Mindat Logo

Celestine

This page kindly sponsored by Jamison K. Brizendine



Formula:
SrSO
 
4
System:OrthorhombicColour:Colourless, shades of ...
Hardness:3 - 3½
Member of:Baryte Group
Name:Named in 1799 by Abraham Gottlieb Werner from the Greek "cœlestis," for celestial, in allusion to the faint blue color of the original specimen.


Baryte Group. Baryte-Celestine Series. The strontium analogue of Baryte.

By far the most common strontium mineral.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Celestine. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Celestine

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/A.09-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.AD.35

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
A : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:28.3.1.2

28 : ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
3 : AXO4
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.4.15

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-927.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Celestine

Type Locality:Bell's Mill, Bellwood, Blair Co., Pennsylvania, USA
General Appearance of Type Material:Fibrous veinlets.
Year of Discovery:1791
Geological Setting of type material:Sedimentary rocks.

Occurrences of Celestine

Geological Setting:Occurs mainly in sedimentary rocks such as bedded deposits of gypsum and halite; also in bedded limestone and dolomite, in cavities.

Physical Properties of Celestine

Lustre:Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colourless, shades of light blue, white, reddish, greenish, brownish, greyish; colourless or lightly tinted in transmitted light
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):3 - 3½
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {001} perfect; on {210} good; on {010} poor. Also reported on {011}
Parting:Twin gliding and translation gliding
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):3.96 - 3.98 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.98 g/cm3

Crystallography of Celestine

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Pnma
Cell Parameters:a = 8.359Å, b = 5.352Å, c = 6.866Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.562 : 1 : 1.283
Unit Cell Volume:V 307.17 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals commonly thin to thick tabular {001}, usually with large {210}; tabular {001} and elongated [100] yielding lath-like forms; or elongated [100] with equant cross section. Equant by development of {001}, {011}, {101} of otherwise, less common. Pyramidal {122}; elongated [010] or [001]; tabular {100}, {100} commonly striated [001]. Fibrous veinlets or nodules with parallel or radiated fiber structure; massive granular; lamellar, earthy, rare.
Twinning:Reported on {210}, {101}, and other planes (doubtful).
Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Celestine no.87 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Celestine

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.619 - 1.622 nβ = 1.622 - 1.624 nγ = 1.630 - 1.632
2V:Measured: 50° to 51°, Calculated: 54° to 58°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.011

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:moderate r < v
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:Blue-coloured material: shades of indigo- and lavender-blue, bluish green or violet.

Chemical Properties of Celestine

Formula:
SrSO
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:SrSO4
Essential elements:O, S, Sr
All elements listed in formula:O, S, Sr

Relationship of Celestine to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Baryte (see here)
Member of:Baryte Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Anglesite
PbSO
 
4
Baryte
BaSO
 
4
Hashemite
Ba(Cr,S)O
 
4
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.AD.05Arcanite
K
 
2
SO
 
4
7.AD.05Mascagnite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
SO
 
4
7.AD.10Mercallite
KHSO
 
4
7.AD.15Misenite
K
 
8
H
 
6
(SO
 
4
)
 
7
7.AD.20Letovicite
(NH
 
4
)
 
3
H(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AD.25Glauberite
Na
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AD.30Anhydrite
CaSO
 
4
7.AD.35Anglesite
PbSO
 
4
7.AD.35Baryte
BaSO
 
4
7.AD.35Olsacherite
Pb
 
2
(SeO
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)
7.AD.40Kalistrontite
K
 
2
Sr(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AD.40Palmierite
(K,Na)
 
2
Pb(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.4.1Anhydrite
CaSO
 
4
25.4.2Bassanite
CaSO
 
4
· 0.5H
 
2
O
25.4.3Gypsum
CaSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.4Glauberite
Na
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.4.5Cesanite
Na
 
