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Carnotite

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Formula:
K
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Bright yellow, yellow, ...
Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Silky, Dull, EarthyHardness:2
Member of:Carnotite Group
Name:
Named in 1899 by Charles Friedel and Édouard Cumenge in honor of Marie-Adolphe Carnot [January 27, 1839 Paris, France - June 20, 1920], French mining engineer and chemist, professor at École des Mines and, later Chief Engineer of Mines and Inspector General of Mines, becoming Dean of the Ecole Nationale des Mines in 1901-1907, when he retired.


Carnotite Group.

A secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of Uraninite, Montroseite, or Davidite. Occurs in sandstones, especially in paleochannels, near fossil carbonaceous matter, in calcretes and near playas.

Classification of Carnotite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/E.11-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.HB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
H : V[5,6] Vanadates
B : Uranyl Sorovanodates
Dana 8th edition ID:40.2a.28.1

40 : HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
2a : AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Hey's CIM Ref.:21.4.4

21 : Vanadates (and vanadates with arsenate or phosphate)
4 : Vanadates of U, Mn, Fe or Ni
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Type Occurrence of Carnotite

Type Locality:Rajah Mine, Uravan District, Montrose Co., Colorado, USA
Place of Conservation of Type Material:University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado: #2218. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: #106253.
Year of Discovery:1899
Geological Setting of type material:Colorado Plateau sedimentary vanadium-uranium deposits

Occurrences of Carnotite

Geological Setting:Colorado Plateau type uranium deposits, near playas.

Physical Properties of Carnotite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Silky, Dull, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Comment:Silky to waxy when crystalline
Colour:Bright yellow, yellow, greenish yellow
Comment:Easily stained when fine-grained
Streak:Strontian-yellow
Hardness (Mohs):2
Tenacity:Fragile
Cleavage:Perfect
on {001}, perfect, micaceous
Fracture:Micaceous
Density (measured):4.70 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.91 g/cm3
Comment:Earthy material lower in compactness

Crystallography of Carnotite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b {P1 1 21/b} {P21/c} {P1 21/c 1} {P21/a}
Space Group Setting:P21/a
Cell Parameters:a = 10.47Å, b = 8.41Å, c = 6.91Å
β = 103.83°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.245 : 1 : 0.822
Unit Cell Volume:V 590.80 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals rare, diamond-shaped, flattened {001} and rhomboidal {110}, also lath-like [010] with {100} and {110} or {120}; (110) ^ (110) ~78°; commonly as fine aggregates or pulverulent; disseminated, compact massive.
Twinning:On {001} as both the composition and twin plane.
Comment:Space group determined based on synthetic, anhydrous material.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
6.56 (100)
4.25 (30)
3.53 (50)
3.25 (30)
3.12 (70)
2.571 (20)
2.156 (30)
(

Optical Data of Carnotite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.750 nβ = 1.925 nγ = 1.950
2V:Measured: 43° to 60°, Calculated: 26° to 36°
Birefringence:0.200
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.200

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:r < v
Optical Extinction:Z^a ~14°; X=c, Y=b
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:X = Nearly colourless to pale grayish yellow
Y = Z = Canary yellow, lemon-yellow
Comments:Indices of refraction increase as water content decreases.

Chemical Properties of Carnotite

Formula:
K
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O
Essential elements:H, K, O, U, V
All elements listed in formula:H, K, O, U, V

Relationship of Carnotite to other Species

Member of:Carnotite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Sengierite
Cu
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
Strelkinite
Na
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
Tyuyamunite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5-8H
 
2
O
Common Associates:
VolborthiteVanoxiteUvaniteTyuyamuniteTangeite
RossiteRauvitePintadoiteMetatyuyamuniteMetatorbernite
HewettiteGypsumBaryte
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.HB.05Margaritasite
(Cs,K,H
 
3
O)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
4.HB.10Sengierite
Cu
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
4.HB.15Curienite
Pb(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
4.HB.15Francevillite
(Ba,Pb)(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
4.HB.15Fritzscheite
Mn(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
,VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O (?)
4.HB.20Metavanuralite
Al(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 8H
 
2
O
4.HB.20Vanuralite
Al(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 11H
 
2
O
4.HB.25Metatyuyamunite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 3-5H
 
2
O
4.HB.25Tyuyamunite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5-8H
 
2
O
4.HB.30Strelkinite
Na
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
4.HB.35Uvanite
U
6+
2
V
5+
6
O
 
21
· 15H
 
2
O (?)
4.HB.40Rauvite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(V
 
10
O
 
28
) · 16H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
21.4.1Uvanite
U
6+
2
V
5+
6
O
 
