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Calomel

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Formula:
(Hg
+
2
)Cl
 
2
System:TetragonalColour:Colourless, white, ...
Hardness:1½ - 2
Name:From Greek kalos = beautiful and melos = black, because it turns black when it comes into contact with ammonia. This reaction, which was already known to the alchemists centuries ago, is used as a test for mercury(I).

Classification of Calomel

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/A.05-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.AA.30

3 : HALIDES
A : Simple halides, without H2O
A : M:X = 1:1, 2:3, 3:5, etc.
Dana 8th edition ID:9.1.8.1

9 : NORMAL HALIDES
1 : AX
Hey's CIM Ref.:8.5.2

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
5 : Halides of Zn and Hg
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Type Occurrence of Calomel

Type Locality:Landsberg (Moschellandsberg), Alsenz-Obermoschel, Palatinate, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
Year of Discovery:1612

Occurrences of Calomel

Geological Setting:Uncommon in the secondary weathering zones of mercury deposits.

Physical Properties of Calomel

Lustre:Adamantine
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colourless, white, grayish, yellowish white, yellowish grey to ash-grey, brown; darkens upon exposure to light
Streak:Light yellowish white
Hardness (Mohs):1½ - 2
Tenacity:Sectile
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
{110} good but slightly uneven; {011} imperfect.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):7.15 g/cm3
Density (calculated):7.23 g/cm3

Crystallography of Calomel

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Class (H-M):4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:I4/mmm
Cell Parameters:a = 4.4795(5) Å, c = 10.9054(9) Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.435
Unit Cell Volume:V 218.83 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals often tabular {001}; prismatic [001]; pyramidal; equant, especially in complex twins. Complex development often exhibited. Drusy crusts of minute crystals. Massive, earthy.
Twinning:On {112}. As contact or interpenetrant twins often repeated and with irregular and concealed boundaries.

Optical Data of Calomel

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.973 nε = 2.656
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.683

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:Absorption E greater than O.
Comments:Mechanically deformed crystals may exhibit optical anomalies.

Chemical Properties of Calomel

Formula:
(Hg
+
2
)Cl
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:(Hg+2)Cl2
Essential elements:Cl, Hg
All elements listed in formula:Cl, Hg

Relationship of Calomel to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Kuzminite (see here)
Common Associates:
TerlinguaiteMontroyditeMercuryLimoniteEglestonite
ClayCinnabarCalcite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.AA.05Marshite
CuI
3.AA.05Miersite
(Ag,Cu)I
3.AA.05Nantokite
CuCl
3.AA.05UM1999-11:I:CuS
Cu(I,S)
3.AA.10Iodargyrite
AgI
3.AA.10Tocornalite
(Ag,Hg)I
3.AA.15Bromargyrite
AgBr
3.AA.15Chlorargyrite
AgCl
3.AA.20Carobbiite
KF
3.AA.20Griceite
LiF
3.AA.20Halite
NaCl
3.AA.20Sylvite
KCl
3.AA.20Villiaumite
NaF
3.AA.25Salammoniac
NH
 
4
Cl
3.AA.25UM1998-03-Cl:Tl
TlCl
3.AA.25Lafossaite
Tl(Cl,Br)
3.AA.30Kuzminite
(Hg
+
2
)(Br,Cl)
 
2
3.AA.30Moschelite
(Hg
+
2
)I
 
2
3.AA.35Neighborite
NaMgF
 
3
3.AA.40Chlorocalcite
KCaCl
 
3
3.AA.45Kolarite
PbTeCl
 
2
3.AA.50Radhakrishnaite
PbTe
 
3
(Cl,S)
 
2
3.AA.55Challacolloite
KPb
 
2
Cl
 
5
3.AA.60Hephaistosite
TlPb
 
2
Cl
 
5
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
8.5.1Simonkolleite
Zn
 
5
Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· H
 
2
O
8.5.3Terlinguaite
(Hg
+
2
)
 
0.5
Hg
2+
 
ClO
8.5.4Poyarkovite
(Hg
+
2
)
 
1.5
ClO
8.5.5Pinchite
Hg
2+
5
Cl
 
2
O
 
4
8.5.6Eglestonite
(Hg
2+
2
)
 
3
OCl
 
3
(OH)
8.5.7Kadyrelite
(Hg
2+
2
)
 
3
OBr
 
3
(OH)
8.5.8Comancheite
Hg
2+
55
N
3–
24
(NH
 
2
,OH)
 
4
(Cl,Br)
 
34
8.5.9Kuzminite
(Hg
+
2
)(Br,Cl)
 
2
8.5.10Moschelite
(Hg
+
2
)I
 
2
8.5.11Tocornalite
(Ag,Hg)I

Other Names for Calomel

Synonyms:
CalomelaneCalomeliteCorneous MercuryHorn MercuryHorn Quicksilver
Mercurio corneoMerkur-KeratPlata iodurada mercurialTurpeth
Other Languages:
French:Mercure chloruré
Mercure muriaté
German:Calomelit
Chlormercur
Chlormerkurspath
Chlorquecksilber
Hydrargyrit
Kalomel
Merkur-Hornerz
Merkurspath
Quecksilberchlorür
Quecksilber-Hornerz
Quecksilberhornerz
Quecksilberhornspath
Quecksilberspath
Italian:Calomelano
Russian:Каломель
Simplified Chinese:甘汞
Spanish:Calomelita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Brick-red (UV)
Thermal Behaviour:Thermally positive.
Health Warning:Contains mercury - always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when handling or breaking. Never lick or ingest.
Industrial Uses:Ore of mercury.

