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Chalcophanite

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Formula:
(Zn,Fe,Mn)Mn
 
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
System:TrigonalColour:Bluish-black, iron-black
Lustre:MetallicHardness:
Member of:Chalcophanite Group
Name:Named in 1875 by George Emmet Moore from the Greek χαλκός, brass, and φαίυεσθαι, to appear in allusion to the change of color on ignition.


Pseudo-octahedral habits may be confused with hetaerolite with which it is often associated.

Classification of Chalcophanite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/F.11-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.FL.20

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
L : Hydroxides with H2O +- (OH); sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 8th edition ID:7.8.2.1

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
8 : AB3X7
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.5.8

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
5 : Oxides of Zn, Cd and Hg
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Type Occurrence of Chalcophanite

Type Locality:Passaic pit (Marshall Mine; Passaic Mine), Sterling Hill, Ogdensburg, Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA
Year of Discovery:1875

Physical Properties of Chalcophanite

Lustre:Metallic
Colour:Bluish-black, iron-black
Streak:Dark brown, red-brown
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:Perfect
On {0001}
Density (measured):3.9 - 4.1 g/cm3

Crystallography of Chalcophanite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3 - Rhombohedral
Space Group:R3
Cell Parameters:a = 7.541Å, c = 20.824Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.761
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,025.54 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Minute crystals tabular {0001}, or with {0001} and {10_11} equally developed, exhibiting a pseudo-octahedral habit. Commonly in drusy, botryoidal or stalactitic crusts with the tabular crystals arranged on edge. Massive; dense, granular, or platy fibrous.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
6.96 (100)
4.08 (50)
3.50 (60)
2.57 (40)
2.24 (50)
1.900 (30)
1.597 (40)

Optical Data of Chalcophanite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 2.720 nε = 2.720
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.000

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Extremely high
Colour in reflected light:White
Internal Reflections:Deep red
Pleochroism:Strong
Comments:O = nearly opaque
E = deep red

Chemical Properties of Chalcophanite

Formula:
(Zn,Fe,Mn)Mn
 
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:(Zn,Fe,Mn)Mn3O7·3H2O
Essential elements:H, Mn, O, Zn
All elements listed in formula:Fe, H, Mn, O, Zn

Relationship of Chalcophanite to other Species

Member of:Chalcophanite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Aurorite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ag,Ca)Mn
4+
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
Jianshuiite
(Mg,Mn)Mn
 
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
Woodruffite
Zn(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
5
O
 
10
·3½H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.FL.Trébeurdenite
Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
4
O
 
2
(OH)
 
10
CO
 
3
·3H
 
2
O
4.FL.05Woodallite
Mg
 
6
Cr
 
2
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
4.FL.05Iowaite
Mg
 
6
Fe
3+
2
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
4.FL.05Jamborite
(Ni
2+
1-x
,Co
3+
x
(OH)
 
2-x
(SO
 
4
)
 
x
·nH
 
2
O [x ≤ ⅓; n ≤ (1 - x)]
4.FL.05Meixnerite
Mg
 
6
Al
 
2
(OH)
 
16
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
4.FL.05Muskoxite
Mg
 
7
Fe
 
4
O
 
13
· 10H
 
2
O
4.FL.05Fougèrite
Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
2
(OH)
 
12
[CO
 
3
]·3H
 
2
O
4.FL.10Hydrocalumite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
2
(OH)
 
12
(Cl,CO
 
3
,OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
4.FL.15Kuzelite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
2
(OH)
 
12
[SO
 
4
] · 6H
 
2
O
4.FL.20Aurorite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ag,Ca)Mn
4+
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
4.FL.20Ernienickelite
NiMn
 
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
4.FL.20Jianshuiite
(Mg,Mn)Mn
 
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
4.FL.25Woodruffite
Zn(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
5
O
 
10
·3½H
 
2
O
4.FL.30Asbolane
(Ni,Co)
 
2-x
Mn
4+
 
(O,OH)
 
