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Chalcosiderite

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Formula:
Cu(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
8
· 4H
 
2
O
System:TriclinicColour:dark green to apple-green
Lustre:Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, GreasyHardness:
Member of:Turquoise Group
Name:Named by Johann Christoph Ullmann in 1814 from the Greek for copper and iron, in allusion to its composition.
Isostructural with:Turquoise


Turquoise Group. Chalcosiderite-Turquoise Series.

An uncommon mineral occurring in the oxidized zone of some hydrothermal deposits.

Classification of Chalcosiderite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/D.15-60
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.DD.15

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
D : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4= 2:1
Dana 8th edition ID:42.9.3.4

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
9 : (AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.2.13

19 : Phosphates
2 : Phosphates of Cu
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Type Occurrence of Chalcosiderite

Type Locality:Phoenix United Mine, Minions, Linkinhorne, Liskeard District, Cornwall, England, UK
Year of Discovery:1814
Associated Minerals at type locality:
GoethiteDufrénite

Occurrences of Chalcosiderite

Geological Setting:Oxidized zone of some hydrothermal deposits.

Physical Properties of Chalcosiderite

Lustre:Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:dark green to apple-green
Streak:pale green to greenish to white
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {001}, perfect, on {010}, good.
Density (measured):3.22 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.28 g/cm3

Crystallography of Chalcosiderite

Crystal System:Triclinic
Class (H-M):1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:P1
Cell Parameters:a = 7.653(4) Å, b = 7.873(4) Å, c = 10.19Å
α = 67.57(2)°, β = 69.17(2)°, γ = 64.93(2)°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.972 : 1 : 1.294
Unit Cell Volume:V 500.08 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:1
Morphology:Crystals short prismatic [001], with large {001}, {010}, {110}, and {111}. Commonly in sheafs, crusts.
Crystal Atlas:
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Chalcosiderite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

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The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Structure
  Reference
Giuseppetti G Mazzi F Tadini C (1989) The crystal structure of chalcosiderite, CuFe3+6(PO4)4(OH)8*4H2O Locality: Wheal Phoenix Mine, Cornwall, England. Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1989:227-239.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
6.39 (30)
4.93 (20)
3.76 (100)
3.54 (40)
3.38 (40)
3.01 (40)
2.95 (30)
2.52 (30)
Comments:ICDD 37-446

Optical Data of Chalcosiderite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.775 nβ = 1.840 nγ = 1.844
2V:Measured: 22° , Calculated: 48°
Birefringence:0.069
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.069

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:relatively strong r > v
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:X= Colourless
Z= Pale green

Chemical Properties of Chalcosiderite

Formula:
Cu(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
8
· 4H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu(Fe3+,Al)6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O
Essential elements:Cu, Fe, H, O, P
All elements listed in formula:Al, Cu, Fe, H, O, P
Common Impurities:Al

Relationship of Chalcosiderite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Turquoise (see here)
Member of:Turquoise Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Aheylite
(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)Al
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
8
· 4H
 
2
O
Faustite
(Zn,Cu)Al
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
8
· 4H
 
2
O
Planerite
Al
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 4 H
 
2
O
Turquoise
Cu(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
8
· 4H
 
2
O
Common Associates:
TorberniteSampleiteSaléeitePseudomalachiteLibethenite
LeucophosphiteDufréniteCyriloviteCrandallite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.DD.05Chenevixite
Cu
 
2
Fe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
8.DD.05Luetheite
Cu
 
2
Al
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
8.DD.10Akrochordite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DD.10Guanacoite
Cu
 
2
Mg
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DD.15Aheylite
(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)Al
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
8
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DD.15Faustite
(Zn,Cu)Al
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
8
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DD.15Planerite
Al
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 4 H
 
2
O
8.DD.15Turquoise
Cu(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
8
· 4H
 
2
O
8.DD.15Afmite
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
4
(H2O)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)(PO
 
3
OH) · H2O
8.DD.20Childrenite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Al(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
8.DD.20Eosphorite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Al(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
8.DD.20Ernstite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)Al(PO
 
4
)(OH,O)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.2.1Libethenite
Cu
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
19.2.2Cornetite
Cu
 
3
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
19.2.3Reichenbachite
Cu
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
19.2.4Ludjibaite
Cu
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
19.2.5Pseudomalachite
Cu
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
19.2.6Nissonite
Cu
 
