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Canfieldite

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Formula:
Ag
 
8
SnS
 
6
May contain some Ge replacing Sn, and some Te replacing S.
System:OrthorhombicColour:Steel gray with reddish ...
Hardness:
Member of:Argyrodite Group
Name:For US mining engineer and mineral collector Frederick Alexander Canfield (1849-1926), of Dover, NJ., USA.
This page provides mineralogical data about Canfieldite.

Classification of Canfieldite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/B.08-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.BA.70

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
B : Metal Sulfides, M: S > 1: 1 (mainly 2: 1)
A : With Cu, Ag, Au
Dana 8th edition ID:2.5.6.2

2 : SULFIDES
5 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Hey's CIM Ref.:6.2.5

6 : Sulphosalts - Sulphostannates, Sulphogermanates,Sulpharsenates, Sulphantimonates, Sulphovanadates and Sulphohalides
2 : Sulphogermanates
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Type Occurrence of Canfieldite

Type Locality:Colquechaca (Aullagas), Chayanta Province, Potosí Department, Bolivia
Year of Discovery:1893

Occurrences of Canfieldite

Geological Setting:Late forming mineral in polymetallic veins.

Physical Properties of Canfieldite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Steel gray with reddish tint
Comment:Tarnishes black with blue to purple tint
Streak:Greyish black
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness (Vickers):VHN25=91 - 171 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Brittle
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):6.2 - 6.3 g/cm3
Density (calculated):6.311 g/cm3

Crystallography of Canfieldite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:a = 15.298(2) Å, b = 7.548(1) Å, c = 10.699(1) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 2.027 : 1 : 1.417
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,235.41 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals to 1cm with pseudo-octahedron and dodecahedron, botyroidal.
Twinning:Commonly on {111}

Chemical Properties of Canfieldite

Formula:
Ag
 
8
SnS
 
6


May contain some Ge replacing Sn, and some Te replacing S.
Simplified for copy/paste:Ag8SnS6
Essential elements:Ag, S, Sn
All elements listed in formula:Ag, S, Sn
Common Impurities:Ge,Fe,Te

Relationship of Canfieldite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Argyrodite (see here)
Member of:Argyrodite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Alburnite
Ag
 
8
GeTe
 
2
S
 
4
Argyrodite
Ag
 
8
GeS
 
6
Putzite
(Cu
 
4.7
Ag
 
3.3
)GeS
 
6
Common Associates:
StephaniteStannoiditeStanniteSphaleritePyrrhotite
PyrargyritePolybasiteMarcasiteGalenaFreibergite
CassiteriteArsenopyriteArgyroditeAcanthite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.BA.05Chalcocite
Cu
 