3
Ca
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
25.4.6Eugsterite
Na
 
4
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.7Hydroglauberite
Na
 
10
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
8
· 6H
 
2
O
25.4.8Syngenite
K
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.4.9Görgeyite
K
 
2
Ca
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
25.4.10Polyhalite
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.11Koktaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.4.12Ye'elimite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
6
(SO
 
4
)O
 
12
25.4.13Ettringite
Ca
 
6
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
25.4.14Bentorite
Ca
 
6
(Cr
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
25.4.16Kalistrontite
K
 
2
Sr(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.4.17Baryte
BaSO
 
4

Other Names for Celestine

Synonyms:
CelestiteCoelestineEschwegite (of Lévy)Sicilianite
Other Languages:
French:Célestin
Strontiane sulfatée
German:Coelestin
Cœlestin
Coelistin
Schätzit
Schützit
Schwefelsaurer Strontianit aus Pennsylvanien
Zölestin
Italian:Celestina
Polish:Celestyn
Russian:Целестин
Simplified Chinese:天青石
Spanish:Celestita
Varieties:
Barian CelestineBarytosulfate of StrontianCalciocelestine

Other Information

Thermal Behaviour:Inverts at about 1152°C to a hexagonal polymorph. Melting Point = ~1605°C.
Other Information:Slowly soluble in hot concentrated acids or alkali carbonate solutions. Very slightly soluble in water.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Celestine

Reference List:

- +
Schütz (1791) Beschr. Nordamer. Foss., Leipzig: 12 (as Fasriger Schwerspath).

Klaproth (1797) Beitr.: 2: 92 (as Schwefelsaurer Strontianit aus Pennsylvanien).

Dolomieu (1798) J. Phys.: 46: 203 (as Strontiane sulfatée).

Werner (1798) (as Cœlestin) {published in L. A. Emmerling, Lehrbuch der Mineralogie}.

Lenz, D.G. (1800) Versuch einer vollständigen Anleitung zur Kenntniss der Mineralien, System: 233 (as Cœlestin; Sicilianite).

Karsten, D.L.G. (1808) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin, second edition: 54, 95 as Cœlestin).

Thomson, T. (1836) Outlines of Mineralogy, Geology, and Mineral Analysis. 2 volumes, London: 1: 111 (Barytosulfate of Strontian).

Lévy, A. (1837) Description d’une collection de minéraux formée par M. Henri Heuland, et appartenant à M. Ch. H. Turner, de Rooksnest, dans le comté de Surrey en Angleterre. 3 volumes and atlas of 85 plates, London: 1: 224 (as Eschwegite).

Glocker, E.F. (1839) Handbuch der Mineralogie, 2nd. edition, Nürnberg: 634 (as Barytocölestin).

Wicke (1860) Arch. Pharm.: 152: 32.

Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 620.

Auerbach (1869) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sitzber., Vienna, Abt. I: 59: 549.

Negri (1887) Revista minera, metalúrgica y de ingenieria, Madrid: 1: 33.

Bettanini (1888) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 14: 507.

Williams (1890) American Journal of Science: 39: 183.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 905.

Arzruni and Thaddéeff (1895) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 25: 38.

Volney (1898) Journal of the American Chemical Society: 21: 386.

Termier (1902) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 25: 173.

Kraus (1904) American Journal of Science: 18: 30.

Kraus (1905) American Journal of Science: 19: 286.

Sidorenko (1905) Mém. Soc. nat. Nouv. Russie: 27: 1.

Surganoff (1905) Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody (Société impériale des naturalists de Moscou): 18: 435.

Kraus and Hunt (1906) American Journal of Science: 21: 237.

Sidorenko (1907) Jb. Min.: II: 377.

Barker (1908) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 45: 14.

Samoiloff (1908) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 45: 113.

Gaubert (1909) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 32: 139.

Lacroix, A. (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes, vol. 4: 103.

Henglein (1911) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 692.

Kolb (1911) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 49: 14.

Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 2: 163.

Kreutz (1915) Ak. Krakau, Abh.: 55: 1.

Dravert (1916) Ann. géol. min. Russie: 17: 75.