2
Mg
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
19.2.7Zapatalite
Cu
 
3
Al
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
9
· 4H
 
2
O
19.2.8Turquoise
Cu(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
8
· 4H
 
2
O
19.2.9Sieleckiite
Cu
 
3
Al
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
12
· 2H
 
2
O
19.2.10Planerite
Al
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 4 H
 
2
O
19.2.11Hentschelite
CuFe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
19.2.14Phosphofibrite
K
 
<0.5
(Fe
3+
 
,Cu)
 
8
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)
 
7
· 7H
 
2
O

Other Names for Chalcosiderite

Other Languages:
German:Chalcosiderit
Chalkosiderit
Russian:Халькосидерит
Simplified Chinese:磷铜铁矿
Spanish:Chalcosiderita
Varieties:
Alumo-chalcosiderite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent
Other Information:Soluble with difficulty in HCl.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Chalcosiderite

Reference List:

- +
Ullmann, J.C. (1824): 323 (as Chalkosiderit).

Maskelyne (1875) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 28: 586.

Schaller (1912) American Journal of Science: 33: 35.

Schaller (1912) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 50: 120.

Jahn and Gruner (1933) Mitt. Vogtland. Ges. Naturfor.: 1, no. 8: 1.

Graham, R. (1947) X-ray study of chalcosiderite and turquoise. Univ. Toronto Studies, Geology Series, 52, 39–53.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 946-951.

Giuseppetti, G., F. Mazzi, and C. Tadini (1989) The crystal structure of chalcosiderite, CuFe3+6(PO4)4(OH)8•4H2O. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 227–239.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 103.

Y. A. Abdu, S. K. Hull, M. Fayek & F. C. Hawthorne (2011): The turquoise-chalcosiderite Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8•4H2O solid-solution series: A Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, EMPA, and FTIR study. American Mineralogist 96, 1433-1442.

Internet Links for Chalcosiderite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Chalcosiderite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Chalcosiderite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Canbelego Co.
        • Girilambone
    Chapman, J. R., Sharpe, J. L. and Williams, P. A. (2005): The copper deposits at Girilambone, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 91-99.
      • Yancowinna Co.
        • Broken Hill
    Australian Mineralogist (1997): 3: 1.
    • Queensland
      • Mount Isa - Cloncurry area
        • Gunpowder District
          • Mount Gordon
    Day, B. E. & Beyer, B. D. (1996): Some mines of the Mt Isa district. Part 3 - The Mt Oxide mine. Australian J. of Mineralogy 2 (1), 3-10.
    • South Australia
      • Eyre Peninsula
        • Middleback Range
          • Iron Knob
    Minerals of Iron Monarch, Glyn L. Francis
      • Flinders Ranges
        • South Flinders Ranges
          • Wilmington
    Australian Journal of Mineralogy. Vol 2. No. 2. 1996. 57-70; Mineral. Mag. 63, 735-741
      • Mt Lofty Ranges
        • North Mt Lofty Ranges
          • Barossa Valley
            • Angaston
    Francis, G.L., Peisley, V., 2012. Minerals from Penrice quarry and the phosphate deposits Klemms and St Kitts, Angaston, South Australia. (self published).
          • Kapunda
    Peter Elliott
      • Olary Province
        • Ameroo Hill
    Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol.3, N°2, Dec.1997
    Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol.3, N°2, Dec.1997
    • Victoria
      • Swan Hill Rural City
        • Lake Boga
    [AmMin 85:1321]; Am Min 93:691-697; W.D. Birch & D.A.Henry 1993. Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, The Mineralogical Society of Victoria special publication No. 3, pp. 14-27; D.A.Henry & W.D.Birch 1998. Sampleite and associated minerals from Lake Boga granite quarry, Victoria, Australia. Australian Mineralogist Vol. 3 Oct.-Dec. 1988, pp. 135-148
    Bolivia
     
    • Oruro Department
      • Dalence Province
        • Huanuni
    SEM analyses by Gene Foord, U.S. Geological Survey, done as part of an unpublished study of the turquoise group (analyses copies courtesy of Brian Kosnar)
    • Potosí Department
      • Rafael Bustillo Province (Bustillos Province)
        • Llallagua
    Mineralogical Record (2006): 37: 117-162.
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Itatiaiuçú
    Luiz Alberto Dias Menezes,Fo.
    Bulgaria
     