2
S
2.BA.05Djurleite
Cu
 
31
S
 
16
2.BA.05Geerite
Cu
 
8
S
 
5
2.BA.05Roxbyite
Cu
 
9
S
 
5
2.BA.10Anilite
Cu
 
7
S
 
4
2.BA.10Digenite
Cu
 
9
S
 
5
2.BA.15Bornite
Cu
 
5
FeS
 
4
2.BA.20Bellidoite
Cu
 
2
Se
2.BA.20Berzelianite
Cu
 
2
Se
2.BA.25Athabascaite
Cu
 
5
Se
 
4
2.BA.25Umangite
Cu
 
3
Se
 
2
2.BA.30Rickardite
Cu
 
7
Te
 
5
2.BA.30Weissite
Cu
 
2-x
Te
2.BA.35Acanthite
Ag
 
2
S
2.BA.40Mckinstryite
Ag
 
5-x
Cu
 
3+x
S
 
4
2.BA.40Stromeyerite
AgCuS
2.BA.40dUM2003-13-S:AgAuCu
Ag
 
6
AuCu
 
2
S
 
5
2.BA.45Jalpaite
Ag
 
3
CuS
 
2
2.BA.45Selenojalpaite
Ag
 
3
CuSe
 
2
2.BA.50Eucairite
AgCuSe
2.BA.55Aguilarite
Ag
 
4
SeS
2.BA.55Naumannite
Ag
 
2
Se
2.BA.60Cervelleite
Ag
 
4
TeS
2.BA.60Hessite
Ag
 
2
Te
2.BA.60Chenguodaite
Ag
 
9
Fe
3+
 
Te
 
2
S
 
4
2.BA.65Henryite
Ag
 
3
Cu
 
4
Te
 
4
2.BA.65Stützite
Ag
 
5-x
Te
 
3
, x = 0.24-0.36
2.BA.70Argyrodite
Ag
 
8
GeS
 
6
2.BA.70Putzite
(Cu
 
4.7
Ag
 
3.3
)GeS
 
6
2.BA.75Fischesserite
Ag
 
3
AuSe
 
2
2.BA.75Penzhinite
(Ag,Cu)
 
4
Au(S,Se)
 
4
2.BA.75Petrovskaite
AuAg(S,Se)
2.BA.75Petzite
Ag
 
3
AuTe
 
2
2.BA.75Uytenbogaardtite
Ag
 
3
AuS
 
2
2.BA.80Bezsmertnovite
(Au,Ag)
 
4
Cu(Te,Pb)
2.BA.80Bilibinskite
PbCu
 
2
Au
 
3
Te
 
2
2.BA.80Bogdanovite
(Au,Te,Pb)
 
3
(Cu,Fe)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
6.2.1Germanite
Cu
 
13
Fe
 
2
Ge
 
2
S
 
16
6.2.2Briartite
Cu
 
2
(Fe,Zn)GeS
 
4
6.2.3Renierite
(Cu,Zn)
 
11
(Ge,As)
 
2
Fe
 
4
S
 
16
6.2.4Argyrodite
Ag
 
8
GeS
 
6
6.2.6Morozeviczite
(Pb,Fe)
 
3
Ge
 
1-x
S
 
4
6.2.7Polkovicite
(Fe,Pb)
 
3
(Ge,Fe)
 
1-x
S
 
4

Other Names for Canfieldite

Other Languages:
German:Canfieldit
Simplified Chinese:硫银锡矿
黑硫银锡矿
Spanish:Canfieldita
Varieties:
Tellurian CanfielditeTellurocanfieldite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Minor ore of tin and silver.

References for Canfieldite

Reference List:

- +
Penfield (1894), American Journal of Science: 47: 451.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 356-358.

Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 203: 122-125.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1978): 269-272.

Internet Links for Canfieldite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Canfieldite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Fabre Minerals - search for Canfieldite specimens
  • Localities for Canfieldite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Jujuy
      • Rinconada Department
    Brodtkorb, "Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina" (2002)
    Amer.Min.(2000) 85, 1066-1075
    • Salta
      • Organullo Mining District
    Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
    Australia
     
    • Tasmania
      • Rossarden district
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Lungau
        • Murwinkel
          • Rotgülden
            • Lower Rotgülden lake
    [var: Tellurian Canfieldite] Horner, J., Neubauer, F., Paar, W.H., Hansmann, W., Koeppel, V., and Robl, K. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 555-568.
    Bolivia
     
    • Potosí Department
      • Chayanta Province
    [MinRec 32:469]
      • Sud Chichas Province
        • Atocha-Quechisla District
    [MinRec 32:461]
    [MinRec 32:480
    Canada
     
    • New Brunswick
      • Gloucester Co.
        • Beresford Parish
    http://dnre-mrne.gnb.ca/MineralOccurrence/
    China
     