4
· nH
 
2
O
4.FL.35Buserite
Na
 
4
Mn
 
14
O
 
27
· 21H
 
2
O
4.FL.40Ranciéite
(Ca,Mn)Mn
 
4
O
 
9
· 3H
 
2
O
4.FL.40Takanelite
(Mn,Ca)Mn
 
4
O
 
9
· H
 
2
O
4.FL.45Birnessite
(Na,Ca)
 
0.5
(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
O
 
4
· 1.5H
 
2
O
4.FL.55Cianciulliite
Mn(Mg,Mn)
 
2
Zn
 
2
(OH)
 
10
· 2-4H
 
2
O
4.FL.60Jensenite
Cu
 
3
[TeO
 
6
] · 2H
 
2
O
4.FL.65Leisingite
Cu(Mg,Cu,Fe,Zn)
 
2
[TeO
 
6
] · 6H
 
2
O
4.FL.70Akdalaite
4Al
 
2
O
 
3
· H
 
2
O
4.FL.75Cafetite
(Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)
 
2
Ti
 
4
O
 
12
· 4H
 
2
O
4.FL.80Mourite
UMo
 
5
O
 
12
(OH)
 
10
4.FL.85Deloryite
Cu
 
4
(UO
 
2
)(MoO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.5.1Zincite
(Zn,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)O
7.5.2Sweetite
Zn(OH)
 
2
7.5.3Ashoverite
Zn(OH)
 
2
7.5.4Wülfingite
Zn(OH)
 
2
7.5.5Gahnite
ZnAl
 
2
O
 
4
7.5.6Hetaerolite
ZnMn
 
2
O
 
4
7.5.7Hydrohetaerolite
ZnMn
 
2
O
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.5.9Woodruffite
Zn(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
5
O
 
10
·3½H
 
2
O
7.5.10Franklinite
Zn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
7.5.11Monteponite
CdO
7.5.12Montroydite
HgO

Other Names for Chalcophanite

Synonyms:
ChalcophaneHydrofranklinite
Other Languages:
German:Chalcophanit
Chalkophanit
Russian:Халькофанит
Simplified Chinese:黑锌锰矿
Spanish:Calcofanita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Chalcophanite

Reference List:

- +
Moore (1875): Am. Chem.: 6: 1.

Penfield and Kreider (1894): American Journal of Science: 48: 141.

Ford (1914): American Journal of Science: 38: 502.

Orcel and Pavlovitch (1932): Bull. soc. min.: 54: 108.

Ramdohr (1938): Zbl. Min.: 134.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944): The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 739-740.

Wadsley, A.D. (1955): The crystal structure of chalcophanite, ZnMn3O7·3H2O. Acta Crystallographica 8, 165-172.

Post, J.E. and Appleman, D.E. (1988): Chalcophanite, ZnMn3O7·3H2O: New crystal-structure determinations. American Mineralogist 73, 1401-1404.

Post, J.E. & Heaney, P.J. (2014): Time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of the dehydration behavior of chalcophanite. American Mineralogist 99, 1956-1961.


