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Chalcosiderite

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Formula:
Cu(Fe3+,Al)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
System:
Triclinic
Colour:
dark green to apple-green
Lustre:
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy
Hardness:
Member of:
Name:
Named by Johann Christoph Ullmann in 1814 from the Greek for copper and iron, in allusion to its composition.
Isostructural with:
Turquoise Group. Chalcosiderite-Turquoise Series.

An uncommon mineral occurring in the oxidized zone of some hydrothermal deposits.

Classification of Chalcosiderite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.DD.15

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
D : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4= 2:1
42.9.3.4

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
9 : (AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
19.2.13

19 : Phosphates
2 : Phosphates of Cu
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First Recorded Occurrence of Chalcosiderite

Year of Discovery:
1814
Associated Minerals at First Recorded Locality:

Occurrences of Chalcosiderite

Geological Setting:
Oxidized zone of some hydrothermal deposits.

Physical Properties of Chalcosiderite

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
dark green to apple-green
Streak:
pale green to greenish to white
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {001}, perfect, on {010}, good.
Density:
3.22 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.28 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Chalcosiderite

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.653(4) Å, b = 7.873(4) Å, c = 10.19Å
α = 67.57(2)°, β = 69.17(2)°, γ = 64.93(2)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.972 : 1 : 1.294
Z:
1
Morphology:
Crystals short prismatic [001], with large {001}, {010}, {110}, and {111}. Commonly in sheafs, crusts.

Crystallographic forms of Chalcosiderite

Crystal Atlas:
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Chalcosiderite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Crystal Structure

Structure
Reference
Giuseppetti G Mazzi F Tadini C (1989) The crystal structure of chalcosiderite, CuFe3+6(PO4)4(OH)8*4H2O Locality: Wheal Phoenix Mine, Cornwall, England. Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1989:227-239.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
6.39 (30)
4.93 (20)
3.76 (100)
3.54 (40)
3.38 (40)
3.01 (40)
2.95 (30)
2.52 (30)
Comments:
ICDD 37-446

Optical Data of Chalcosiderite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.775 nβ = 1.840 nγ = 1.844
2V:
Measured: 22° , Calculated: 48°
Birefringence:
0.069
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.069
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
relatively strong r > v
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X= Colourless
Z= Pale green

Chemical Properties of Chalcosiderite

Formula:
Cu(Fe3+,Al)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Al

Relationship of Chalcosiderite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Turquoise (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
Aheylite(Fe2+,Zn)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Faustite(Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
PlaneriteAl6(PO4)2(HPO4)2(OH)8 · 4 H2O
TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
8.DD.05ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
8.DD.05LuetheiteCu2Al2(AsO4)2(OH)4
8.DD.10Akrochordite(Mn2+,Mg)5(AsO4)2(OH)4 · 4H2O
8.DD.10GuanacoiteCu2Mg3(AsO4)2(OH)4 · 4H2O
8.DD.15Aheylite(Fe2+,Zn)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
8.DD.15Faustite(Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
8.DD.15PlaneriteAl6(PO4)2(HPO4)2(OH)8 · 4 H2O
8.DD.15TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
8.DD.15AfmiteAl3(OH)4(H2O)3(PO4)(PO3OH) · H2O
8.DD.20Childrenite(Fe2+,Mn2+)Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
8.DD.20Eosphorite(Mn2+,Fe2+)Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
8.DD.20Ernstite(Mn2+,Fe3+)Al(PO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
19.2.1LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
19.2.2CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
19.2.3ReichenbachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
19.2.4LudjibaiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
19.2.5PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
19.2.6NissoniteCu2Mg2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 5H2O
19.2.7ZapataliteCu3Al4(PO4)3(OH)9 · 4H2O
19.2.8TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
19.2.9SieleckiiteCu3Al4(PO4)2(OH)12 · 2H2O
19.2.10PlaneriteAl6(PO4)2(HPO4)2(OH)8 · 4 H2O
19.2.11HentscheliteCuFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
19.2.14PhosphofibriteK<0.5(Fe3+,Cu)8(PO4)6(OH)7 · 7H2O

Other Names for Chalcosiderite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble with difficulty in HCl.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Chalcosiderite

Reference List:
Ullmann, J.C. (1824): 323 (as Chalkosiderit).

Maskelyne (1875) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 28: 586.

Schaller (1912) American Journal of Science: 33: 35.

Schaller (1912) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 50: 120.

Jahn and Gruner (1933) Mitt. Vogtland. Ges. Naturfor.: 1, no. 8: 1.

Graham, R. (1947) X-ray study of chalcosiderite and turquoise. Univ. Toronto Studies, Geology Series, 52, 39–53.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 946-951.

Giuseppetti, G., F. Mazzi, and C. Tadini (1989) The crystal structure of chalcosiderite, CuFe3+6(PO4)4(OH)8•4H2O. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 227–239.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 103.

Y. A. Abdu, S. K. Hull, M. Fayek & F. C. Hawthorne (2011): The turquoise-chalcosiderite Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8•4H2O solid-solution series: A Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, EMPA, and FTIR study. American Mineralogist 96, 1433-1442.