References for Calomel

Reference List:

- +
Goldschmidt and Mauritz (1908) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 44: 393.

Hillebrand and Schaller (1909) USGS Blletin 405: 159.

Havighurst (1925) American Journal of Science: 10: 15.

Mark and Steinbach (1926) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 64: 79.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 25-28.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 187: 305-307.

Internet Links for Calomel

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Calomel details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • Lapis Mineral Magazin
  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • Specimens:The following Calomel specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Calomel

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Chile
     
    • Atacama Region
      • Chañaral Province
        • Diego de Almagro
    Econ Geol (1991) 86:1287-1300
    China
     
    • Shandong Province
      • Linyi Prefecture
        • Pingyi Co.
          • Tongshi complex
    Jiansheng Qiu, Dezi Wang, Qijiang Ren, and Shugui Niu (1994): Geology and Prospecting 30(1), 7-12
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
        • Neřežín
    Velebil, D.: Jedová hora (Dědova hora) u Neřežína. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2003, roč. 11, s. 86-99.
    France
     
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Hérault
    Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 27.
    Germany
     
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Palatinate
        • Alsenz-Obermoschel
    Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 27.
    Hartmut Hensel Collection, Neustadt/Wstr.
    Dreyer, G. (1975): Neue Mineralien in der Rheinpfalz II, Mitteilungen der Pollichia, 63, 5-9.
    Arndt, H.; Reis, O. M. and Schwager, A. (1920)
    Hartmut Hensel Collection, Neustadt/Wstr.
        • Kirchheimbolanden
          • Mörsfeld
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
        • Kusel
          • Altenglan
            • Föckelberg
    Lapis 2001(6), 13-40
        • Rockenhausen
          • Stahlberg
    Lapis 2001(6), 13-40
        • Wolfstein
          • Königsberg
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    Italy
     
    • Emilia-Romagna
      • Parma Province
        • Albareto
          • Gotra Valley
    Pantanelli D. (1896) - Rame e mercurio nativo nell'Appennino Emiliano. - Atti Soc. R. Acc. dei Lincei, Rend. delle Sc. Fis. Mat. e Nat., Sr V, 11-14.
    • Tuscany
      • Lucca Province
        • Apuan Alps
          • Stazzema
    Orlandi, P. & Campostrini, I. (2005): Zibaldone. Aggiornamenti di mineralogia italiana 2004. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/2005, 184-191.
    Japan
     
    • Kyushu Region
      • Nagasaki Prefecture
        • Sasebo
    www.mineralmundi.com
    Kyrgyzstan
     
    • Osh Oblast
      • Alai Range (Alay Range)
    [Lapis 1993:11 p11-24]
        • Fergana Valley
    [Lapis 11:11-24]; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Mexico
     
    • Guerrero
      • Mun. de Taxco
        • Hauhauxtla
    Panczner (1987): 135-372.
    • Queretaro
      • Mun. de Cadereyta
        • El Doctor (Doctor)
    Panczner (1987): 135.
    • San Luis Potosí
      • Mun. de Moctezuma
        • Moctezuma
          • Hacienda de Santa Antonio de Rul
    Panczner(1987):135,164,185 & 372.; Percy Babb (1909) Dulces Nombres Quicksilver Deposit, Mexico. Engineering & Mining Journal 684-686.
    • Sonora
      • Mun. de Moctezuma
    Lapis 2001(1), 11-40
    • Zacatecas
      • Plateros
    [Clark, 1993 -"Hey's Mineral Index", p509]
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
          • Baunt District
            • North-Muya Range
              • Middle Kelyana River
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
      • Tuva Republic
        • Pii-Khem District
          • Uyuk Range
    Canadian Mineralogist Feb. 1999; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
            • Oorash-Khem River Valley
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
    [Der Aufschluss 1995:4 p163-180]
    Serbia
     
    • Belgrade
      • Mt Avala
    Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 27.
    Slovakia
     