Internet Links for Chalcophanite

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  • Localities for Chalcophanite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Catamarca
      • Belén Department
        • Farallón Negro
          • Agua de Dionisio mining district (YMAD)
    Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina); DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.
    • Córdoba
      • Minas Department
    Sureda (1978): Revista de la Asociacion Geologica Argentina 33(4):299-324
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Bathurst Co.
    MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, DECEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 556-8
      • Bligh Co.
        • Leadville
    No reference listed
      • Yancowinna Co.
    [MinRec 7:30]
    Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
    Australian Mineralogist (1997): 3: 1.
    • Northern Territory
      • Roper Gulf Shire
        • Gulf of Carpenteria
          • Groote Eylandt
    Econ Geol (1981) 76:556-567
    • South Australia
      • Eyre Peninsula
        • Middleback Range
          • Iron Knob
    No reference listed
      • Flinders Ranges
        • North Flinders Ranges
          • Leigh Creek
            • Puttapa
    Museum Victoria collection(?)
        • South Flinders Ranges
          • Martins Well
    Johnston, C.W . & Hill, R.J. (1978): Zinc phosphates at Reaphook Hill South Australia. Mineralogical Record 9,(1), 20-24
      • Mt Lofty Ranges
        • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
          • Clarendon
    Kolitsch, U. and Elliott, P. (1999): Mineralogy of the Mount Malvern Mine near Clarendon, South Australia. Australian J. Mineral. 5, 3-17.
    • Tasmania
      • Waratah district
        • Magnet
    [MinRec 19:383]
      • Zeehan District
        • Dundas mineral field
    Bottrill RS & Baker, WE (in prep) Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania. Mineral Resources Tasmania
    Australian Journal of Mineralogy (2006) 12: 59-90
    No reference listed
    • Victoria
      • East Gippsland Shire
    MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, DECEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 556-8
    • Western Australia
      • Ashburton Shire
    [MinRec 24:203]; Min. Record 24,203-218(1993)
    [MinRec 24:210]
    Nickel, E., Gartrell, B(1993): Secondary Minerals from Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993): 24:3:203-218
      • Dundas Shire
    MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, DECEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 556-8
      • East Pilbara Shire
        • Gregory Ranges District
    Jones, S., McNaughton, n.j., Grguric, B., 2013. Structural controls and timing of fault-hosted manganese at Woodie Woodie, East Pilbara, Western Australia. Ore Geology Reviews. 50, 52-82.
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Gailtaler Alpen & Karnische Alpen
        • Lesach valley
          • Podlanig
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Goldberg group
          • Innerfragant
            • Wurten
    Bergbau in Westkärnten
          • Zirknitz
            • Große Zirknitz valley
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995; Bergbau in Westkärnten
    • Salzburg
      • Golling
        • Hoher Göll
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
    • Styria
      • Fischbacher Alpen
        • Spital am Semmering
          • Steinhaus am Semmering
            • Fröschnitz valley (Fröschnitz)
    Kolitsch, U. (2013): 1818) Aurorit und Chalkophanit vom Bergbau am Arzberg bei Steinhaus am Semmering, Steiermark. Pp. 129-130 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2013): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXII. Carinthia II, 203./123., 91-146.
    Belgium
     
    • Namur Province
      • Namur
    Blondieau, M. et al. (2012): Minéralogie de la carrière de Beez, Province de Namur (Belgique). Le Règne Minéral, 104, 5-26.
    Bulgaria
     
    • Haskovo Oblast (Khaskovo Oblast)
      • Rhodope Mts
    Dobrev, S., Vassileva, M., & Kolkovski, B. (2004). Hetaerolite from Madjarovo Au-base-metal deposit, Eastern Rhodopes. In Annual Scientific Conference of the Bulgarian Geological Society “Geology 2004 (pp. 16-17).
    • Smolyan Oblast
      • Rhodope Mts
        • Madan ore field
    Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Annual Report No. 13, 43-45.
    Canada
     
    • Yukon Territory
      • Dawson Mining District
        • Rapid Creek
          • Stoneman Camp (Area B; Area 2)
    Robinson, G.W., Van Velthuizen, J., Ansell, H.G. & Sturman, B.D. (1992): Mineralogy of the Rapid Creek and Big Fish River area, Yukon Territory. Mineralogical Record 23, 1-47
      • Mayo Mining District
        • Galena Hill
          • Calumet
    Personal collection
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
    Econ Geol (1991) 86:1222-1237
    • Tarapacá Region
      • El Tamarugal Province
        • Salar Grande
    samples analysed by Anthony Kampf, Curator Emeritus of Mineral Sciences at NHM of LAC, California; Kampf, A.R., Sciberras, M.J., Williams, P.A., Dini, M. & Molina Donoso, A.A. (2013): Leverettite from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Provence, Chile: the Co-analogue of herbertsmithite. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 3047-3054.
    China
     
