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Carnallite

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Formula:
KMgCl
 
3
· 6H
 
2
O
System:OrthorhombicColour:Yellow to white, ...
Hardness:
Name:After Rudolf von Carnall (1804-1874), Prussian mining engineer.
This page provides mineralogical data about Carnallite.

Classification of Carnallite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/C.08-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.BA.10

3 : HALIDES
B : Simple halides, with H2O
A : M:X = 1:1 and 2:3
Dana 8th edition ID:11.1.2.1

11 : HALIDE COMPLEXES
1 : AmBX3
Hey's CIM Ref.:8.4.5

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
4 : Halides of the alkaline earths and Mg
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Type Occurrence of Carnallite

Type Locality:Stassfurt, Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
Year of Discovery:1856
Geological Setting of type material:Upper layers of saline deposits of the marine type.
Associated Minerals at type locality:
SylvitePolyhaliteKieseriteHalite

Occurrences of Carnallite

Geological Setting:Saline marine deposits by action of high potash fluids.

Physical Properties of Carnallite

Lustre:Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Yellow to white, reddish, seldom white, colourless or blue.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:None Observed
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):1.602 g/cm3
Density (calculated):1.598 g/cm3

Crystallography of Carnallite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Pnna {P2/n 21/n 2/a}
Cell Parameters:a = 16.119(3) Å, b = 22.472(4) Å, c = 9.551(2) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.717 : 1 : 0.425
Unit Cell Volume:V 3,459.62 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:12
Morphology:Crystals pseudo-hexagonal, pyramidal in habit, due to the substantially equant development of pyramids and brachydomes. Thick tabular with large {0001} at times. Massive, granular.
Twinning:Secondary twinning lamellae. May exhibit polysynthetic twinning.

Epitaxial Relationships of Carnallite

Epitaxial Minerals:
Hematite
Fe
 
2
O
 
3
Epitaxi Comments:Hematite scales oriented with {0001} parallel to carnallite {001}, also parallel {110} or {100}.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Carnallite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.465 - 1.466 nβ = 1.474 - 1.475 nγ = 1.494 - 1.496
2V:Measured: 70° , Calculated: 66°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.029 - 0.030

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:r < v

Chemical Properties of Carnallite

Formula:
KMgCl
 
3
· 6H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:KMgCl3·6H2O
Essential elements:Cl, H, K, Mg, O
All elements listed in formula:Cl, H, K, Mg, O
Common Impurities:Br,Rb,Cs,Tl,Fe

Relationship of Carnallite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.BA.05Hydrohalite
NaCl · 2H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
8.4.1Sellaite
MgF
 
2
8.4.2Neighborite
NaMgF
 
3
8.4.3Bischofite
MgCl
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.4.4Korshunovskite
Mg
 
2
Cl(OH)
 
3
· 4H
 
2
O
8.4.6Tachyhydrite
CaMg
 
2
Cl
 
6
· 12H
 
2
O
8.4.7Fluorite
CaF
 
2
8.4.8Sinjarite
CaCl
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
8.4.9Antarcticite
CaCl
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.4.10Chlorocalcite
KCaCl
 
3
8.4.11Rorisite
CaFCl
8.4.12Jarlite
Na(Sr,Na)
 
7
MgAl
 
6
F
 
32
(OH,H
 
2
O)
 
2
8.4.13Calcjarlite
Na(Ca,Sr)
 
3
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
2
F
 
14
8.4.14Tikhonenkovite
Sr[AlF
 
4
(OH)(H
 
2
O)]
8.4.15Acuminite
Sr[AlF
 
4
(OH)(H
 
2
O)]
8.4.16Frankdicksonite
BaF
 
2
8.4.17Usovite
Ba
 
2
CaMgAl
 
2
F
 
14
8.4.18Bøgvadite
Na
 
2
SrBa
 
2
Al
 
4
F
 
20

Other Names for Carnallite

Other Languages:
German:Carnallit
Kalium Magnesium chlorid
Russian:Карналлит
Simplified Chinese:光卤石
Spanish:Carnallita
Varieties:
BromcarnalliteIodcarnallite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:None.
Other Information:Deliquescent. Soluble in water. The evaporated solution yields sylvite and bischofite.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Carnallite

Reference List:

- +
Rose (1856) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 98: 161.

Erdmann (1862) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 86: 377.