    • Košice Region
      • Gelnica Co.
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
        • Švedlár (Schwedler)
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
      • Rožňava Co.
        • Nižná Slaná (Niedersalz; Alsósajó)
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Almería
        • Huércal-Overa
          • Cuesta Alta
            • Cerro Minado Mines
    VIÑALS, J., FAVREAU, G., and EYTIER C. & J.-R. (2010): Bobkingite, capgaronnite, juanitaite, gerhardtite, reevesite and other rare minerals from Cerro Minado, Huercal-Overa (Almería). Mineral Up, 4, 3, 6-23 Versions simultaneously published in Catalan (Mineralogistes de Catalunya); in Spanish version (Revista de Minerales).
    • Castile-La Mancha
      • Ciudad Real
        • Almadén District
          • Almadén
    Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 27.
    Jordi Fabre
          • Almadenejos
    Carles Curto Milà.
    UK
     
    • England
      • North Yorkshire
        • North Pennines
          • Wharfedale
            • Grassington
              • Grassington Moor
    Encyclopedia of Mins., 2nd Ed.:134.; Peter G. Embrey (1978) Fourth Supplementary List of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine 42:169-177
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Gila Co.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 174-175; Lausen, C. (1926), Tourmaline-bearing cinnabar veins of the Mazatzal Mountains, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 21: 782-791.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 153, 211.
      • Maricopa Co.
        • Mazatzal Mts
          • Sunflower District (Mazatzal Mountains District; Quicksilver District)
            • Gila County belt
    MRDS file #10040378.
    • Arkansas
      • Pike Co.
    Roberts, A.C. et al (2003), The Canadian Mineralogist: 41(3): 721-725.
    • California
      • Napa Co.
        • Knoxville District
          • Knoxville
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 119; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 197.
        • Mayacmas Mts (Mayacamas Mts)
          • East Mayacmas District
            • Aetna Springs
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 262.
      • San Benito Co.
        • Diablo Range
          • New Idria District
            • Picacho Peak
    Dunning, Hadley, Cooper, Magnasco collections; Canadian Mineralogist: 34: 61-72.; Mineralogical Record (1993): 24: 471-475.
      • San Luis Obispo Co.
        • Santa Lucia Mts (Santa Lucia Range)
          • Cambria-Oceanic District
            • Cambria
    Am Min 64:3-4 pp 1026-1038
      • San Mateo Co.
        • Emerald Lake Hills
    Rogers, Austin Flint (1911a), Eglestonite from San Mateo County, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 32: 48-50; Woodhouse, C.D. (1934), A new occurrence of montroydite in California: American Mineralogist: 19: 603-604; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 197.
          • Upper Emerald Lake
    Davis, Fenelon Francis (1955), Mines and mineral resources of San Mateo County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology: 51(4): 414-415; Holmes, Jr., G.W. (1965), Mercury in California: in: U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 8252: 127; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 121-122.
        • Palo Alto area
    Rogers, Austin Flint (1911a), Eglestonite from San Mateo County, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 32: 48-50; Bradley, W.W. (1918), Quicksilver resources of California, with a section on metallurgy and ore dressing: California Mining Bureau. Bulletin 78: 149; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 173-174.
        • Redwood City
    Woodhouse, C.D. (1934), A new occurrence of montroydite in California: American Mineralogist: 19: 603-604; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 119, 174, 273.
        • Searsville
    Rogers, Austin Flint (1911a), Eglestonite from San Mateo County, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 32: 48-50; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 119, 260.
    • Colorado
      • Boulder Co.
        • Magnolia District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Nevada
      • Churchill Co.
        • Wild Horse District
    NBMG Bull 80 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Lander County, Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Bull 80 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Lander County, Nevada
      • Elko Co.
    NBMG Bull 106 Geology and Mineral Resources of Elko County, Nevada; USGS Open-File Report 76-56
    NBMG Bull 106 Geology and Mineral Resources of Elko County, Nevada
    NBMG Bull 106 Geology and Mineral Resources of Elko County, Nevada; NBMG Open File report 83-9
      • Eureka Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Humboldt Co.
        • National District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Econ Geol (1985) 80:360-393
        • Opalite District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; McCormack, J.K. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35(8), 796-798.
        • Poverty Peak District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Lander Co.
        • Wild Horse District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; USGS Bull 931-K
      • Mineral Co.
        • Pilot Mts
          • Pilot Mountains District
    U.S.G.S. Bulletin 973E
      • Nye Co.
        • Belmont District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Paradise Peak District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Tybo District
    NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
      • Pershing Co.
        • Antelope District
          • Lovelock
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Spring Valley District
    NBMG Bull 89 Geology and Mineral Resources of Pershing County, Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Bull 89 Geology and Mineral Resources of Pershing County, Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Bull 89 Geology and Mineral Resources of Pershing County, Nevada
      • Storey Co.
        • Castle Peak District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Washoe Co.
        • Lone Pine District
    NBMG Bull 70 Geology and Mineral Resources of Washoe and Storey Counties, Nevada
    • New Mexico
      • Socorro Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Oregon
      • Jefferson Co.
        • Horse Heaven District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Malheur Co.
    McCormack, J.K. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35(8), 796-798.
    • Texas
      • Brewster Co.
    Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 27; Mineralogical Record: 21: 233.
    R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
    Rocks & Minerals: 66(1): 202.
    Kelly Nash Collection
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