    • Anhui Province
      • Xuancheng Prefecture
        • Xuanzhou District
    Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
    • Fujian Province
      • Longyan Prefecture
        • Liancheng Co.
          • Liancheng Mn deposit
    Nanlai Zheng, Xingli Mao, and Jiansheng Ding (1986): Geology and Prospecting 22(3), 17-20; Huacai Chen (1989): Geology and Prospecting 25(10), 6-11; Shouquan Zhu (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(12), 57
    • Guangdong Province
      • Foshan Prefecture
        • Gaoming District
    Liangkai Gu (1986): Geology and Prospecting 22(1), 15-18
      • Meizhou Prefecture
        • Mei Co.
    Liangkai Gu (1986): Geology and Prospecting 22(1), 15-18
      • Qingyuan Prefecture
        • Lianzhou Co. (Lian Co.)
    Liangkai Gu (1986): Geology and Prospecting 22(1), 15-18
      • Yunfu Prefecture
        • Luoding Co.
    Renxian Zheng (1994): Geology and Prospecting 30(2), 8-14; Guicheng Huang, Xiongwu Wang, Shiyi Yang, Longqing Chen, and Jingsheng Ling (2001): Mineral Deposits 20(3), 243-250
    • Henan Province
      • Nanyang Prefecture
        • Tongbai Co.
          • Weishancheng ore field
    Diankai Chen and Danshen Zhou (1984): Mineral Deposits 3(1), 37-46
    Diankai Chen and Danshen Zhou (1984): Mineral Deposits 3(1), 37-46
    • Hubei Province
      • Huangshi Prefecture
        • Yangxin Co.
    Junping Dong (1992): Geology and Prospecting 28(7), 21-24, 44
    • Hunan Province
      • Chenzhou Prefecture
        • Guiyang Co.
    Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Ulanhad League (Chifeng Prefecture)
        • Linxi Co.
          • Guandi
    Baisheng Zhang (1998): Mineral Resources and Geology 12(5), 318-323
    • Jiangsu Province
      • Nanjing Prefecture
        • Jiangning District
    Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
    • Shanxi Province
      • Datong Prefecture
        • Lingqiu Co.
    Qingrong Zheng, Xinjun Zhang, and Erhu Sun (2012): Resources & Industries 14(2), 106-111
    • Yunnan Province
      • Nujiang Autonomous Prefecture
        • Lanping Co.
    Liyan Zhang and Xihui Yang (1986): Geology and Prospecting 22(6), 36-40; Fuguang Zhao (2007): Non-Ferrous Mining and Metallurgy 23(6), 20-25
    France
     
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Pyrénées-Orientales
        • Corneilla-de-Conflent
          • Plateau d'Ambulla (Las Ambollas)
    Berbain, C., Favreau, G. & Aymar, J. (2005): Mines et minéraux des Pyrénées-Orientales et des Corbières, Association Française de Microminéralogie Ed., 80.
        • Corsavy
    Berbain, C., Favreau, G. & Aymar, J. (2005): Mines et Minéraux des Pyrénées-Orientales et des Corbières. Association Française de Microminéralogie Ed., 39-44. and collection Guitard CERP Tautavel
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Titisee-Neustadt
          • Eisenbach
    S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Bavaria
      • Upper Palatinate
        • Waidhaus
          • Hagendorf
    Mücke, A., Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Haase, J., (1989): Über einige Neufunde (Matulait, Chalkantit, und Jarosit)....., Der Aufschluss, Vol. 40, 295-307
    • Lower Saxony
      • Hanover
        • Stemmen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Sauerland
        • Meschede
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Siegerland
        • Eiserfeld
          • Kohlenbach Valley
    Henrich, M. (2009): Mineralien-Welt 20 (5), 14-27.
        • Müsen
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Mayen
          • Langenfeld
            • St Jost
    Graf, HW., (1991): Die Grube Bendisberg, bei Virneburg / Eifel, Mineralien-Welt 5/91
      • Lahn valley
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
          • Frücht
    Der Aufschluss Vol.55, March/April 2004
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Harz
        • Tanne
          • Trautenstein
    Gröbner, J., Hajek, W., Junker, R. & Nikoleizig, J. (2011): Neue Mineralschätze des Harzes. Papierflieger Verlag GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany, 127 pp.
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Schwarzenberg District
          • Langenberg
            • Graul
    http://www.dergraul.de
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
    LAPIS 24 (7/8) 1999; Wendel, W. and Markl, G. (1999) Lavrion: Mineralogische Klassiker und Raritäten für Sammler. LAPIS 24 (7/8):34-52
            • Kamariza Mines (Kamareza Mines)
    Schnorrer, G. & Breitenbach, H. (1996): Lavrion: Neufunde aus dem antiken Bergbau und in historischen Schlacken. Lapis, 21 (1), 45-48; 62.; Branko Rieck Collection
              • Hilarion area
    Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German).
          • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
    Branko Rieck collection
    Steve Rust Collection
          • Plaka
    Fehr, T. & Dirscherl, R. (1987): Chalkophanit von Lavrion. Lapis, 12 (1), 29.; Fritz Schreiber and NHM Wien collections (SXRD-analysis Uwe Kolitsch)
    Natural History Museum Vienna collection
    • Macedonia Department
      • Dráma Prefecture
    Zwicker, W.K. et al (1962) Nsutite - a widespread manganese oxide mineral. American Mineralogist, 47, 246-266.
      • Kavála Prefecture
        • Kavála
    Andrew P. Fornadel, Paul G. Spry, Vasilios Melfos, Michael Vavelidis and Panagiotis Ch. Voudouris (2011): Is the Palea Kavala Bi–Te–Pb–Sb ± Au district, northeastern Greece, an intrusion-related system? Ore Geology Reviews, 39, 119-133.
    Hungary
     
