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Canfieldite

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Formula:
Ag8SnS6
May contain some Ge replacing Sn, and some Te replacing S.
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Steel gray with reddish ...
Hardness:
Name:
Named in 1893 by Samuel Lewis Penfield in honor of Frederick Alexander Canfield [April 7, 1849 Randolph, New Jersey, USA - July 3, 1926), of Dover, New Jersey, USA. Canfield was a mining engineer and mineral collector. Canfield's family was long interested in running the Dickerson Suckasunny Mining Company, with iron mines in Morris County, New Jersey. Much of Canfield's professional mining work was in New Jersey and Bolivia. Canfield was also a third generation mineral collector having acquired his great uncles' mineral collection as well as his own father's collection.
This page provides mineralogical data about Canfieldite.

Classification of Canfieldite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
2.BA.70

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
B : Metal Sulfides, M: S > 1: 1 (mainly 2: 1)
A : With Cu, Ag, Au
2.5.6.2

2 : SULFIDES
5 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
6.2.5

6 : Sulphosalts - Sulphostannates, Sulphogermanates,Sulpharsenates, Sulphantimonates, Sulphovanadates and Sulphohalides
2 : Sulphogermanates
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First Recorded Occurrence of Canfieldite

Year of Discovery:
1893

Occurrences of Canfieldite

Geological Setting:
Late forming mineral in polymetallic veins.

Physical Properties of Canfieldite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Steel gray with reddish tint
Comment:
Tarnishes black with blue to purple tint
Streak:
Greyish black
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN25=91 - 171 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
6.2 - 6.3 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.311 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Canfieldite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.298(2) Å, b = 7.548(1) Å, c = 10.699(1) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.027 : 1 : 1.417
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,235.41 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals to 1cm with pseudo-octahedron and dodecahedron, botyroidal.
Twinning:
Commonly on {111}

Chemical Properties of Canfieldite

Formula:
Ag8SnS6

May contain some Ge replacing Sn, and some Te replacing S.
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ge,Fe,Te

Relationship of Canfieldite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Argyrodite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
AlburniteAg8GeTe2S4
ArgyroditeAg8GeS6
Putzite(Cu4.7Ag3.3)GeS6
2.BA.05ChalcociteCu2S
2.BA.05DjurleiteCu31S16
2.BA.05GeeriteCu8S5
2.BA.05RoxbyiteCu9S5
2.BA.10AniliteCu7S4
2.BA.10DigeniteCu9S5
2.BA.15BorniteCu5FeS4
2.BA.20BellidoiteCu2Se
2.BA.20BerzelianiteCu2Se
2.BA.25AthabascaiteCu5Se4
2.BA.25UmangiteCu3Se2
2.BA.30RickarditeCu7Te5
2.BA.30WeissiteCu2-xTe
2.BA.35AcanthiteAg2S
2.BA.40MckinstryiteAg5-xCu3+xS4
2.BA.40StromeyeriteAgCuS
2.BA.40dUM2003-13-S:AgAuCuAg6AuCu2S5
2.BA.45JalpaiteAg3CuS2
2.BA.45SelenojalpaiteAg3CuSe2
2.BA.50EucairiteAgCuSe
2.BA.55AguilariteAg4SeS
2.BA.55NaumanniteAg2Se
2.BA.60CervelleiteAg4TeS
2.BA.60HessiteAg2Te
2.BA.60ChenguodaiteAg9Fe3+Te2S4
2.BA.65Henryite(Cu,Ag)3+xTe2 , with x ~ 0.40
2.BA.65StütziteAg5-xTe3, x = 0.24-0.36
2.BA.70ArgyroditeAg8GeS6
2.BA.70Putzite(Cu4.7Ag3.3)GeS6
2.BA.75FischesseriteAg3AuSe2
2.BA.75Penzhinite(Ag,Cu)4Au(S,Se)4
2.BA.75PetrovskaiteAuAg(S,Se)
2.BA.75PetziteAg3AuTe2
2.BA.75UytenbogaardtiteAg3AuS2
2.BA.80Bezsmertnovite(Au,Ag)4Cu(Te,Pb)
2.BA.80BilibinskitePbCu2Au3Te2
2.BA.80Bogdanovite(Au,Te,Pb)3(Cu,Fe)
6.2.1GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16
6.2.2BriartiteCu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
6.2.3Renierite(Cu,Zn)11(Ge,As)2Fe4S16
6.2.4ArgyroditeAg8GeS6
6.2.6Morozeviczite(Pb,Fe)3Ge1-xS4
6.2.7Polkovicite(Fe,Pb)3(Ge,Fe)1-xS4