21
· 15H
 
2
O (?)
21.4.2Vanuranylite
(H
 
3
O)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
21.4.3Strelkinite
Na
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
21.4.5Margaritasite
(Cs,K,H
 
3
O)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
21.4.6Sengierite
Cu
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
21.4.7Metatyuyamunite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 3-5H
 
2
O
21.4.8Tyuyamunite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5-8H
 
2
O
21.4.9Rauvite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(V
 
10
O
 
28
) · 16H
 
2
O
21.4.10Francevillite
(Ba,Pb)(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
21.4.11Metavanuralite
Al(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 8H
 
2
O
21.4.12Vanuralite
Al(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 11H
 
2
O
21.4.13Curienite
Pb(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
21.4.14Fritzscheite
Mn(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
,VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O (?)
21.4.15Palenzonaite
(Ca,Na)
 
3
CaMn
2+
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
21.4.16Santafeite
(Na,Ca,Sr)
 
12
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Al,Mg)
 
8
Mn
4+
8
(VO
 
4
)
 
16
(OH,O)
 
20
· 8H
 
2
O
21.4.17Pyrobelonite
PbMn
2+
 
(VO
 
4
)(OH)
21.4.18Brackebuschite
Pb
 
2
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(VO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
21.4.19Čechite
Pb(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)(VO
 
4
)(OH)
21.4.20Heyite
Pb
 
5
Fe
2+
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
4
21.4.21Mounanaite
PbFe
3+
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2(OH,F)
21.4.22Schubnelite
Fe
3+
 
VO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
21.4.23Fervanite
Fe
3+
4
V
5+
4
O
 
16
· 5H
 
2
O
21.4.24Kazakhstanite
Fe
3+
5
V
4+
3
V
5+
12
O
 
39
(OH)
 
9
· 9H
 
2
O
21.4.25Bokite
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
1.3
(V
5+
 
,V
4+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
8
O
 
20
· 7.4H
 
2
O
21.4.26Rusakovite
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
5
(VO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
9
· 3H
 
2
O
21.4.27Kolovratite
Ni
 
x
Zn
 
y
(VO
 
4
)
 
0.67(x+y)
· nH
 
2
O

Other Names for Carnotite

Synonyms:
Carnotite (of Friedel and Cumenge)
Other Languages:
German:Carnotit
Russian:Карнотит
Simplified Chinese:钒钾铀矿
钒酸钾铀矿
Spanish:Carnotita
Traditional Chinese:釩鉀鈾礦
釩酸鉀鈾礦
Varieties:
Thallian Carnotite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not Fluorescent
Other Information:Radioactive. Water content is partly zeolitic and varies with humidity at ambient temperatures. Readily soluble in acids.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements from:
Trace Elements Pits,..., Moffat Co., Colorado, USA!Radioactive!
Health Warning:Contains uranium - always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when handling or breaking. Never lick or ingest. Avoid prolonged exposure in proximity of the body. Store away from inhabited areas.
Industrial Uses:Uranium ore

References for Carnotite

Reference List:

- +
Friedel and Cumenge (1899) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 128: 532.

Friedel and Cumenge (1899) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 22: 26.

Acta Crystallographica: 10: 765.

Doelter, C. (1918) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 3 [I]: 844.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 52.

Crook and Blake (1924) Mineralogical Magazine: 15: 271.

Hillebrand (1924)American Journal of Science: 8: 201.

Hess and Foshag (1927) Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum: 72, Art. 12.

Hintze, Carl (1931) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4B]: 1002.

Sundberg and Sillén (1949) Arkiv för Kemi, Mineralogi och Geologi, Stockholm: 1, no. 42: 337.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 1043-1045.

Frondel, C. (1958) Systematic mineralogy of uranium and thorium. U.S. Geological Survey Bull. 1064, 243–247.

Appleman, D.E. and H.T. Evans, Jr. (1965) The crystal structures of synthetic anhydrous carnotite, K2(UO2) V2O8, and its cesium analogue, Cs2(UO2)2V2O8. American Mineralogist: 50: 825–842.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 96.

Internet Links for Carnotite

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Carnotite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Specimens:The following Carnotite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Carnotite

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