Di Franco (1918) I st. Min. Vulc. Univ. Catania, Mem.: 19.

Grahmann (1920) Jb. Min.: I: 1.

Kemter (1921) Ak. Sächs., Verh.: 72: 56.

Ranfaldi (1922) Reale academia nazionale dei Lincet, atti: rendiconti, Rome: 31: 430, 468, 506.

Mellor, J.W. (1923) A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry. 16 volumes, London: 3: 763.

Giuşcă (1924) Ac. Roumaine, Sect. Sc. Bull.: 9: 25.

Onorato (1924) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Att.: 33: 259.

Quercigh (1924) Reale academia nazionale dei Lincet, atti: rendiconti, Rome: 33: 262.

Ruiz (1924) Reale academia nazionale dei Lincet, atti: rendiconti, Rome: 267.

Szadecsky-Kardoss (1924) Földt. Közl.: 53: 94.

James and Wood (1925) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: 109A: 598.

Basche and Mark (1926) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 64: 1.

Lambert and Hume-Rothery (1926) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 2637.

Linck (1926) Chemie der Erde, Jena: 2: 481.

Doelter, C. (1927) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4 [2]: 205..

Honess, A.P. (1927) The Nature, Origin and Interpretation of the Etch Figures on Crystals. 171pp., New York: 124.

Fairbairn (1929) American Mineralogist: 14: 286.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1(3B): 3905.

Landes (1929) American Mineralogist: 14: 408.

Solignac (1931) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 54: 64.

Heide (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 78: 257.

Krieger (1933) American Mineralogist: 18: 345.

Schilly (1933) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Beil.-Bd., Stuttgart: 67: 323.

Morrison (1935) American Mineralogist: 21: 780.

Thibault (1935) American Mineralogist: 20: 147.

Friend and Allchin (1939) Nature: 144: 633.

Jayaraman (1940) Quarterly Journal of the Indian Institute of Science: 3: 11.

Miropolsky (1941) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., n.s.: 33: 64.

Miropolsky (1942) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S.: 34, 114.

Kesler (1944) Ecnomic Geology: 39: 287.

Mellis (1947) Bull. Comm.. géol. Finlande, no. 140: 239.

Murdoch and Webb (1948) California State Division of Mines, Bull. 136: 87.

Serdyuchenko (1948) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S.: 60: 433.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 415-420.

American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 1209-1219.

American Mineralogist (1978): 63: 506-510.

Franzini M., Troysi M., Cecchini A.(1983): La microdurezza della celestina. Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat.,Mem. Serie A, 89, 145-153.

Majzlan, J., Navrotsky, A., and Neil, J.M. (2002) Energetics of anhydrite, barite, celestine, and anglesite: a high-temperature and differential scanning calorimetry study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 66: 1839-1850.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 122.

Internet Links for Celestine

Search Engines:
  • Look for Celestine on Google
  • Look for Celestine images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Look for Celestine on Webmineral
  • Look for Celestine on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Celestine on Wikipedia
  • Look for Celestine on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Celestine details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • Buy fine minerals and gemstones from Pala International
  • Top quality minerals from Kristalle of California
  • Buy RARE Minerals from Rocks of Africa
  • Find Celestine on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • Fine Minerals from Weinrich Minerals, Inc.
  • The Arkenstone - Fine Minerals
  • Celestine specimens for sale - minfind.com
  • Wilensky Fine Minerals
  • Buy from Dave Bunk Minerals
  • Fine and rare minerals from mintreasure.com
  • Buy rare minerals from Excalibur Minerals
  • High-end worldwide specimens & outstanding customer service
  • Specimens:The following Celestine specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Celestine

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    Mineral and/or Locality  
    Search Google  
    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
    Current server date and time: October 20, 2014 00:41:45
    Mineral and Locality Search
    Mineral:
    and/or Locality:
    Options
    Fade toolbar when not in focusFix toolbar to bottom of page
    Hide Social Media Links
    Slideshow frame delay seconds