    • Haskovo Oblast (Khaskovo Oblast)
      • Mineralni Bani Obshtina
        • Spachievo ore field (Spahievo ore field)
    http://www.bgd.bg/CONFERENCES/Conferencia_2004/pdf_files/Kunov.pdf
    Chile
     
    • Tarapacá Region
      • El Tamarugal Province
        • Collahuasi District
    Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
        • Pozo Almonte
    arturo molina & maurizio dini collections
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
    No reference listed
    Collection M. Kampf No 89-267
    Sejkora, J., Škoda, R. and Ondruš, P., 2006: New naturally occurring mineral phases from the Krásno  Horní Slavkov area, western Bohemia, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 51, 159-187.; Sejkora, J., Ondruš, P., Fikar, M., Veselovský, F., Mach, Z., Gabašová, A., Skoda, R. & Beran, P. (2006): Supergene minerals at the Huber stock and Schnöd stock deposits, Krásno ore District, the Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 57-101.; Sejkora, J., Škoda, R., Ondruš, P., Beran, P. & Susser, C. (2006): Mineralogy of phosphate accumulations in the Huber stock, Krásno ore district, Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 103-147.
            • Vysoký Kámen
    Sejkora, J., Süsser, C., Plášil, J.: Natrodufrénit a asociace fosfátů, ložisko Vysoký kámen – greisen, Krásno u Horního Slavkova. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2007, roč. 14-15, s. 116-125; Sejkora, J., Ondruš, P., Fikar, M., Veselovský, F., Mach, Z. & Gabašová, A. (2006): New data on mineralogy of the Vysoký Kámen deposits near Krásno, Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 43-55.
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Allier
        • Ébreuil
          • Échassières
    G. Aubert : "Les coupoles granitiques de Montebras et d'Echassières (Massif Central Français) et la genèse de leur minéralisations (BRGM, 1969)
    Pierre Le Roch & Jean-Marc Johannet collections
    Le Règne Minéral, (33), 5-25.
    • Limousin
      • Creuse
        • Soumans
          • Montebras
    Patureau, J., Chiappero, P-J. & Lebocey, J. (2011): Mines et minéraux de Montebras, Soumans, Creuse. Le Règne Minéral. 99, 5-33
      • Haute-Vienne
        • Bessines-sur-Gartempe
    http://perso.wanadoo.fr/jeldemine/listes%20mineraux.html
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Rankach valley
    WALENTA, K. (1995): Neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Clara. 6. Folge, 2. Teil. - Lapis 20 (6), 41 und 46-49.
    • Bavaria
      • Upper Palatinate
        • Oberpfälzer Wald
          • Vohenstrauß
            • Pleystein
    Dill, H.G., Weber, B. (2009), Pleystein-City on Pegmatite, 4th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, Recife, Brazil.
            • Waidhaus
              • Hagendorf
    http://www.berthold-weber.de/h_miner.htm
    • Hesse
      • Wetzlar
        • Weilburg
          • Essershausen
    Blaß, G. (2002): Eine neue Phosphatmineralien-Paragenese von der Grube Mark bei Essershausen, mittleres Lahngebiet, Taunus. Mineralien-Welt, 13 (6), 18-43. (in German)
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Siegerland
        • Eiserfeld
    Henrich, M. (2008): Neues von der Grube Eisenzecher Zug. Mineralien-Welt 19 (5), 16-25.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 950.
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Siegerland
        • Herdorf
          • Dermbach
    S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990; Overkott, T. & Reinhardt, M. (2007): Dufrenit vom Hollerter Zug im Siegerland. Lapis 32 (11), 42.
      • Westerwald
        • Linz am Rhein
          • Kalenborn
            • Kasbach
    Habel, B. & Reinhardt, M. (2011): Die Grube Clemenslust- Geschichte und Mineralogie eines Kupferbergwekes am Südrand des Siebengebirges. Mineralien-Welt. 22 (2): 19-36
        • Wied Iron Spar District
          • Altenkirchen
            • Bürdenbach
    Weiss: "Mineralienfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
          • Neuwied
            • Dernbach
    Mineralien-Welt, 4 (5), 41-48
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Ehrenfriedersdorf
      • Oberlausitz
        • Görlitz
          • Neißeaue
    Witzke, T. & Giesler, T. (2013): Seltene Phosphate und Vanadate von Emmerichswalde bei Görlitz/Sachsen. Mineralien-Welt 24 (2), 40-55
          • Rengersdorf
    T. Witzke & T. Giesler (1997): Neufunde aus Sachsen (VI): Churchit-(Y), Cyrilovit, Faustit, Kidwellit, Meurigit und Nickelhexahydrit aus der Lausitz.- Lapis 22, 9, 36-38
      • Vogtland
        • Klingenthal
          • Kielberg
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 950.
          • Mühlleithen
    Fischer, E. (1958): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 6, 182-189.
    • Thuringia
      • Vogtland
        • Hirschberg
          • Ullersreuth
    T. Witzke et al.: Lapis 2001(12), 13-27
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
    Skarpelis, N. and Argyraki, A. (2009): The geology and origin of supergene ores in Lavrion (Attica, Greece). Resource Geology, 59, 1-14.
    Portugal
     