    • Heves Co.
      • Mátra Mtns
        • Parádsasvár (Üveghuta)
    Szakáll - Gatter: Minerals of Hungary
    Szakáll S.,2007
    Szakáll-Gatter-Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary
    Indonesia
     
    • Sulawesi Island (Celebes Island)
      • Sulawesi Selatan Province (South Sulawesi Province)
        • Gowa
    Nur, I., Idrus, A., Pramumijoyo, S., Harijoko, A., Watanabe, K., Imai, A., ... & Irfan, U. R. (2012). Elemental Mass Balance of the Hydrothermal Alteration Associated with the Baturappe Epithermal Silver-Base Metal Prospect, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.
    Iran
     
    • Yazd Province
      • Bafq (Bafgh)
    USGS database
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Ne
          • Graveglia Valley
            • Reppia
    Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, (4), 131
    • Sardinia
      • Cagliari Province
        • Vallermosa
    Stara P., Rizzo R. and Tanca G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e minerali. Vol. II, pagg. 71-73. EMSa (Ente Minerario Sardo), Centrooffset Siena.
      • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
        • Domusnovas
          • Oridda
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente - Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 1, 238 pp.
    EDX analysis by Italo Campostrini
        • Fluminimaggiore
    "Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
      • Medio Campidano Province
        • Arbus
          • Ingurtosu
    Stara, P., Rizzo,R. & Tanca, G. A. (1996) - Iglesiente, Arburese, Miniere e Minerali (vol. II) - Associazioni Mineralogiche Italiane, 192 pp.
      • Sassari Province
        • Alghero
          • Calabona area
    Fiori, S., Gorga, R., (1995), Hetaerolite e calcofanite di Monte Argentiera nella zona mineraria di Calabona - Vessus (Sardegna nordoccidentale), Il Cercapietre, notiziario del Gruppo Mineralogico Romano, N°22, pp.17- 21.
    • Trentino-Alto Adige
      • Bolzano Province (South Tyrol)
        • Isarco Valley (Eisack Valley)
          • Chiusa (Klausen)
    Exel, R. (1987): Guida mineralogica del Trentino e del Sudtirolo. Athesia, Bolzano, 204 pp.
      • Trento Province
        • Valsugana
          • Vignola-Falesina
    "Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
    • Tuscany
      • Grosseto Province
        • Massa Marittima
    Sabelli C., Olmi F., Brizzi G., Meli R., 1996. Serrabottini (GR): recenti ritrovamenti nelle antiche discariche. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 19: 9-28.
      • Livorno Province
        • Campiglia Marittima
    Biagioni, C., Orlandi, P., Cerri, M., Pistolesi, M., Rapaccini, S. & Santucci, A. (2013). Temperino e Lanzi. Le paragenesi secondarie dello skarn. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 1/2013, 40-55.
    • Veneto
      • Vicenza province
        • Torrebelvicino
    Saccardo D. (2002) - Interessanti novità mineralogiche del Vicentino - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 26 (2), 104 - 107
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kinki Region
        • Kyoto Prefecture
          • Nantan City
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
      • Tohoku Region
        • Fukushima Prefecture
          • Yama-gun
            • Yamato-machi
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
        • Miyagi Prefecture
    Nambu & Kitamura (1969) Chigaku Kenkyu, 20, 131-137.
    Kosovo
     
