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Caledonite

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Formula:
Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Dark blue to ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Name:
Named in 1832 after "Caledonia," an ancient name for Scotland, in view of the initial discovery of the species in Scotland.

Classification of Caledonite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7.BC.50

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
Dana 7th ed.:
32.3.2.1
32.3.2.1

32 : COMPOUND SULFATES
3 : Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
12.2.15

12 : Carbonates with other anions
2 : Carbonates with sulphate
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Type Occurrence of Caledonite

Year of Discovery:
1832

Occurrences of Caledonite

Geological Setting:
A rare mineral found in the oxidized zones of copper-lead deposits as a secondary mineral.

Physical Properties of Caledonite

Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Dark blue to bluish-green; light bluish green in transmitted light.
Streak:
Greenish-blue to bluish-white, paler than the sample.
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {010}; incomplete on {100} and {101}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
5.75 - 5.77 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.689 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
5.6 value on Mammoth Mine, AZ, material.

Crystallography of Caledonite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Space Group:
Pmn21
Cell Parameters:
a = 20.089(7) Å, b = 7.146(3) Å, c = 6.56Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.811 : 1 : 0.918
Unit Cell Volume:
V 941.73 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Prismatic crystals, elongated [001], often striated and with vicinal faces in the [001] zone. Crystals often tiny and aggregated into divergent groups; coatings; rarely massive.
Twinning:
None reported.

Crystallographic forms of Caledonite

Crystal Atlas:
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Caledonite no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Caledonite no.9 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.69(60)
3.15(40)
3.14(100)
3.03(60)
2.75(50)
2.27(30)
2.23(40)
1.86(60)

Optical Data of Caledonite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.818(3) nβ = 1.866(3) nγ = 1.909(3)
2V:
Measured: 85° , Calculated: 84°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.091
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
very weak r < v
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of Caledonite

Formula:
Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Caledonite to other Species

7.BC.05D'AnsiteNa21Mg(SO4)10Cl3
7.BC.10AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Ammonioalunite(NH4)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe3+,Cu)3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10DorallchariteTlFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10HuangiteCa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10OsarizawaitePb(Al,Cu)3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Schlossmacherite(H3O)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10WalthieriteBa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Zn)Pb(Fe23+Zn)(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.15Ye'elimiteCa4Al6(SO4)O12
7.BC.20AtlasoviteK(BiO)Cu6Fe3+(SO4)5O3Cl
7.BC.20NabokoiteKCu7(SO4)5(Te4+O3)OCl
7.BC.25ChlorothioniteK2Cu(SO4)Cl2
7.BC.30EuchlorineKNaCu3(SO4)3O
7.BC.30FedotoviteK2Cu3(SO4)3O
7.BC.35KamchatkiteKCu3(SO4)2OCl
7.BC.40PiypiteK2Cu2(SO4)2O
7.BC.45KlyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Fe3+,Al)(SO4)4O2
7.BC.45AlumoklyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)4O2
7.BC.55WherryitePb7Cu2(SO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2
7.BC.60MammothitePb6Cu4AlSb5+O2(OH)16Cl4(SO4)2
7.BC.65LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
7.BC.65SchmiederitePb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4
7.BC.65MunakataitePb2Cu2(Se4+O3)(SO4)(OH)4
7.BC.70ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.75KrivovichevitePb3Al(SO4)(OH)7
7.BC.80AnhydrokainiteKMg(SO4)Cl
12.2.1BurkeiteNa6(CO3)(SO4)2
12.2.2HanksiteNa22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
12.2.3TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
12.2.4MotukoreaiteMg6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2O
12.2.5FerrotychiteNa6(Fe,Mn,Mg)2(CO3)4(SO4)
12.2.6NakauriiteCu8(SO4)4(CO3)(OH)6 · 48H2O
12.2.7CarbonatecyanotrichiteCu4Al2(CO3,SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
12.2.8RapidcreekiteCa2(SO4)(CO3) · 4H2O
12.2.9TatarskiteCa6Mg2(SO4)2(CO3)2(OH)4Cl4 · 7H2O
12.2.10Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4,CO3)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
12.2.11LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
12.2.12MacphersonitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
12.2.13SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
12.2.14WherryitePb7Cu2(SO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2
12.2.16NasledovitePbMn3Al4(CO3)4(SO4)O5 · 5H2O
12.2.17JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4}(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
12.2.18SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
12.2.19ManganotychiteNa6Mn2(CO3)4(SO4)
12.2.20HauckiteFe33+(Mg,Mn2+)24Zn18(SO4)4(CO3)2(OH)81
12.2.21ParaotwayiteNi(OH)2-x(SO4,CO3)0.5x
12.2.22Carrboydite[(Ni1-xAlx)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2O
12.2.23Mountkeithite[(Mg1-xFex3+)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2O
12.2.24CamerolaiteCu6Al3(OH)18(H2O)2[Sb(OH)6](SO4)

Other Names for Caledonite

Other Information

Electrical:
Piezoelectric
Other Information:
Soluble in nitric acid with effervescence.

Alteration to cerussite observed.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
None

References for Caledonite

Reference List:
Brooke (1820) Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Edinburgh: 3: 117 (as Cupreous Sulfatocarbonate of Lead).

Leonhard, K.C. (1821) Handbuch der Oryktognosie. First edition (1821); second edition (1826), Heidelberg: 254 (as Kupferhaltiges schwefelkohlensaures Blei).

Breithaupt, A. (1823) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 1st. ed.: 53 (as Prismatischer Kupferbleispat).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 367.

Dufrénoy, A. (1847) Traité de minéralogie, 1st. Edition, Vol. 3: 117 (as Plomb sulfato-carbonaté cuprifère).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition: vol. 2, in two parts (as Halbasurblei).

Brooke, H.J. and Miller, W.H. (1852) Introduction to Mineralogy by Wm. Phillips, London, 1823. New edition by Brooke and Miller. 8vo, London: 561.

Des Cloizeaux, A. (1867) Nouvelles recherches sur les propriétés optique des cristaux, naturels ou artificiels, et sur les variations que ces propriétés éprouvent sous l’influence de la chaleur. 222pp., Paris. (Institut imperial de France, Mémoires 18): 205.

Schrauf (1871) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 64: 179.

Collie (1889) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 55: 9.

Goldschmidt, V. (1897): 398.

Berg (1901) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 20: 390.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 52.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4257.

Richmond in: Palache, C. (1939) American Mineralogist: 24: 441.

Yosimura (1939) Journal of the Faculty of Science Hokkaido University: 4 [4]: 453.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 630-632.

Acta Crystallographica: B29: 1986-1990.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 668.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 104.

Internet Links for Caledonite

Specimens:
The following Caledonite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Caledonite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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