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Chalcophanite

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Formula:
(Zn,Fe,Mn)Mn3O7 · 3H2O
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Bluish-black, iron-black
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
Name:
Named in 1875 by George Emmet Moore from the Greek χαλκός, brass, and φαίυεσθαι, to appear in allusion to the change of color on ignition.
Pseudo-octahedral habits may be confused with hetaerolite with which it is often associated.

Classification of Chalcophanite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
4.FL.20

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
L : Hydroxides with H2O +- (OH); sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
7.8.2.1

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
8 : AB3X7
7.5.8

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
5 : Oxides of Zn, Cd and Hg
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First Recorded Occurrence of Chalcophanite

Year of Discovery:
1875

Physical Properties of Chalcophanite

Metallic
Colour:
Bluish-black, iron-black
Streak:
Dark brown, red-brown
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {0001}
Density:
3.9 - 4.1 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Crystallography of Chalcophanite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3 - Rhombohedral
Space Group:
R3
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.541Å, c = 20.824Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.761
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,025.54 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Minute crystals tabular {0001}, or with {0001} and {10_11} equally developed, exhibiting a pseudo-octahedral habit. Commonly in drusy, botryoidal or stalactitic crusts with the tabular crystals arranged on edge. Massive; dense, granular, or platy fibrous.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
6.96 (100)
4.08 (50)
3.50 (60)
2.57 (40)
2.24 (50)
1.900 (30)
1.597 (40)

Optical Data of Chalcophanite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 2.720 nε = 2.720
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Extremely high
Colour in reflected light:
White
Internal Reflections:
Deep red
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
O = nearly opaque
E = deep red

Chemical Properties of Chalcophanite

Formula:
(Zn,Fe,Mn)Mn3O7 · 3H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Chalcophanite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Aurorite(Mn2+,Ag,Ca)Mn34+O7 · 3H2O
Jianshuiite(Mg,Mn)Mn3O7 · 3H2O
WoodruffiteZn(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10·3½H2O
4.FL.TrébeurdeniteFe22+Fe43+O2(OH)10CO3·3H2O
4.FL.05WoodalliteMg6Cr2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
4.FL.05IowaiteMg6Fe23+(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
4.FL.05Jamborite(Ni2+1-x,Cox3+(OH)2-x(SO4)x·nH2O [x ≤ ⅓; n ≤ (1 - x)]
4.FL.05MeixneriteMg6Al2(OH)16(OH)2 · 4H2O
4.FL.05MuskoxiteMg7Fe4O13 · 10H2O
4.FL.05FougèriteFe42+Fe23+(OH)12[CO3]·3H2O
4.FL.10HydrocalumiteCa4Al2(OH)12(Cl,CO3,OH)2 · 4H2O
4.FL.15KuzeliteCa4Al2(OH)12[SO4] · 6H2O
4.FL.20Aurorite(Mn2+,Ag,Ca)Mn34+O7 · 3H2O
4.FL.20ErnienickeliteNiMn3O7 · 3H2O
4.FL.20Jianshuiite(Mg,Mn)Mn3O7 · 3H2O
4.FL.25WoodruffiteZn(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10·3½H2O
4.FL.30Asbolane(Ni,Co)2-xMn4+(O,OH)4 · nH2O
4.FL.35BuseriteNa4Mn14O27 · 21H2O
4.FL.40Ranciéite(Ca,Mn)Mn4O9 · 3H2O
4.FL.40Takanelite(Mn,Ca)Mn4O9 · H2O
4.FL.45Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
4.FL.55CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2O
4.FL.60JenseniteCu3[TeO6] · 2H2O
4.FL.65LeisingiteCu(Mg,Cu,Fe,Zn)2[TeO6] · 6H2O
4.FL.70Akdalaite4Al2O3 · H2O
4.FL.75Cafetite(Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)2Ti4O12 · 4H2O
4.FL.80MouriteUMo5O12(OH)10
4.FL.85DeloryiteCu4(UO2)(MoO4)2(OH)6
7.5.1Zincite(Zn,Mn2+,Fe2+)O
7.5.2SweetiteZn(OH)2
7.5.3AshoveriteZn(OH)2
7.5.4WülfingiteZn(OH)2
7.5.5GahniteZnAl2O4
7.5.6HetaeroliteZnMn2O4
7.5.7HydrohetaeroliteZnMn2O4 · H2O
7.5.9WoodruffiteZn(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10·3½H2O
7.5.10FrankliniteZn2+Fe23+O4
7.5.11MonteponiteCdO
7.5.12MontroyditeHgO

Other Names for Chalcophanite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Chalcophanite

Reference List:
Moore (1875): Am. Chem.: 6: 1.

Penfield and Kreider (1894): American Journal of Science: 48: 141.

Ford (1914): American Journal of Science: 38: 502.

Orcel and Pavlovitch (1932): Bull. soc. min.: 54: 108.

Ramdohr (1938): Zbl. Min.: 134.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944): The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 739-740.

Wadsley, A.D. (1955): The crystal structure of chalcophanite, ZnMn3O7·3H2O. Acta Crystallographica 8, 165-172.

Post, J.E. and Appleman, D.E. (1988): Chalcophanite, ZnMn3O7·3H2O: New crystal-structure determinations. American Mineralogist 73, 1401-1404.

Post, J.E. & Heaney, P.J. (2014): Time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of the dehydration behavior of chalcophanite. American Mineralogist 99, 1956-1961.


Internet Links for Chalcophanite

Localities for Chalcophanite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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