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Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite

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Formula:
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
3
(F,O)
System:HexagonalColour:White, pale gray, creamy ...
Hardness:5
Member of:Apatite Group > Apatite Supergroup
Name:Named in 1906 by Peter Nikolaevich Chirvinsky [Carbapatit] or in 1916 by Reinhard Brauns [Carbonatapatit] from the Greek word meaning "to deceive" and the CARBONATE- prefix in allusion to the presence of some carbonate substitution for phosphate. Many early synonyms exist for this mineral including: pseudoapatite, francolite, collophane, dahllite, carbapatite, podolite, quercylite, kurskite, grodnolite, etc., but not all of these names represent homogeneous materials nor are strictly applied to fluorine-dominant compositions.
A variety of Fluorapatite

Apatite Group.

A variety of fluorapatite with carbonate group (CO3) substituting for some of the phosphate (PO4) groups.

Classification of Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite

IMA status:Discredited 2008
Explanation of status:The original name "Carbonate-Fluorapatite" was discredited in 2008.
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/B.39-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.BN.05

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
N : With only large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.33:1
Dana 8th edition ID:41.8.1.4

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
8 : A5(XO4)3Zq
Hey's CIM Ref.:22.4.4

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
4 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with carbonate
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Occurrences of Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite

Geological Setting:Found in sedimentary phosphate beds, frequently in hard nodules; uncommon accessory mineral in late stage mineralization in granite pegmatites, rarely found in polymetallic ore veins.

Physical Properties of Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite

Lustre:Resinous, Waxy, Greasy, Dull, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:White, pale gray, creamy white; frequently stained yellow, brown, red, or black by iron oxides and other minerals
Streak:White, when unstained
Hardness (Mohs):5
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
{0001}, {1010}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.7 g/cm3
Comment:earthy varieties have a lower density

Crystallography of Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Cell Parameters:a = 9.34Å, c = 6.88Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.737
Unit Cell Volume:V 519.77 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.679 nε = 1.616
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.063

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate

Chemical Properties of Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite

Formula:
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
3
(F,O)
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
Essential elements:Ca, F, O, P
All elements listed in formula:C, Ca, F, O, P

Relationship of Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite to other Species

Member of:Apatite Group > Apatite Supergroup
Other Members of Group:

- +
Alforsite
Ba
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Bellite
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
,CrO
 
4
, SiO
 
2
)
 
3
Cl
Chlorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Fluorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Hydroxylapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
Hydroxylapatite-M
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
Hydroxylpyromorphite
Pb
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
Johnbaumite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
Johnbaumite-M
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
Manganapatite
Mimetite
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Mimetite-2M
Mimetite-M
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Miyahisaite
(Sr,Ca)
 
2
Ba
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Mn-bearing Fluorapatite
(Ca,Mn
2+
 
)
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(F,Cl,OH) or Ca
 
5
([P,Mn
5+
 
]O
 
4
)
 
3
(F,Cl,OH)
Oxypyromorphite
Pb
 
10
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
O
Pieczkaite
Mn
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Pyromorphite
Pb
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Stronadelphite
Sr
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Svabite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Turneaureite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Unnamed (F-analogue of Pyromorphite)
Pb
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Unnamed (OH-analogue of Mimetite)
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
Vanadinite
Pb
 
5
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Common Associates:
Smectite GroupQuartzKaolinite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.BN.05Alforsite
Ba
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Belovite-(Ce)
NaCeSr
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH,O)
8.BN.05Chlorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Mimetite-M
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Johnbaumite-M
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
8.BN.05Fluorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Hedyphane
Pb
 
3
Ca
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Hydroxylapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
8.BN.05Johnbaumite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
8.BN.05Mimetite
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Morelandite
Ca
 
2
Ba
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Pyromorphite
Pb
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Fluorstrophite
SrCaSr
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Svabite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Turneaureite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Vanadinite
Pb
 