Hammerbacher (1875) Ann. Chem. Pharm.: 172: 82.

Kleinfeldt analysis in: Bücking (1901) Ak. Berlin, Sitzber.: 539.

Przibylla (1904) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 236.

Busz (1907) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart, Festband: 126.

Johnsen (1907) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart, Beil. Bd., 23: 252.

Boeke (1908) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 45: 369, 384.

Ruff (1908) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: II: 9.

Biltz and Marcus (1909) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 62: 184.

Johnsen (1909) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 169.

Boeke (1911) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 52.

Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen: 2: 105.

Doelter, C. (1928) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie: 4(2): 1187, 1191.

Leonhardt (1928) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 66: 506.

Jander and Busch (1930) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 194: 38.

Schaller and Henderson (1932), USGS Bull. 833: 22.

Andress and Saffe (1939) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 101: 451.

King (1946) Journal of Sedimentary Petrology: 16: 14.

Lindberg (1946) American Mineralogist: 31: 486.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 92-94.

American Mineralogist (1985): 70: 1309-1313.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume III. Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 628pp.: 102.

Internet Links for Carnallite

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  • Localities for Carnallite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Belarus
     
    • Homyel' Province (Gomel)
    Russian Journal of Earth Sciences Vol. 6, No. 3, June 2004
    • Minsk Province
      • Pripyat Depression
    Russian Journal of Earth Sciences Vol. 6, No. 3, June 2004
    Bolivia
     
    • Tarija Department
      • O'Connor Province
        • Entre Rios
    Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
    Brazil
     
    da Silva, M. A., Schreiber, B. C., & dos Santos, C. L. (2000). Evaporitos Como Recursos Minerais. Brazilian Journal of Geophysics, 18, 3.
    Canada
     
    • Manitoba
      • Elice RM
    B.B. Bannatyne (1983) Devonian Potash Deposits in Manitoba. Manitoba Geological Survey Open File Report 83-3
    B.B. Bannatyne (1983) Devonian Potash Deposits in Manitoba. Manitoba Geological Survey Open File Report 83-3
    • New Brunswick
      • Kings Co.
        • Studholm Parish
    Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1469-1487.
    • Nova Scotia
      • Cumberland Co.
        • Pugwash
    R.C. Boehner, "Salt and Potash Resources in Nova Scotia", N.S. Dept. Mines and Energy, Bulletin 5, 1986.
    • Québec
      • Gaspésie-Îles-de-la-Madeleine
        • Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine TE
          • Grosse Île
    Sabina, A.P. (2003) Rocks & Minerals for the collector; Îles de la Madeleine, Québec, the Island of Newfoundland, and Labrador. GSC Misc. Report 58, 19-21p.
    • Saskatchewan
    Joel Grice (1989) Famous Mineral Localities of Canada. Fitzhenry & Whiteside, Markham Ontario 190pp
      • Rocanville
    G. W. Robinson, V. King (1993) Whats New in Minerals. Mineralogical Record 24:381-395
    China
     
    • Qinghai Province
      • Hainan Autonomous Prefecture
    Sun Da-peng, Li Bing-xiao, Ma Yua-hua, and Lin Qun-zhu (2002): Journal of Salt Lake Research 10(4), 1-12; Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
      • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
        • Da Qaidam Co. (Dachaidan Co.)
    Tan Hongbing, Ma Haizhou, Xiao Yingkai, Wei Haizhen, and Zhang Xiying (2005): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 48(11), 1913-1920.
        • Dulan Co.
    John K. Warren, Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits, Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 98, Issues 3–4, February 2010, Pages 217-268,
          • Qarhan salt lake (Chaerhan salt lake)
    Botao Li, Yuanyi Zhao, Zuohua Qian, Pengcheng Jiao, Chenglin Liu, and Shijun Wang (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 669-683; Yuanyi Zhao, Botao Li, Pengcheng Jiao, Zuohua Qian, and Weishi Chen (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 684-696
    Jianqi Yuan and Zhenhao Duan (1989): Earth Science, Journal of China University of Geosciences 14(5), 553-562
    Jianqi Yuan and Zhenhao Duan (1989): Earth Science, Journal of China University of Geosciences 14(5), 553-562
        • Golmud Co. (Ge'ermu Co.)
    Xiying Zhang, Haizhou Ma, Donglin Gao, Minggang Zhang, and Tao Wang (2007): Journal of Salt Lake Research 15(2), 12-20.
        • Mangnai Co. (Mangya Co.)
    Mily Wang, Yijie Wang, Chenglin Liu, and Yongzhi Chen (1993): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 15(1)
    Yuhua Chen, Heran Yuan, and Zhiyue Du (1998): Geological Review 44(1), 100-105
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Akesu Prefecture (Aksu Prefecture; Aqsu Prefecture)
        • Kuqa Co. (Kuche Co.; Kuchar Co.)
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
      • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
          • Lop Nur (Lop Nuur; Lop lake; Luobu lake; Luobubo)
    Lichun Ma, Baoguo Li, Pingan Jiang, Junping Zhong, Jiandong Sheng, Honglie Qiu, and Hongqi Wu (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 616-624
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    • Yunnan Province
      • Pu'er Prefecture
        • Jiangcheng Co.
    Xiaosong Xu and Jialing Wu (1983): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 5(1); Weihao Yue, Jianguo Gao, Yuncan Li, Yinghui Liu, and Xinkai Liu (2011): Geology and Exploration 47(5), 809-822
    Ethiopia
     
