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Chalcanthite

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Formula:
CuSO4 · 5H2O
System:
Triclinic
Colour:
Green, green blue, light ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
Name:
From the Greek chalkos, "copper" and anthos, "flower."
Chalcanthite Group.
Copper analogue of siderotil and pentahydrite.

Chalcanthite is natural, water-soluble copper sulphate. A secondary mineral that is formed in arid climates or in rapidly oxidizing copper deposits. It is usually of post-mining formation, forming on mine walls and by the action of acidic surface waters on copper veins.

CAUTION: Many, usually well-crystallised chalcanthite specimens offered for sale (e.g. on-line auctions), are artificially grown.

Classification of Chalcanthite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7.CB.20

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations
Dana 7th ed.:
29.6.7.1
29.6.7.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
6 : AXO4·xH2O
25.2.3

25 : Sulphates
2 : Sulphates of Cu and Ag
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First Recorded Occurrence of Chalcanthite

Year of Discovery:
1853

Occurrences of Chalcanthite

Geological Setting:
Found in the oxidized zones of copper deposits, usually in arid regions where it is not dissolved by ground water. Commonly associated with other hydrated sulphates of Cu or Fe.

Physical Properties of Chalcanthite

Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Green, green blue, light blue, or dark blue; colourless to pale blue in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
Imperfect on {110}, Indistinct on {111}; and, {110} in traces.
Parting:
None reported.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
2.286 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.282 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Measured on artificial material.

Crystallography of Chalcanthite

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.11Å, b = 10.673Å, c = 5.95Å
α = 97.58°, β = 107.17°, γ = 77.55°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.572 : 1 : 0.557
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystal short prismatic {001} or less commonly tabular {111}. Natural crystals rather rare. Commonly found as stalactic material, massive, granular filling veins (cross-fiber veinlets) and as crusts.
Twinning:
Rarely forms cruciform twins, with the edges [001] and [100] on one crystal respectively parallel to [100] and [001] on the other, and with {010} in common.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.48(60)
4.73(100)
3.99(60)
3.71(90)
3.30(60)
2.82(40)
2.75(50)
2.66(40)

Optical Data of Chalcanthite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.514 nβ = 1.537 nγ = 1.543
2V:
Measured: 56° , Calculated: 56°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.029
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
r < v

Chemical Properties of Chalcanthite

Formula:
CuSO4 · 5H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Mg,Co

Relationship of Chalcanthite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2O
SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.05Dwornikite(Ni,Fe)SO4 · H2O
7.CB.05GunningiteZnSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05KieseriteMgSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05Poitevinite(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO4 · H2O
7.CB.05SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05CobaltkieseriteCoSO4 · H2O
7.CB.07SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2O
7.CB.10BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2O
7.CB.15Aplowite(Co,Mn,Ni)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15Boyleite(Zn,Mg)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15DrobeciteCdSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15CranswickiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.20JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.25Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite(Mn,Mg)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Moorhouseite(Co,Ni,Mn)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.30RetgersiteNiSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.35BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35MelanteriteFeSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35Alpersite(Mg,Cu)[SO4] · 7H2O
7.CB.40EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.40GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.40MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.45AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
7.CB.45Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
7.CB.50AluminocoquimbiteFeAl(SO4)3 · 9H2O
7.CB.55CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
7.CB.55ParacoquimbiteFe2(SO4)3 · 9H2O
7.CB.55Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
7.CB.60KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2O
7.CB.65QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 10H2O
7.CB.70LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2O
7.CB.75LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
7.CB.75RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
7.CB.80RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2O
7.CB.85ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85BíliniteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85Redingtonite(Fe2+,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)2(SO4)4·22H2O
7.CB.85Wupatkiite(Co,Mg,Ni)Al2(SO4)4·22H2O
7.CB.90MeridianiiteMgSO4 · 11H2O
25.2.1ChalcocyaniteCuSO4
25.2.2BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2O
25.2.4BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
25.2.5DolerophaniteCu2(SO4)O
25.2.6AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
25.2.7BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
25.2.8PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
25.2.9LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
25.2.10WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
25.2.11KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
25.2.12NatrochalciteNaCu2(SO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
25.2.13PiypiteK2Cu2(SO4)2O
25.2.14FedotoviteK2Cu3(SO4)3O
25.2.15CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2O
25.2.16EuchlorineKNaCu3(SO4)3O
25.2.17DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
25.2.18LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2O
25.2.19ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
25.2.20CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
25.2.21WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2O
25.2.22CampigliaiteMn2+Cu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O
25.2.23GuilditeCuFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2O
25.2.24RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2O
25.2.26KlyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Fe3+,Al)(SO4)4O2
25.2.27Poitevinite(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO4 · H2O
25.2.28ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6

Other Names for Chalcanthite

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in water. Dehydrates in dry air forming lighter powder.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
On occasion it is found in sufficient volume to be mined as an ore of copper.

References for Chalcanthite

Reference List:
Kupffer (1826) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 8: 217.

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 486 (as Cyanose).

von Kobell, Fr. (1853): 31 (as Chalkanthit).

Pape (1874) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 6: 35.

Retgers (1889) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 3: 289.

Lavenir (1891) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 14: 115.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 944.

Retgers (1894) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 15: 563.

Retgers (1895) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 16: 583.

Stortenbeker (1895) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 17: 647.

Stortenbeker (1900) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 34: 111.

Schaller (1903) University of California, Department of Geology Bull.: 3: 191.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 192: 1-53.

Boeris (1905) Att. soc. ital. sc. nat. Milan: 44: 73.

Boeris (1907) Rivista di mineralogia e cristallografia italiana, Padua: 33: 5.

Groth, P. (1908) Chemische Krystallographie. Leipzig. 5 volumes: vol. 2: 419 (orientation of Barker).

Tutton, A.E.H. (1911) Crystals 301 pp., London: 301.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 105.

Haas (1920) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 43: 228.

Tutton, A.E.H. (1922) Crystallography and Practical Crystal Measurement. 946 pp., London. Second edition: vol. 1 (Form and Structure): 282.

Collins (1923) Mineralogical Magazine: 20: 32.

Doelter, C. (1927) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie: 4[2]: 280.

Mélon (1928) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 51: 194.

Gossner and Brückl (1929) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 69: 422.

Vavrinecz (1929) Magyar Chemiai Folyóirat, Budapest: 35: 4.

Barth and Tunell (1933) American Mineralogist: 18: 187.

Beevers and Lipson (1934) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: 146A: 570.

Ungemach (1935) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 58: 214.

Bandy (1938) American Mineralogist: 23: 718.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 488-491.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 605.

Internet Links for Chalcanthite

Specimens:
The following Chalcanthite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Chalcanthite

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