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Colourless, shades of ...
3 - 3½
Member of:
Named in 1799 by Abraham Gottlieb Werner from the Greek "cœlestis," for celestial, in allusion to the faint blue color of the original specimen.
Baryte Group. Baryte-Celestine Series. The strontium analogue of Baryte.

By far the most common strontium mineral.

Visit for gemological information about Celestine.

Classification of Celestine


7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
A : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations

3 : AXO4

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Celestine

General Appearance of Type Material:
Fibrous veinlets.
Year of Discovery:
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Sedimentary rocks.

Occurrences of Celestine

Geological Setting:
Occurs mainly in sedimentary rocks such as bedded deposits of gypsum and halite; also in bedded limestone and dolomite, in cavities.

Physical Properties of Celestine

Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colourless, shades of light blue, white, reddish, greenish, brownish, greyish; colourless or lightly tinted in transmitted light
Hardness (Mohs):
3 - 3½
On {001} perfect; on {210} good; on {010} poor. Also reported on {011}
Twin gliding and translation gliding
3.96 - 3.98 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.98 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Celestine

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.359Å, b = 5.352Å, c = 6.866Å
a:b:c = 1.562 : 1 : 1.283
Unit Cell Volume:
V 307.17 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals commonly thin to thick tabular {001}, usually with large {210}; tabular {001} and elongated [100] yielding lath-like forms; or elongated [100] with equant cross section. Equant by development of {001}, {011}, {101} of otherwise, less common. Pyramidal {122}; elongated [010] or [001]; tabular {100}, {100} commonly striated [001]. Fibrous veinlets or nodules with parallel or radiated fiber structure; massive granular; lamellar, earthy, rare.
Reported on {210}, {101}, and other planes (doubtful).

Crystallographic forms of Celestine

Crystal Atlas:
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Click on an icon to view
Celestine no.87 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by

Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Celestine

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.619 - 1.622 nβ = 1.622 - 1.624 nγ = 1.630 - 1.632
Measured: 50° to 51°, Calculated: 54° to 58°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.011
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
moderate r < v
Blue-coloured material: shades of indigo- and lavender-blue, bluish green or violet.

Chemical Properties of Celestine

All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Celestine to other Species

Forms a series with Baryte (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
25.4.2BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
25.4.3GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
25.4.6EugsteriteNa4Ca(SO4)3 · 2H2O
25.4.7HydroglauberiteNa10Ca3(SO4)8 · 6H2O
25.4.8SyngeniteK2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
25.4.9GörgeyiteK2Ca5(SO4)6 · H2O
25.4.10PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
25.4.11Koktaite(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
25.4.13EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
25.4.14BentoriteCa6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O

Other Names for Celestine

Other Information

Thermal Behaviour:
Inverts at about 1152°C to a hexagonal polymorph. Melting Point = ~1605°C.
Other Information:
Slowly soluble in hot concentrated acids or alkali carbonate solutions. Very slightly soluble in water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Celestine

Reference List:
Schütz (1791) Beschr. Nordamer. Foss., Leipzig: 12 (as Fasriger Schwerspath).

Klaproth (1797) Beitr.: 2: 92 (as Schwefelsaurer Strontianit aus Pennsylvanien).

Dolomieu (1798) J. Phys.: 46: 203 (as Strontiane sulfatée).

Werner (1798) (as Cœlestin) {published in L. A. Emmerling, Lehrbuch der Mineralogie}.

Lenz, D.G. (1800) Versuch einer vollständigen Anleitung zur Kenntniss der Mineralien, System: 233 (as Cœlestin; Sicilianite).

Karsten, D.L.G. (1808) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin, second edition: 54, 95 as Cœlestin).

Thomson, T. (1836) Outlines of Mineralogy, Geology, and Mineral Analysis. 2 volumes, London: 1: 111 (Barytosulfate of Strontian).

Lévy, A. (1837) Description d’une collection de minéraux formée par M. Henri Heuland, et appartenant à M. Ch. H. Turner, de Rooksnest, dans le comté de Surrey en Angleterre. 3 volumes and atlas of 85 plates, London: 1: 224 (as Eschwegite).

Glocker, E.F. (1839) Handbuch der Mineralogie, 2nd. edition, Nürnberg: 634 (as Barytocölestin).

Wicke (1860) Arch. Pharm.: 152: 32.

Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 620.

Auerbach (1869) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sitzber., Vienna, Abt. I: 59: 549.

Negri (1887) Revista minera, metalúrgica y de ingenieria, Madrid: 1: 33.

Bettanini (1888) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 14: 507.

Williams (1890) American Journal of Science: 39: 183.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 905.

Arzruni and Thaddéeff (1895) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 25: 38.

Volney (1898) Journal of the American Chemical Society: 21: 386.

Termier (1902) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 25: 173.

Kraus (1904) American Journal of Science: 18: 30.

Kraus (1905) American Journal of Science: 19: 286.

Sidorenko (1905) Mém. Soc. nat. Nouv. Russie: 27: 1.

Surganoff (1905) Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody (Société impériale des naturalists de Moscou): 18: 435.

Kraus and Hunt (1906) American Journal of Science: 21: 237.

Sidorenko (1907) Jb. Min.: II: 377.

Barker (1908) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 45: 14.

Samoiloff (1908) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 45: 113.

Gaubert (1909) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 32: 139.

Lacroix, A. (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes, vol. 4: 103.

Henglein (1911) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 692.

Kolb (1911) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 49: 14.

Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 2: 163.

Kreutz (1915) Ak. Krakau, Abh.: 55: 1.

Dravert (1916) Ann. géol. min. Russie: 17: 75.

Di Franco (1918) I st. Min. Vulc. Univ. Catania, Mem.: 19.

Grahmann (1920) Jb. Min.: I: 1.

Kemter (1921) Ak. Sächs., Verh.: 72: 56.

Ranfaldi (1922) Reale academia nazionale dei Lincet, atti: rendiconti, Rome: 31: 430, 468, 506.

Mellor, J.W. (1923) A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry. 16 volumes, London: 3: 763.

Giuşcă (1924) Ac. Roumaine, Sect. Sc. Bull.: 9: 25.

Onorato (1924) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Att.: 33: 259.

Quercigh (1924) Reale academia nazionale dei Lincet, atti: rendiconti, Rome: 33: 262.

Ruiz (1924) Reale academia nazionale dei Lincet, atti: rendiconti, Rome: 267.

Szadecsky-Kardoss (1924) Földt. Közl.: 53: 94.

James and Wood (1925) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: 109A: 598.

Basche and Mark (1926) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 64: 1.

Lambert and Hume-Rothery (1926) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 2637.

Linck (1926) Chemie der Erde, Jena: 2: 481.

Doelter, C. (1927) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4 [2]: 205..

Honess, A.P. (1927) The Nature, Origin and Interpretation of the Etch Figures on Crystals. 171pp., New York: 124.

Fairbairn (1929) American Mineralogist: 14: 286.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1(3B): 3905.

Landes (1929) American Mineralogist: 14: 408.

Solignac (1931) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 54: 64.

Heide (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 78: 257.

Krieger (1933) American Mineralogist: 18: 345.

Schilly (1933) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Beil.-Bd., Stuttgart: 67: 323.

Morrison (1935) American Mineralogist: 21: 780.

Thibault (1935) American Mineralogist: 20: 147.

Friend and Allchin (1939) Nature: 144: 633.

Jayaraman (1940) Quarterly Journal of the Indian Institute of Science: 3: 11.

Miropolsky (1941) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., n.s.: 33: 64.

Miropolsky (1942) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S.: 34, 114.

Kesler (1944) Ecnomic Geology: 39: 287.

Mellis (1947) Bull. Comm.. géol. Finlande, no. 140: 239.

Murdoch and Webb (1948) California State Division of Mines, Bull. 136: 87.

Serdyuchenko (1948) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S.: 60: 433.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 415-420.

American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 1209-1219.

American Mineralogist (1978): 63: 506-510.

Franzini M., Troysi M., Cecchini A.(1983): La microdurezza della celestina. Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat.,Mem. Serie A, 89, 145-153.

Hanor, J.S. (2000): Barite–celestine geochemistry and environments of formation. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 40, 193-275.

Majzlan, J., Navrotsky, A., and Neil, J.M. (2002) Energetics of anhydrite, barite, celestine, and anglesite: a high-temperature and differential scanning calorimetry study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 66, 1839-1850.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 122.

Internet Links for Celestine

The following Celestine specimens are currently listed for sale on

Localities for Celestine

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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