    • District of Kosovska Mitrovica
      • Kosovska Mitrovica
        • Trepča valley
          • Trepča complex
    Féraud J. (1979) - La mine " Stari-Trg " (Trepca, Yougoslavie) et ses richesses minéralogiques. Avec la collaboration de Mari D. et G. (1979) Minéraux et Fossiles, n° 59-60, p. 19-28
    Mexico
     
    • Chihuahua
      • Mun. de Aquiles Serdán
    Peter Megaw Collection
          • West Camp
            • Francisco Portillo
    Peter Megaw Collection
    • Durango
      • Mun. de Mapimí
        • Mapimí
    Rocks & Min.: 56:247.; American Mineralogist, Volume 73, pages 1172-1 178, 1988
    Thomas P. Moore (2008) Lapis, 33, #7-8, 33-40.
    Thomas P. Moore (2008) Lapis, 33, #7-8, 33-40.
    Mongolia
     
    • Hovd Aimag (Khovd Aimag)
      • Altai Mts
    Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2009)
    Namibia
     
    • Erongo Region
      • Karibib District
        • Spitzkopje Area
    Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Mineralien und Fundstellen. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 856 pp. (in German)
    • Karas Region
      • Lüderitz District
        • Rosh Pinah
    Jahn, S. (2007): Tarbuttit von der Skorpion Zink Mine, Namibia. Mineralien-Welt 18 (4), 56-66. (in German)
    • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
      • Tsumeb
    [MinRec 8:Tsumeb 22]
    • Otjozondjupa Region
    Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 368 pp. (in English)
    Norway
     
    • Oppland
      • Lunner
        • Grua
          • Grua Mining District
    Harald Folvik (2005): Mineralene på Skjerpemyr. STEIN 32 (1), 4-9 (in norwegian)
    Romania
     
    • Caraş-Severin Co.
      • Banat Mts
        • Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District
    http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
    Russia
     
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Primorskiy Kray
        • Kavalerovo Mining District
    [MinRec 32:8]
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Bashkortostan Republic (Bashkiria Republic)
          • Uchaly
            • Il'insky ore field
    Belogub, E.V., Novoselov, K.A., Kotlyarov, V.A., Fadina, I.B. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(7), 583-589.
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Kalahari manganese field
        • Hotazel
    Wilson, W.E. & Dunn, P.J., (1978) Famous localities: The Kalahari manganese field. Mineralogical Record 9(3) pp 151.
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Almería
        • San José
    Georges FAVREAU collection
    • Cantabria
      • Torrelavega
        • Viérnoles
    Díaz de Baranda, B., Ruiz, P., Carral, J. y Menor, C. (2009), Mina "Nieves", Viernoles (Cantabria). Bocamina, 23:14-45
    • Castile-La Mancha
      • Toledo
        • Madridejos
          • Cerro de Pichita in La Perdiguera
    Menor, César (2010): Mineralogía de Pb-Zn en Madridejos (Toledo). Rev. Acopios vol.1. pp. 53-67.
          • Cerros de La Perdiguera
    Menor, César (2010): Mineralogía de Pb-Zn en Madridejos (Toledo). Rev. Acopios vol.1. pp. 53-67.
    Menor, César (2010): Mineralogía de Pb-Zn en Madridejos (Toledo). Rev. Acopios vol.1. pp. 53-67.
    • Extremadura
      • Badajoz
        • Santa Marta
    Gonzalez Del Tanago, Jose; La Iglesia, Angel; Rius, Jordi; Fernandez Santin, Soledad. (2003): Calderonite, a new lead-iron-vanadate of the brackebuschite group: American Mineralogist 88, 1703-1708.,
    • Murcia
      • Cartagena
        • Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Unión
          • Atamaría
            • Campos de golf area
              • El Puntal
    Calvo, M. (1996). Mineralogía. La Unión. Bocamina, 2, 14-35
          • El Estrecho de San Ginés
            • Cabezo de San Ginés
    Calvo, M. (1996). Mineralogía. La Unión. Bocamina, 2, 14-35
          • San Ginés de la Jara
            • Cabezo de San Ginés
    Miguel Calvo specimens
      • Sierra de Cartagena
        • La Unión
          • Portman
    [MinRec 25:222]
    Tunisia
     