Other Names for Canfieldite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Canfieldit
Simplified Chinese:硫银锡矿
黑硫银锡矿
Spanish:Canfieldita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Minor ore of tin and silver.

References for Canfieldite

Reference List:
Penfield (1894), American Journal of Science: 47: 451.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 356-358.

Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 203: 122-125.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1978): 269-272.

Internet Links for Canfieldite

Localities for Canfieldite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Argentina
 
  • Jujuy
    • Rinconada Department
Brodtkorb, "Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina" (2002)
Amer.Min.(2000) 85, 1066-1075
  • Salta
    • Organullo Mining District
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Rossarden district
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    • Zeehan district
      • North Dundas
STILLWELL, F. L.; EDWARDS, A . B . 1943. Mineral composition of the tin ores at Renison Bell, Tasmania. Proc . Australas. Inst. Min . Metall. 131-132: 173-186.
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Lungau
      • Murwinkel
        • Rotgülden
          • Lower Rotgülden lake
[var: Tellurian Canfieldite] Horner, J., Neubauer, F., Paar, W.H., Hansmann, W., Koeppel, V., and Robl, K. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 555-568.
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí Department
    • Antonio Quijarro Province
      • Carguaicollo Mine (Carguaycollo Mine; Carhuaycollo Mine)
Ahlfeld, F. and Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
    • Chayanta Province
[MinRec 32:469]
    • Sud Chichas Province
      • Atocha-Quechisla District
        • Chocaya-Animas (Animas-Chocaya)
[MinRec 32:461]
[MinRec 32:480
Canada
 
  • New Brunswick
    • Gloucester Co.
      • Beresford Parish
http://dnre-mrne.gnb.ca/MineralOccurrence/
China
 