Internet Links for Chalcosiderite

Localities for Chalcosiderite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Canbelego Co.
      • Girilambone
Chapman, J. R., Sharpe, J. L. and Williams, P. A. (2005): The copper deposits at Girilambone, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 91-99.
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill
Australian Mineralogist (1997): 3: 1.
  • Queensland
    • Mount Isa - Cloncurry area
      • Gunpowder District
        • Mount Gordon
Day, B. E. & Beyer, B. D. (1996): Some mines of the Mt Isa district. Part 3 - The Mt Oxide mine. Australian J. of Mineralogy 2 (1), 3-10.
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
Minerals of Iron Monarch, Glyn L. Francis
    • Flinders Ranges
      • South Flinders Ranges
        • Wilmington
Australian Journal of Mineralogy. Vol 2. No. 2. 1996. 57-70; Mineral. Mag. 63, 735-741
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • North Mt Lofty Ranges
        • Barossa Valley
          • Angaston
Francis, G.L., Peisley, V., 2012. Minerals from Penrice quarry and the phosphate deposits Klemms and St Kitts, Angaston, South Australia. (self published).
        • Kapunda
Peter Elliott
    • Olary Province
      • Ameroo Hill
Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol.3, N°2, Dec.1997
Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol.3, N°2, Dec.1997
  • Victoria
    • Swan Hill Rural City
      • Lake Boga
[AmMin 85:1321]; Am Min 93:691-697; W.D. Birch & D.A.Henry 1993. Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, The Mineralogical Society of Victoria special publication No. 3, pp. 14-27; D.A.Henry & W.D.Birch 1998. Sampleite and associated minerals from Lake Boga granite quarry, Victoria, Australia. Australian Mineralogist Vol. 3 Oct.-Dec. 1988, pp. 135-148
Bolivia
 
  • Oruro Department
    • Dalence Province
      • Huanuni
SEM analyses by Gene Foord, U.S. Geological Survey, done as part of an unpublished study of the turquoise group (analyses copies courtesy of Brian Kosnar)
  • Potosí Department
    • Rafael Bustillo Province (Bustillos Province)
      • Llallagua
Mineralogical Record (2006): 37: 117-162.
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Itatiaiuçú
Luiz Alberto Dias Menezes,Fo.
Bulgaria
 
  • Haskovo Oblast (Khaskovo Oblast)
    • Mineralni Bani Obshtina
      • Spachievo ore field (Spahievo ore field)
http://www.bgd.bg/CONFERENCES/Conferencia_2004/pdf_files/Kunov.pdf
Chile
 
  • Tarapacá Region
    • El Tamarugal Province
      • Collahuasi District
Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
      • Pozo Almonte
arturo molina & maurizio dini collections
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
No reference listed
Collection M. Kampf No 89-267
Sejkora, J., Škoda, R. and Ondruš, P., 2006: New naturally occurring mineral phases from the Krásno  Horní Slavkov area, western Bohemia, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 51, 159-187.; Sejkora, J., Ondruš, P., Fikar, M., Veselovský, F., Mach, Z., Gabašová, A., Skoda, R. & Beran, P. (2006): Supergene minerals at the Huber stock and Schnöd stock deposits, Krásno ore District, the Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 57-101.; Sejkora, J., Škoda, R., Ondruš, P., Beran, P. & Susser, C. (2006): Mineralogy of phosphate accumulations in the Huber stock, Krásno ore district, Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 103-147.
          • Vysoký Kámen
Sejkora, J., Süsser, C., Plášil, J.: Natrodufrénit a asociace fosfátů, ložisko Vysoký kámen – greisen, Krásno u Horního Slavkova. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2007, roč. 14-15, s. 116-125; Sejkora, J., Ondruš, P., Fikar, M., Veselovský, F., Mach, Z. & Gabašová, A. (2006): New data on mineralogy of the Vysoký Kámen deposits near Krásno, Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 43-55.
France
 