    • Afar Province
      • Danakil depression
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 94.
    Germany
     
    • Hesse
      • Werra valley
        • Heringen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Phillippsthal
    No reference listed
    • Lower Saxony
      • Celle
        • Hänigsen
    Bode "Mineralien und Fundstellen BRD" from 1989 ISBN 3-925094-24-5 Pg.9
        • Wathlingen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Göttingen
        • Reyershausen
    Niemann, H. (1960): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 7, 137-165.
      • Hanover
        • Lehrte
    Weiss: "Mineralienfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Hildesheim
        • Giesen
    Aufschluss 1987(4), 114
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Solling
        • Volpriehausen
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 87.
      • Vienenburg
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Börde
        • Morsleben
    http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/Deutschland/Sachsen-Anhalt/B%C3%B6rde/Morsleben/Schacht%20Bartensleben
    http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/Deutschland/Sachsen-Anhalt/B%C3%B6rde/Morsleben/Schacht%20Marie
      • Querfurt
    No reference listed
      • Stassfurt Potash Deposit
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 434.
        • Egeln
          • Tarthun
    No reference listed
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 94, 388.
    Palache, Berman & Frondel (1951) Dana's System of Mineralogy, 7th ed., vol. II: 94; Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    Naumann, Zirkel: "Elemente der Mineralogie", 13th Ed., 1898; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 94, 380.
    • Thuringia
    Effmert, G.; Wurth, L. (2007): Bleicherode, Thüringen: Ein Feuerwerk von Gips-Kristallen, Mineralien-Welt 6/2007, p.42-47.
    Horst, U. (1989): Der Aufschluss 40, 115-120
    Effmert, G. & Wurth, L. (2007). Bleicherode, Thüringen: Ein Feuerwerk von Gips-Kristallen. Min.-Welt, Jg.18, Nr.6, S.42-47.
    http://www.harzergruben.de/Kali/Bernterode/bernterode_neu.htm
    BOEKE, H.E. (1909): Rinneit, ein neugefundenes eisenchlorürhaltiges Salzmineral.- Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 72-75
    Leon Hupperichs Collection
      • Sondershausen
    http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaliwerk_Gl%C3%BCckauf_Sondershausen
      • Thuringian Forest
        • Merkers-Kieselbach
    Iceland
     
    • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
      • Surtsey Island
    Jacobsson et al (1992) Encrustations from Lava Caves in Surtsey, Iceland. A Preliminary Report: Surtsey Research Progress Report X: 73-78 Reykjevik, Iceland.
    Italy
     
    • Sicily
      • Agrigento Province
        • Racalmuto
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
      • Caltanissetta Province
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
      • Enna Province
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Aktobe Province (Aqtöbe Oblysy; Aktubinskaya Oblast')
      • Aksai Valley
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
      • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
    Pavel M. Kartashov data; Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
    Laos
     
    • Khammouan Province (Khammouane Province)
      • Thakhek
    Xiying Zhang, Haizhou Ma, Hongbing Tan, Donglin Gao, Binkai Li, Mingxiang Wang, Qiliang Tang, and Xiaolong Yuan (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 713-721
    Netherlands
     