5
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Belovite-(La)
NaLaSr
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Deloneite
(Na
 
0.5
REE
 
0.25
Ca
 
0.25
)(Ca
 
0.75
REE
 
0.25
)Sr
 
1.5
(CaNa
 
0.25
REE
 
0.25
)(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
 
0.5
(OH)
 
0.5
8.BN.05Fluorcaphite
SrCaCa
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Kuannersuite-(Ce)
NaCeBa
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
 
0.5
Cl
 
0.5
8.BN.05Hydroxylapatite-M
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
8.BN.05Phosphohedyphane
Ca
 
2
Pb
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Stronadelphite
Sr
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Fluorphosphohedyphane
Ca
 
2
Pb
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Carlgieseckeite-(Nd)
NaNdCa
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Miyahisaite
(Sr,Ca)
 
2
Ba
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.10Arctite
Na
 
2
Ca
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
22.4.1Bradleyite
Na
 
3
Mg(CO
 
3
)(PO
 
4
)
22.4.2Kovdorskite
Mg
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH) · 3H
 
2
O
22.4.3Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH,O)
22.4.5Tyrolite
Ca
 
2
Cu
 
9
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
8
· 11H
 
2
O
22.4.6Heneuite
CaMg
 
5
(CO
 
3
)(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
22.4.7Girvasite
NaCa
 
2
Mg
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(H
 
2
PO
 
4
)(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
22.4.8Daqingshanite-(Ce)
(Sr,Ca,Ba)
 
3
(Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)
 
3-x
(PO
 
4
)(OH,F)
 
2x
22.4.9Gartrellite
Pb(Cu,Fe
3+
 
,Zn)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
,SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2(H
 
2
O,OH)
22.4.10Voggite
Na
 
2
Zr(PO
 
4
)(CO
 
3
)(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
22.4.11Bonshtedtite
Na
 
3
Fe
2+
 
(CO
 
3
)(PO
 
4
)

Other Names for Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite

Synonyms:
Carbonate-fluorapatiteCarbonate-rich Apatite-(CaF)Carbonatian Hydroxyl-fluorapatiteDehrniteFrancolite
LewistoniteStaffelite
Other Languages:
German:Dehrnit
Russian:Карбонатфторапатит
Simplified Chinese:碳氟磷灰石
碳酸氟磷灰石
Spanish:Dehrnita
Traditional Chinese:碳氟磷灰石
碳酸氟磷灰石
Varieties:
HolmbushiteSoda-Dehrnite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not usually fluorescent.
Other Information:Soluble in HCl or in HNO3. Varieties containing CO3 may dissolve with slight effervescence.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Ore of phosphorus

References for Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite

Reference List:

- +
Brooke and Henry (1850) London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, London: 36: 134 (as Francolite).

Stein (1866) Jb. Min.: 716 (as Steffelite).

Larsen and Shannon (1930a) American Mineralogist: 15: 303 (as Dehrnite).

Larsen and Shannon (1930b) American Mineralogist: 15: 324 (as Dehrnite), 326 (as Lewistonite).

McConnell (1938) American Mineralogist: 23: 1 (as Dehrnite, Lewistonite).

Larsen (1942) American Mineralogist: 27: 297, 364 (as Dehrnite).

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 902-903 (as Dehrnite), 903-904 (as Lewistonite).

Dunn, P.J. (1978): Mineralogical Magazine, 42, 282 (discreditation Lewistonite ?).

Haohao Yi, Etienne Balan, Christel Gervais, Loïc Segalen, Franck Fayon, Damien Roche, Alain Person, Guillaume Morin, Maxime Guillaumet, Marc Blanchard, Michele Lazzeri, and Florence Babonneau (2013): A carbonate-fluoride defect model for carbonate-rich fluorapatite. Am. Mineral. 98, 1066-1069.

Internet Links for Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite

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    Localities for Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite

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