    • Nefza mining district
      • Tamra
    Decrée et al. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 397-410.
    • Siliana Governorate
      • Siliana
        • Djebel Sekarna
    Dill, Weiss, Botz, Dohrmann, Paleontological, mineralogical and chemical studies of syngenetic and epigenetic Pb–Zn–Ba–P mineralizations at the stratotype of the K/P boundary, International Journal of Earth Sciences, Feb 2010.
    Turkey
     
    • Eastern Anatolia Region
      • Elazig Province
        • Keban
    Kines, M. T. (1969). The geology and the ore mineralization in the Keban area, east Turkey (Doctoral dissertation, Durham University).
    UK
     
    • Wales
      • Ceredigion (Dyfed; Cardiganshire)
        • Ceulanymaesmawr
          • Talybont
            • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
        • Trefeirig
          • Ponterwyd
            • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
    UKJMM.23.2003.
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Southeast Fairbanks Borough
        • Fortymile District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Dragoon Mts
          • Turquoise District (Courtland-Gleeson District)
            • Courtland
              • Casey Hill
    Rolf Luetcke
    Rolf Luetcke
        • Mule Mts
          • Warren District
    [MinRec 12:299-300]
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 164; Graeme, R. (1981), Famous mineral localities: Bisbee, AZ, Min.Rec.: 12: 256-319.
    Rolf Luetcke
      • Gila Co.
        • Dripping Spring Mts
          • Banner District
            • Hayden area
              • Chilito
                • Keystone Gulch
                  • Reagan claims (Regan/Reagan Camp prospects; Lee Reagan property; Lee Reagan prospects; Kullman-McCool group)
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 164.
      • Maricopa Co.
        • Big Horn Mts
          • Osborn District
            • Tonopah
              • Belmont Mountain
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 164; Allen, G.B. & W. Hunt (1988), The Tonopah-Belmont Mine, Maricopa Co., AZ, Min.Rec.: 19(3): 139-144.
      • Pinal Co.
        • Mineral Mountain District
          • Superior area
            • Reymert Canyon
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 165, 188, 252.
        • San Manuel District
          • San Manuel-Mammoth area
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 165.
      • Yuma Co.
        • Kofa Mts (S.H. Mts)
          • Kofa District
            • Kofa Game Range
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 124, 165, 240, 343, 398.
        • Little Horn Mts
          • Sheep Tanks District
            • Kofa Game Range
              • Sheep Tanks Mine (Sheep Tank Mine; Resolution group)
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 164.
    • California
      • Riverside Co.
        • Mule Mts
    XRD determination by Dr. Anthony Kampf.
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Clark Mts (Clark Mountain Range)
          • Clark Mountain District
            • Pactolus
              • Mohawk Hill
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 168; Mineralogical Record (1977): 8: 432.
    • Colorado
      • Clear Creek Co.
        • Lawson District (Dumont District)
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.; U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 223
      • Custer Co.
        • Silver Cliff District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Lake Co.
        • Leadville District
    MinRec 16:171-201
          • Long and Derry Hill
            • Iowa Gulch
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Park Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Maine
      • Oxford Co.
    Anderson, 1991. Maine Mineral Localities, 2nd ed.
    • Montana
      • Granite Co.
        • Philipsburg District (Flint Creek District)
