
Ba
 
0.5
Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Zn)
Pb(Fe
3+
2
Zn)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.15Ye'elimite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
6
(SO
 
4
)O
 
12
7.BC.20Atlasovite
K(BiO)Cu
 
6
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
O
 
3
Cl
7.BC.20Nabokoite
KCu
 
7
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
(Te
4+
 
O
 
3
)OCl
7.BC.25Chlorothionite
K
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)Cl
 
2
7.BC.30Euchlorine
KNaCu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
O
7.BC.30Fedotovite
K
 
2
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
O
7.BC.35Kamchatkite
KCu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
OCl
7.BC.40Piypite
K
 
2
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
O
7.BC.45Klyuchevskite
K
 
3
Cu
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)(SO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
2
7.BC.45Alumoklyuchevskite
K
 
3
Cu
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(SO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
2
7.BC.55Wherryite
Pb
 
7
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
7.BC.60Mammothite
Pb
 
6
Cu
 
4
AlSb
5+
 
O
 
2
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.BC.65Linarite
PbCu(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
7.BC.65Schmiederite
Pb
 
2
Cu
 
2
(Se
6+
 
O
 
4
)(Se
4+
 
O
 
3
)(OH)
 
4
7.BC.65Munakataite
Pb
 
2
Cu
 
2
(Se
4+
 
O
 
3
)(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
7.BC.70Chenite
Pb
 
4
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.75Krivovichevite
Pb
 
3
Al(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
7
7.BC.80Anhydrokainite
KMg(SO
 
4
)Cl
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
12.2.1Burkeite
Na
 
6
(CO
 
3
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
12.2.2Hanksite
Na
 
22
K(SO
 
4
)
 
9
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Cl
12.2.3Tychite
Na
 
6
Mg
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
12.2.4Motukoreaite
Mg
 
6
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
18
[Na(H
 
2
O)
 
6
][SO
 
4
]
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
12.2.5Ferrotychite
Na
 
6
(Fe,Mn,Mg)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
12.2.6Nakauriite
Cu
 
8
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 48H
 
2
O
12.2.7Carbonatecyanotrichite
Cu
 
4
Al
 
2
(CO
 
3
,SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 2H
 
2
O
12.2.8Rapidcreekite
Ca
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(CO
 
3
) · 4H
 
2
O
12.2.9Tatarskite
Ca
 
6
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
Cl
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
12.2.10Schulenbergite
(Cu,Zn)
 
7
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
10
· 3H
 
2
O
12.2.11Leadhillite
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
12.2.12Macphersonite
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
12.2.13Susannite
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
12.2.14Wherryite
Pb
 
7
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
12.2.16Nasledovite
PbMn
 
3
Al
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)O
 
5
· 5H
 
2
O
12.2.17Jouravskite
Ca
 
3
Mn
4+
 
(SO
 
4
}(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 12H
 
2
O
12.2.18Schröckingerite
NaCa
 
3
(UO
 
2
)(CO
 
3
)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)F · 10H
 
2
O
12.2.19Manganotychite
Na
 
6
Mn
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
12.2.20Hauckite
Fe
3+
3
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
24
Zn
 
18
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
81
12.2.21Paraotwayite
Ni(OH)
 
2-x
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
0.5x
12.2.22Carrboydite
[(Ni
 
1-x
Al
 
x
)(OH)
 
2
][SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
12.2.23Mountkeithite
[(Mg
 
1-x
Fe
3+
x
)(OH)
 
2
][SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
12.2.24Camerolaite
Cu
 
4
Al
 
2
(HSbO
 
4
,SO
 
4
)(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
10
· 2H
 
2
O

Other Names for Caledonite

Synonyms:
Cupreous Sulfatocarbonate of LeadCupreous Sulphate-Carbonate of Lead
Other Languages:
French:Plomb sulfato-carbonaté cuprifère
German:Caledonit
Halbasurblei
Halbazurblei
Kaledonit
Kupferhaltiges schwefelkohlensaures Blei
Prismatischer Kupferbleispat
Japanese:カレドニア石
Russian:Каледонит
Simplified Chinese:铅蓝矾
Spanish:Caledonita

Other Information

Electrical:Piezoelectric
Other Information:Soluble in nitric acid with effervescence.

Alteration to cerussite observed.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:None

References for Caledonite

Reference List:

- +
Brooke (1820) Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Edinburgh: 3: 117 (as Cupreous Sulfatocarbonate of Lead).

Leonhard, K.C. (1821) Handbuch der Oryktognosie. First edition (1821); second edition (1826), Heidelberg: 254 (as Kupferhaltiges schwefelkohlensaures Blei).

Breithaupt, A. (1823) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 1st. ed.: 53 (as Prismatischer Kupferbleispat).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 367.

Dufrénoy, A. (1847) Traité de minéralogie, 1st. Edition, Vol. 3: 117 (as Plomb sulfato-carbonaté cuprifère).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition: vol. 2, in two parts (as Halbasurblei).

Brooke, H.J. and Miller, W.H. (1852) Introduction to Mineralogy by Wm. Phillips, London, 1823. New edition by Brooke and Miller. 8vo, London: 561.

Des Cloizeaux, A. (1867) Nouvelles recherches sur les propriétés optique des cristaux, naturels ou artificiels, et sur les variations que ces propriétés éprouvent sous l’influence de la chaleur. 222pp., Paris. (Institut imperial de France, Mémoires 18): 205.

Schrauf (1871) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 64: 179.

Collie (1889) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 55: 9.

Goldschmidt, V. (1897): 398.

Berg (1901) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 20: 390.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 52.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4257.

Richmond in: Palache, C. (1939) American Mineralogist: 24: 441.

Yosimura (1939) Journal of the Faculty of Science Hokkaido University: 4 [4]: 453.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 630-632.

Acta Crystallographica: B29: 1986-1990.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 668.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 104.

Internet Links for Caledonite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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  • Caledonite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Caledonite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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