    • Fujian Province
      • Nanping Prefecture
        • Jianyang Co.
          • Shuiji Pb-Zn-(Ag) deposit
    Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy.
    • Guangdong Province
      • Heyuan Prefecture
        • Lianping Co.
    Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
      • Yunfu Prefecture
        • Yuncheng District
    Canhui Huang (1991): Guangdong Non-Ferrous Metal Geology 1991(1), 13-30
    • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
      • Hechi Prefecture
        • Nandan Co.
          • Dachang Sn-polymetallic ore field
    Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
      • Hezhou Prefecture
        • Zhongshan Co.
          • Shanhu W-Sn ore field (Shanhu Mine)
    Yunying Shu and Peiling Zhou (1990): Journal of Guilin University of Technology 10(2)
    • Hunan Province
      • Chenzhou Prefecture
        • Guiyang Co.
    Zhengqin Li (1991): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 11(2), 148-154
          • Huangshaping Pb-Zn-polymetallic ore field
    Zhengqin Li (1991): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 11(2), 148-154
        • Linwu Co.
          • Xianghualing Sn-polymetallic ore field
    Zhengqin Li (1991): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 11(2), 148-154; Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
        • Yizhang Co.
          • Dongpo ore field
    Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
    Yi Li and Youbin Liang (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(8), 21-25; Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Hinggan League (Xing'an Prefecture)
        • Horqin Right Middle Banner (Ke'erqin Youyi Zhongqi)
    Tianwei Guo and Zhongwen Han (1990): Northeastern Geological Science and Technology Information 11(2), 1-11; Qian Zhang, Xinzhi Zhan, Yuzhuo Qiu, Shuxun Shao, and Zhihao Liu (2002): Geochimica 31(3), 253-258
      • Hulunbuir League (Hulunbei'er Prefecture)
        • New Barag Right Banner (Xin Barag Youqi)
    Zhicheng Lu, Peiping Zhang, Guozheng Duan, Libo Hao, and Dianchao Li (2002): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 22(1), 75-80
    • Jiangxi Province
      • Ganzhou Prefecture
        • Dayu Co.
          • Xihuashan ore field
    [var: Tellurian Canfieldite] Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
      • Shangrao Prefecture
        • Wannian Co.
    Leiming Xu, Hengyu Wu, Ge Bai, and Quanbo He (1993): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 13(3), 254-262
      • Yingtan Prefecture
        • Guixi Co.
          • Lengshuikeng Ag-Pb-Zn-Au deposit
    Ran Lu, Jingwen Mao, Jianjing Gao, Huimin Su, and Jiahao Zheng (2012): Acta Petrologica Sinica 28(1), 105-121
    • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Huludao Prefecture
        • Jianchang Co.
    Xuehui Xia, Jiazhong Yuan, Yuhai Zhao, and Fei Yan (2003): Geology of Chemical Minerals 25(4), 129-144
    Xuehui Xia, Jiazhong Yuan, Yuhai Zhao, and Fei Yan (2003): Geology of Chemical Minerals 25(4), 129-144
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
        • Nagchu Co. (Naqu Co.)
    Zhixing Feng, Xinbiao Lü, and Tao Wang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(4), 628-633; Zhixing Feng, Xinbiao Lü, and Tao Wang (2011): Mineral Deposits 30(3), 469-476
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
        • Kutná Hora (Kuttenberg)
    No reference listed
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Aš (Asch)
    Steffen Möckel analysis
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Cantal
        • Laroquebrou
          • Saint-Santin-Cantalès
        • Massiac
          • Molèdes
    R. Pierrot, P. Picot, J.J. Périchaud : "Inventaire Minéralogique du Cantal", BRGM and Editions G. de Bussac, 1971
    • Brittany
      • Finistère
        • Huelgoat (Locmarria-Berrien)
    R.PIERROT, L. CHAURIS, C. LAFORET (1973) : "Inventaire minéralogique de la France : 29- Finistère.", B.R.G.M. Paris.
    Germany
     
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Freiberg District
          • Brand-Erbisdorf
    Hofmann, F. (1986): Die Freiberger Mineralien. LAPIS 11 (7-8), 28-55
    Greece
     
    • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
      • Kykládes Prefecture
        • Cyclade Islands (Cyclades; Kikladhes; Nomos Kikladhon)
          • Tinos Island
    Tombros, S.F. (2008): Later stages of evolution of an epithermal system: Au-Ag mineralization at Apigania Bay, Tinos, Island, Cyclades, Hellas, Greece. Min.Pet. (in press)
    Greenland
     
    • Sermersooq
      • Arsuk Fjord
        • Ivittuut (Ivigtut)
    Petersen, O. V and K Secher (1993) The Minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24:36
    India
     