    Geology and Ore Deposits of the Philipsburg District, Granite Co., Montana; William C. Prinz, 1967
          • Durango & Moorlight Group (Durango & Moonlight Group)
    Geology and Ore Deposits of the Philipsburg District, Granite Co., Montana; William C. Prinz, 1967
          • Scratch Awl Mine (Scratch All Mine; Silver Prince; Cliff; Salmon; Blackmail Mine)
    Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
    Geology and Ore Deposits of the Philipsburg District, Granite Co., Montana; William C. Prinz, 1967
    Geology and Ore Deposits of the Philipsburg District, Granite Co., Montana; William C. Prinz, 1967
    • Nevada
      • Eureka Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Carlin Trend
          • Maggie Creek Subdistrict
    MinRec 26(5):449-469.
        • Lynn District
          • Elko
    MinRecord 26:467
      • Lincoln Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Silver King District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Mineral Co.
        • Candelaria District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    Collection of Kelly Starnes
      • Pershing Co.
        • Rochester District
    Econ Geol (1981) 76:580-609
      • White Pine Co.
        • White Pine District
          • Silver Belt
            • Treasure Hill
              • Summit area
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Jersey
      • Passaic Co.
    Sassen, Roger (1978) Natrolite and Associated Secondary Minerals at the Chimney Rock Quarry, Bound Brook, New Jersey.[MinRec 9:26]
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Franklin
    Dunn(1995):Pt4:588.
          • Ogdensburg
            • Sterling Hill
    Dunn(1995):Pt4:587.
    Palache(1935):52; Baum( J.L.: The Sterling Hill mud zone: The Picking Table:3(2):8-10 (1962); Dunn(1995):Pt4:587.
    • New Mexico
      • Grant Co.
        • Hanover-Fierro District
    M Massis collection
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.; 3rd Annual New Mexico Mineral Symposium (1983) New Mexico Geology 5:84-85
      • Santa Fe Co.
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
    [MinRec 20:63]
      • Socorro Co.
    Virgil W. Lueth, Richard M. Chamberlin, and Lisa Peters (2004) Age of mineralization in the Luis Lopez manganese district, Socorro County, New Mexico, as determined by 40Ar/39Ar dating of cryptomelane. NMBGMR Bulletin 160 pp239-249
    [MinRec 20:24]
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • South Dakota
      • Lawrence Co.
    Rocks & Minerals: 75(3): 156-169.
    • Utah
      • Tooele Co.
        • Deep Creek Mts
          • Gold Hill District (Clifton District)
            • Gold Hill
    Kokinos, M. and Wise, W.S. (1993), Famous Mineral Localities: the Gold Hill mine, Tooele County, Utah. Mineralogical Record: 24(1): 11-22.
    Patrick Haynes. Some ID'd by Tony Kampf
    Kokinos, M. and Wise, W.S. (1993), Famous Mineral Localities: the Gold Hill mine, Tooele County, Utah. Mineralogical Record: 24(1): 11-22.
    Kokinos, M. and Wise, W.S. (1993), Famous Mineral Localities: the Gold Hill mine, Tooele County, Utah. Mineralogical Record: 24(1): 11-22.
      • Utah Co.
        • East Tintic Mts
          • East Tintic District
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; USGS Professional Paper 614-A
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; USGS Prof Paper 1024
    • Virginia
      • Craig Co.
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Giles Co.
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Yemen
     
    • Al Jawf Governorate
    N. Mondillo, M. Boni, G. Balassone, B. Grist (2011) In search of the lost zinc: A lesson from the Jabali (Yemen) nonsulide zinc deposit. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 108 (2011) 209–219; Mondillo, N., Boni, M., Balassone, G., Joachimski, M., & Mormone, A. (2014). The Jabali nonsulfide Zn–Pb–Ag deposit, western Yemen. Ore Geology Reviews, 61, 248-267.
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