  • Fujian Province
    • Nanping Prefecture
      • Jianyang Co.
        • Shuiji Pb-Zn-(Ag) deposit
Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy.
  • Guangdong Province
    • Heyuan Prefecture
      • Lianping Co.
Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
    • Yunfu Prefecture
      • Yuncheng District
Canhui Huang (1991): Guangdong Non-Ferrous Metal Geology 1991(1), 13-30; Jiarong Pan and Yangzhong Yu (2013): Gold Science and Technology 21(6), 36-41
  • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    • Hechi Prefecture
      • Nandan Co.
        • Dachang Sn-polymetallic ore field
Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
    • Hezhou Prefecture
      • Zhongshan Co.
        • Shanhu W-Sn ore field (Shanhu Mine)
Yunying Shu and Peiling Zhou (1990): Journal of Guilin University of Technology 10(2)
  • Hunan Province
    • Chenzhou Prefecture
      • Guiyang Co.
Zhengqin Li (1991): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 11(2), 148-154
        • Huangshaping Pb-Zn-polymetallic ore field
Zhengqin Li (1991): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 11(2), 148-154
      • Linwu Co.
        • Xianghualing Sn-polymetallic ore field
Zhengqin Li (1991): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 11(2), 148-154; Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
      • Yizhang Co.
        • Dongpo ore field
Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
Yi Li and Youbin Liang (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(8), 21-25; Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Hinggan League (Xing'an Prefecture)
      • Horqin Right Middle Banner (Ke'erqin Youyi Zhongqi)
Tianwei Guo and Zhongwen Han (1990): Northeastern Geological Science and Technology Information 11(2), 1-11; Qian Zhang, Xinzhi Zhan, Yuzhuo Qiu, Shuxun Shao, and Zhihao Liu (2002): Geochimica 31(3), 253-258
    • Hulunbuir League (Hulunbei'er Prefecture)
      • New Barag Right Banner (Xin Barag Youqi)
Zhicheng Lu, Peiping Zhang, Guozheng Duan, Libo Hao, and Dianchao Li (2002): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 22(1), 75-80
    • Ulanhad League (Chifeng Prefecture)
      • Bairin Left Banner (Balin Zuoqi)
Yongsheng Kuang, Guangrui Zheng, Minjie Lu, Yanlin Liu, Shaojie Zhang, Ruiyang Li, and Wenjing Cheng (2014): Mineral Deposits 33(4), 847-856
  • Jiangxi Province
    • Ganzhou Prefecture
      • Dayu Co.
        • Xihuashan ore field
[var: Tellurian Canfieldite] Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
    • Shangrao Prefecture
      • Wannian Co.
Leiming Xu, Hengyu Wu, Ge Bai, and Quanbo He (1993): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 13(3), 254-262
    • Yingtan Prefecture
      • Guixi Co.
        • Lengshuikeng Ag-Pb-Zn-Au deposit
Ran Lu, Jingwen Mao, Jianjing Gao, Huimin Su, and Jiahao Zheng (2012): Acta Petrologica Sinica 28(1), 105-121
  • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Huludao Prefecture
      • Jianchang Co.
Xuehui Xia, Jiazhong Yuan, Yuhai Zhao, and Fei Yan (2003): Geology of Chemical Minerals 25(4), 129-144
Xuehui Xia, Jiazhong Yuan, Yuhai Zhao, and Fei Yan (2003): Geology of Chemical Minerals 25(4), 129-144
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Nagchu Co. (Naqu Co.)
Zhixing Feng, Xinbiao Lü, and Tao Wang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(4), 628-633; Zhixing Feng, Xinbiao Lü, and Tao Wang (2011): Mineral Deposits 30(3), 469-476
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Kutná Hora (Kuttenberg)
No reference listed
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Aš (Asch)
Steffen Möckel analysis
France
 
  • Auvergne
    • Cantal
      • Laroquebrou
        • Saint-Santin-Cantalès
      • Massiac
        • Molèdes
R. Pierrot, P. Picot, J.J. Périchaud : "Inventaire Minéralogique du Cantal", BRGM and Editions G. de Bussac, 1971
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Huelgoat (Locmaria-Berrien)
R.PIERROT, L. CHAURIS, C. LAFORET (1973) : "Inventaire minéralogique de la France : 29- Finistère.", B.R.G.M. Paris.
Germany
 
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Freiberg District
        • Brand-Erbisdorf
Hofmann, F. (1986): Die Freiberger Mineralien. LAPIS 11 (7-8), 28-55
Greece
 
  • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
    • Kykládes Prefecture
      • Cyclade Islands (Cyclades; Kikladhes; Nomos Kikladhon)
        • Tinos Island
Tombros, S.F. (2008): Later stages of evolution of an epithermal system: Au-Ag mineralization at Apigania Bay, Tinos, Island, Cyclades, Hellas, Greece. Min.Pet. (in press)
Greenland
 
  • Sermersooq
    • Arsuk Fjord
      • Ivittuut (Ivigtut)
Petersen, O. V and K Secher (1993) The Minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24:36
India
 
  • Haryana
    • Bhiwani District
Murao, S., Deb, M., and Furuno, M. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 490-504.
Indonesia
 