    • Haryana
      • Bhiwani District
    Murao, S., Deb, M., and Furuno, M. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 490-504.
    Indonesia
     
    • Jawa Island (Java Island)
      • Banten Province
        • Cikotok Gold District
    Econ Geol (1994) 89:227-245
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Sapporo
    Min. Jour. (Japan): 15:222-232.
    • Honshu Island
      • Chugoku Region
        • Shimane Prefecture
      • Kanto region
        • Tochigi Prefecture
          • Ashio
    Nakamura, T. & Aikawa,N. (1973) Journal of Geosciences, Osaka City University, 16, 1-10.
      • Kinki Region
        • Hyogo Prefecture
          • Shisou City
    Nakamura, T. & Aikawa,N. (1973) Journal of Geosciences, Osaka City University, 16, 1-10.
      • Tohoku Region
        • Aomori Prefecture
          • Minami-Tsugaru-gun
    Min.Mag. (1998) 62, 793-799
    • Kyushu Region
      • Kagoshima Prefecture
        • Satsuma Peninsula
          • Iwato mine
    Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
    Peru
     
    • Huánuco Department
      • Dos de Mayo Province
        • Huallanca District
    Econ Geol (1985) 80:416-478
    Portugal
     
    • Castelo Branco District
      • Covilhã
        • Panasqueira
    D. Wimmers (1985) Silver Minerals of Panasqueira, Portugal: A New Occurrence of Te-Bearing Canfieldite. Mineralogical Magazine 49:745-748.
    • Vila Real District
      • Sabrosa
    Gaspar, O., Bowles, F.W., 1985; Mineralizações e Recuros em W/Sn...
    Romania
     
    • Alba Co.
    Gheorghe C. POPESCU, Antonela NEACȘU (2011): Preliminary data on two tin-sulfosalts (canfieldite and pirquitasite) from Roşia Montană. Romanian Journal of Earth Sciences, 85, 35-41.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
        • Sarychev Range
    G. N. Gamyanin et al. (2001) Geology of Ore Deposits, 43, 442–467
        • Verkhoyansk Fold Belt
          • Verkhoyansk Silver Province
            • Deputatsky ore cluster
    Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
    Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
    Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
    Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
            • Southern Verkhoyansk District
    Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
            • Western Verkhoyansk District
              • Mangazeisky ore cluster
    Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
    [Der Aufschluss 1995:4 p163-180]
      • Primorskiy Kray
    Dobrovol’skaya, M.G., Genkin, A.D., Bortnikov, N.S., and Golovanova, T.I. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(1), 75-85.
        • Vostok
    Slovakia
     
    • Prešov Region
      • Prešov Co.
    Duda et. all.,1981:Minerály severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovca,Monografia 2,Bratislava, 98 p
    Switzerland
     
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Binn Valley
        • Imfeld (Im Feld; Feld; Fäld)
    [var: Tellurian Canfieldite] Bindi, L., Nestola, F., Guastoni, A., Zorzi, F., Peruzzo, L., Raber, T. (2012): Tellurian canfieldite, Ag8Sn(S,Te)6, from Lengenbach quarry, Binntal, Canton Valais, Switzerland: occurrence, description and crystal structure. Canadian Mineralogist, 50, 111-118; Raber, T. & Roth, P. (2014): Tellur-reicher Canfieldit. Schweizer Strahler 48 (1), 34-35.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Mule Mts
          • Warren District
            • Bisbee
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 153-154, 379.
    • Colorado
      • Lake Co.
        • Leadville District
          • Alicante
            • Iron Hill
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Nevada
      • Lander Co.
        • Lewis District
    Min.Rec.:20(5):390.
        • McCoy District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Nye Co.
    Rocks & Minerals. Nov. 1999
    In the collection of Brent Thorne. XRD analyzed by Excalibur Minerals.
    Uzbekistan
     
    • Kyzylkum Desert
      • Central Kyzylkum Region
        • Bel'tau Mts
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Tashkent Viloyati (Toshkent)
      • Angren Region
        • Chatkal-Kuraminskii Range
    Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
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