    • Évora District
      • Vila Viçosa
        • Conceição
    Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Rui Nunes collection
    • Guarda District
      • Gouveia
        • Folgosinho
    MEB/EDS AMM285 Museum Paris/Micromonteurs
      • Sabugal
        • Bendada
          • Bendada Mines
    Pedro Alves collection
    Spain
     
    • Castile-La Mancha
      • Ciudad Real
        • Minas de Horcajo
    Borja Sainz de Baranda, Fernando J. Palero, Gonzalo Garcia (2004) El Horcajo. Paraiso de los fosfatos. Bocamina, 13: 30-68
    • Extremadura
      • Badajoz
        • Cheles
    Cesar Menor-Salván
      • Cáceres
        • Zarza la Mayor
    Viñals, J. and Calvo, M. (2011). Secondary phosphates of La Paloma mine, Zarza la Mayor, Cáceres, Spain. Mineral Up 2 (5), 8-31.
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • Callington District
          • Calstock
            • Drakewalls
    Craik-Smith, B. (2000): British Micromount Society Newsletter 55, 8
            • Gunnislake
              • Clitters United Mines
    Collection Richard De Nul
        • Liskeard District
          • Linkinhorne
            • Minions
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 802, 950; American Mineralogist (1965): 50: 227; Lapis (1999): 12: 9; Mineralogical Record: 12: 351-352.
    Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 2, pp. 591-594
    Rudler, F.W. (1905): A Handbook to a Collection of the Minerals of the British Islands, Mostly Selected from the Ludlam Collection. HMSO Publications (London), 241 pp.
    P D Trebilcock.
        • St Austell District
          • Treverbyn
            • Stenalees
    Elton, N. J. (1998): Barbosalite, frondelite and other phosphates from Gunheath China Clay Pit, St Austell, Cornwall, England. Journal of the Russell Society 7, 15-18. ; Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 517-518.
      • Devon
        • Tavistock District
          • Tavistock Hamlets
    No reference listed
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Mule Mts
          • Warren District
    Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 74.
    Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 167.
      • Santa Cruz Co.
        • Patagonia Mts
    Raman analyzed at the University of Arizona.
    • California
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Clark Mts (Clark Mountain Range)
          • Clark Mountain District
            • Pactolus
              • Mohawk Hill
    Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
    • Colorado
      • Conejos Co.
        • Manassa
    "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 13, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
    • Georgia
      • Polk Co.
        • Cedartown
    Min News 14:4 p 3
    • Montana
      • Silver Bow Co.
    The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
    • Nevada
      • Humboldt Co.
        • Golconda District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Iron Point District
          • Valmy
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Lander Co.
        • Bateman Canyon District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Birch Creek District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Bullion District
    Personal communication from Jim Puckett
      • Lyon Co.
        • Yerington District
          • Artesia Lake
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Mexico
      • Grant Co.
        • Burro Mountains District
          • Tyrone Area
    Min Rec 20:1 p57
      • Socorro Co.
        • Hansonburg District
          • Bingham
    M Massis collection (microprobe by Paul Hlava)
    • Virginia
      • Buckingham Co.
        • Farmville District
          • Sprouses Corner
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Gems and Minerals of America-Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
        • James River-Roanoke River Manganese District
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
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