    • Gelderland
      • Winterswijk
    T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
    • Groningen
    T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Manawatu-Wanganui
        • Tongariro National Park
          • Mt Ruapehu
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
    Poland
     
    • Kujawsko-Pomorskie
      • Inowrocław
    Praszkier, T. (2010): Mineralien aus dem ehemaligen Salzbergwerk "Solno" bei Inowrocław. Mineralien-Welt 21 (6), 32-43.
    • Wielkopolskie
    Jirásek, J.: Solný důl Kłodawa (Polsko). Minerál, 2004, roč. 12, č. 2, s. 98-102. ISSN 1213-0710 (excerpted from unpublished thesis Hanczke, T.: Mineralogia i petrografia soli czechstyńskich kopalni "Kłodawa". Doktroská práce, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Instytut nauk geologicznych, 1967.)
    Portugal
     
    • Faro District
      • Loulé
        • São Clemente
    11.1.2.1
    Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)
     
    • Kouilou Department
    www.uoguelph.ca/~geology/rocks_for_crops/20congo_rep.PDF
    Henry Rauche (2009) Updated Reserve and Resource Estimate for MagMinerals Kouilou Potash Project, Republic of Congo
    Russia
     
    • Central Region
      • Moscow Oblast' (Moskovskaya Oblast')
    Pekin, A. (2011) Minerals of Moscow. Russian Journal of General Chemistry. Jun2011, Vol. 81 Issue 6, p1381-1391.
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Irkutskaya Oblast'
          • Lena-Angara salt Basin
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
          • Lower Tunguska
            • Nepa River basin
    Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
          • Zheleznogorsk
    Mazurov, M.P., Grishina, S.N., Istomin, V.E., and Titov, A.T. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(4), 271-284.; Mazurov et al (2007) Geology of Ore Deposits, 49, 271–284.
    • Povolzhsky Region
      • Saratov Oblast'
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 94.
    • Urals Region
      • Middle Urals
        • Permskaya Oblast'
          • Kama river
            • Solikamsk
    P.M. Kartashov data
    Spain
     
    • Catalonia
      • Barcelona
        • Bages
          • Balsareny
    Carles Curto Milà.
          • Cardona
    Calvo, M. (2006): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. III, Halogenuros. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Álava, 267 pp
    Turkmenistan
     
    • Lebap Province
      • Chardzhou
        • Gaurdak basin (Gaurdok basin)
    Yongsheng Zhang, Mianping Zheng, Wen Qi, Hao Li, and Renjie Xiang (2005): Mineral Deposits 24(6), 692-696
    Yongsheng Zhang, Mianping Zheng, Wen Qi, Hao Li, and Renjie Xiang (2005): Mineral Deposits 24(6), 692-696
    UK
     
    • England
      • Humberside
        • Offshore
          • Block 47/3
      • North Yorkshire
        • Eskdale
    Mineralogical Magazine 1951 29 : 667-689.
    Mineralogical Magazine 1951 29 : 667-689.
    Mineralogical Magazine 1951 29 : 667-689.
        • Loftus
    UK Journal of Mines and Minerals, No. 14 p4-7
    Ukraine
     
    • Ivano-Frankivs'k Oblast' (Ivanovo-Frankovsk Oblast')
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 94, 478.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Apache & Navajo Cos.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 155; Peirce, H.W. (1969), Salines, in Mineral and water resources of AZ, AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 180: 417-424.
    • Colorado
      • Park Co.
        • South Park
          • Antero Junction
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Michigan
      • Newaygo Co.
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
      • Wayne Co.
        • Detroit
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • New Mexico
      • Eddy and Lea Counties
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
      • Eddy Co.
        • Carlsbad Potash District
    SIMMONS, P.S. (2013)The Carlsbad Potash Basin, Carlsbad, New Mexico. Mineralogical Record, 44 (1), 13-49.
    Van King
    Jeff Weissman
    • Utah
      • Emery Co.
        • San Rafael District (San Rafael Swell)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Grand Co.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Crescent Eagle
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
        • Interriver District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
        • Mineral Canyon Area
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
        • Seven Mile District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Thompsons District (S. E. Thomsons)
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • San Juan Co.
        • Moab District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
        • Paradox Valley
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Tooele Co.
        • Bonneville Salt Flats
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Great Salt Lake Desert
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Leppy Range
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
        • Salt Flats
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Silver Island Mts
          • Silver Island District (Silver Islet District)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
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