  • Jawa Island (Java Island)
    • Banten Province
      • Cikotok Gold District
Econ Geol (1994) 89:227-245
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Sapporo
      • Minami-ku
Min. Jour. (Japan): 15:222-232.
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku Region
      • Shimane Prefecture
        • Masuda
Soeda, A., Watanabe, M., Hoshino, K., & Nakashima, K. (1984). Mineralogy of tellurium-bearing canfieldite from the Tsumo mine, SW Japan and its implications for ore genesis. Neues Jahrbuch Fur Mineralogie-abhandlungen, 150(1), 11-23.
    • Kanto region
      • Tochigi Prefecture
        • Nikko City
          • Ashio-machi
Nakamura, T. & Aikawa,N. (1973) Journal of Geosciences, Osaka City University, 16, 1-10.
    • Kinki Region
      • Hyogo Prefecture
        • Shisou City
Nakamura, T. & Aikawa,N. (1973) Journal of Geosciences, Osaka City University, 16, 1-10.
    • Tohoku Region
      • Aomori Prefecture
        • Minami-Tsugaru-gun
          • Ikarigaseki
Min.Mag. (1998) 62, 793-799
  • Kyushu Region
    • Kagoshima Prefecture
      • Satsuma Peninsula
        • Iwato mine
Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
Peru
 
  • Huánuco Department
    • Dos de Mayo Province
      • Huallanca District
Econ Geol (1985) 80:416-478
Portugal
 
  • Castelo Branco District
    • Covilhã
      • Panasqueira
D. Wimmers (1985) Silver Minerals of Panasqueira, Portugal: A New Occurrence of Te-Bearing Canfieldite. Mineralogical Magazine 49:745-748.
  • Vila Real District
    • Sabrosa
Gaspar, O., Bowles, F.W., 1985; Mineralizações e Recuros em W/Sn...
Romania
 
  • Alba Co.
Gheorghe C. POPESCU, Antonela NEACȘU (2011): Preliminary data on two tin-sulfosalts (canfieldite and pirquitasite) from Roşia Montană. Romanian Journal of Earth Sciences, 85, 35-41.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Sarychev Range
G. N. Gamyanin et al. (2001) Geology of Ore Deposits, 43, 442–467
      • Verkhoyansk Fold Belt
        • Verkhoyansk Silver Province
          • Deputatsky ore cluster
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
          • Southern Verkhoyansk District
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
          • Western Verkhoyansk District
            • Mangazeisky ore cluster
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
[Der Aufschluss 1995:4 p163-180]
    • Primorskiy Kray
Dobrovol’skaya, M.G., Genkin, A.D., Bortnikov, N.S., and Golovanova, T.I. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(1), 75-85.
      • Vostok
Slovakia
 
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
Duda et. all.,1981:Minerály severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovca,Monografia 2,Bratislava, 98 p
Switzerland
 
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Binn Valley
      • Fäld (Imfeld; Im Feld; Feld)
[var: Tellurian Canfieldite] Bindi, L., Nestola, F., Guastoni, A., Zorzi, F., Peruzzo, L., Raber, T. (2012): Tellurian canfieldite, Ag8Sn(S,Te)6, from Lengenbach quarry, Binntal, Canton Valais, Switzerland: occurrence, description and crystal structure. Canadian Mineralogist, 50, 111-118; Raber, T. & Roth, P. (2014): Tellur-reicher Canfieldit. Schweizer Strahler 48 (1), 34-35.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.:65
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 153-154, 379.
  • Colorado
    • Lake Co.
      • Leadville District
        • Alicante
          • Iron Hill
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Nevada
    • Lander Co.
      • Lewis District
Min.Rec.:20(5):390.
      • McCoy District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Nye Co.
Rocks & Minerals. Nov. 1999
In the collection of Brent Thorne. XRD analyzed by Excalibur Minerals.
Uzbekistan
 
  • Kyzylkum Desert
    • Central Kyzylkum Region
      • Bel'tau Mts
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Tashkent Viloyati (Toshkent)
    • Angren Region
      • Chatkal-Kuraminskii Range
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
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