  • Auvergne
    • Allier
      • Ébreuil
        • Échassières
G. Aubert : "Les coupoles granitiques de Montebras et d'Echassières (Massif Central Français) et la genèse de leur minéralisations (BRGM, 1969)
Pierre Le Roch & Jean-Marc Johannet collections
Le Règne Minéral, (33), 5-25.
  • Limousin
    • Creuse
      • Soumans
        • Montebras
Patureau, J., Chiappero, P-J. & Lebocey, J. (2011): Mines et minéraux de Montebras, Soumans, Creuse. Le Règne Minéral. 99, 5-33
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Bessines-sur-Gartempe
http://perso.wanadoo.fr/jeldemine/listes%20mineraux.html
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
WALENTA, K. (1995): Neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Clara. 6. Folge, 2. Teil. - Lapis 20 (6), 41 und 46-49.
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Pleystein
Dill, H.G., Weber, B. (2009), Pleystein-City on Pegmatite, 4th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, Recife, Brazil.
      • Waidhaus
        • Hagendorf
http://www.berthold-weber.de/h_miner.htm
  • Hesse
    • Wetzlar
      • Weilburg
        • Essershausen
Blaß, G. (2002): Eine neue Phosphatmineralien-Paragenese von der Grube Mark bei Essershausen, mittleres Lahngebiet, Taunus. Mineralien-Welt, 13 (6), 18-43. (in German)
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Siegerland
      • Eiserfeld
Henrich, M. (2008): Neues von der Grube Eisenzecher Zug. Mineralien-Welt 19 (5), 16-25.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 950.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Siegerland
      • Herdorf
        • Dermbach
S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990; Overkott, T. & Reinhardt, M. (2007): Dufrenit vom Hollerter Zug im Siegerland. Lapis 32 (11), 42.
    • Westerwald
      • Linz am Rhein
        • Kalenborn
          • Kasbach
Habel, B. & Reinhardt, M. (2011): Die Grube Clemenslust- Geschichte und Mineralogie eines Kupferbergwekes am Südrand des Siebengebirges. Mineralien-Welt. 22 (2): 19-36
      • Wied Iron Spar District
        • Altenkirchen
          • Bürdenbach
Weiss: "Mineralienfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Neuwied
          • Dernbach
Mineralien-Welt, 4 (5), 41-48
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Ehrenfriedersdorf
    • Oberlausitz
      • Görlitz
        • Neißeaue
Witzke, T. & Giesler, T. (2013): Seltene Phosphate und Vanadate von Emmerichswalde bei Görlitz/Sachsen. Mineralien-Welt 24 (2), 40-55
        • Rengersdorf
T. Witzke & T. Giesler (1997): Neufunde aus Sachsen (VI): Churchit-(Y), Cyrilovit, Faustit, Kidwellit, Meurigit und Nickelhexahydrit aus der Lausitz.- Lapis 22, 9, 36-38
    • Vogtland
      • Klingenthal
        • Kielberg
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 950.
        • Mühlleithen
Fischer, E. (1958): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 6, 182-189.
  • Thuringia
    • Vogtland
      • Hirschberg
        • Ullersreuth
T. Witzke et al.: Lapis 2001(12), 13-27
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
Skarpelis, N. and Argyraki, A. (2009): The geology and origin of supergene ores in Lavrion (Attica, Greece). Resource Geology, 59, 1-14.
Portugal
 
  • Évora District
    • Vila Viçosa
      • Conceição
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Rui Nunes collection
  • Guarda District
    • Gouveia
      • Folgosinho
MEB/EDS AMM285 Museum Paris/Micromonteurs
    • Sabugal
      • Bendada
        • Bendada Mines
Pedro Alves collection
Spain
 
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Ciudad Real
      • Minas de Horcajo
Borja Sainz de Baranda, Fernando J. Palero, Gonzalo Garcia (2004) El Horcajo. Paraiso de los fosfatos. Bocamina, 13: 30-68
  • Extremadura
    • Badajoz
      • Cheles
Cesar Menor-Salván
    • Cáceres
      • Zarza la Mayor
Viñals, J. and Calvo, M. (2011). Secondary phosphates of La Paloma mine, Zarza la Mayor, Cáceres, Spain. Mineral Up 2 (5), 8-31.
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Callington District
        • Calstock
          • Drakewalls
Craik-Smith, B. (2000): British Micromount Society Newsletter 55, 8
          • Gunnislake
            • Clitters United Mines
Collection Richard De Nul
      • Liskeard District
        • Linkinhorne
          • Minions
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 802, 950; American Mineralogist (1965): 50: 227; Lapis (1999): 12: 9; Mineralogical Record: 12: 351-352.
Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 2, pp. 591-594
Rudler, F.W. (1905): A Handbook to a Collection of the Minerals of the British Islands, Mostly Selected from the Ludlam Collection. HMSO Publications (London), 241 pp.
P D Trebilcock.
      • St Austell District
        • Treverbyn
          • Stenalees
Elton, N. J. (1998): Barbosalite, frondelite and other phosphates from Gunheath China Clay Pit, St Austell, Cornwall, England. Journal of the Russell Society 7, 15-18. ; Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 517-518.
    • Devon
      • Tavistock District
        • Tavistock Hamlets
No reference listed
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 74.
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 167.
    • Santa Cruz Co.
      • Patagonia Mts
Raman analyzed at the University of Arizona.
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Clark Mts (Clark Mountain Range)
        • Clark Mountain District
          • Pactolus
            • Mohawk Hill
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
  • Colorado
    • Conejos Co.
      • Manassa
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 13, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
  • Georgia
    • Polk Co.
      • Cedartown
Min News 14:4 p 3
  • Montana
    • Silver Bow Co.
The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
  • Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Golconda District
Collected by Joe Marty.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Iron Point District
        • Valmy
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Lander Co.
      • Bateman Canyon District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Birch Creek District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Lyon Co.
      • Yerington District
        • Artesia Lake
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Grant Co.
      • Burro Mountains District
        • Tyrone Area
Min Rec 20:1 p57
    • Socorro Co.
      • Hansonburg District
        • Bingham
M Massis collection (microprobe by Paul Hlava)
  • Virginia
    • Buckingham Co.
      • Farmville District
        • Sprouses Corner
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Gems and Minerals of America-Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
      • James River-Roanoke River Manganese District
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
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