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Chalcanthite

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Formula:
CuSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
System:TriclinicColour:Green, green blue, light ...
Lustre:Vitreous, ResinousHardness:
Member of:Chalcanthite Group
Name:From the Greek chalkos, "copper" and anthos, "flower."


Chalcanthite Group.
Copper analogue of siderotil and pentahydrite.

Chalcanthite is natural, water-soluble copper sulphate. A secondary mineral that is formed in arid climates or in rapidly oxidizing copper deposits. It is usually of post-mining formation, forming on mine walls and by the action of acidic surface waters on copper veins.

CAUTION: Many, usually well-crystallised chalcanthite specimens offered for sale (e.g. on-line auctions), are artificially grown.

Classification of Chalcanthite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/C.04-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.CB.20

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations
Dana 7th edition ID:29.6.7.1
Dana 8th edition ID:29.6.7.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
6 : AXO4·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.2.3

25 : Sulphates
2 : Sulphates of Cu and Ag
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Type Occurrence of Chalcanthite

Type Locality:Chuquicamata Mine, Chuquicamata District, Calama, El Loa Province, Antofagasta Region, Chile
Year of Discovery:1853

Occurrences of Chalcanthite

Geological Setting:Found in the oxidized zones of copper deposits, usually in arid regions where it is not dissolved by ground water. Commonly associated with other hydrated sulphates of Cu or Fe.

Physical Properties of Chalcanthite

Lustre:Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Green, green blue, light blue, or dark blue; colourless to pale blue in transmitted light.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Imperfect/Fair
Imperfect on {110}, Indistinct on {111}; and, {110} in traces.
Parting:None reported.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.286 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.282 g/cm3
Comment:Measured on artificial material.

Crystallography of Chalcanthite

Crystal System:Triclinic
Class (H-M):1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:P1
Cell Parameters:a = 6.11Å, b = 10.673Å, c = 5.95Å
α = 97.58°, β = 107.17°, γ = 77.55°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.572 : 1 : 0.557
Unit Cell Volume:V 361.03 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystal short prismatic {001} or less commonly tabular {111}. Natural crystals rather rare. Commonly found as stalactic material, massive, granular filling veins (cross-fiber veinlets) and as crusts.
Twinning:Rarely forms cruciform twins, with the edges [001] and [100] on one crystal respectively parallel to [100] and [001] on the other, and with {010} in common.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
5.48(60)
4.73(100)
3.99(60)
3.71(90)
3.30(60)
2.82(40)
2.75(50)
2.66(40)

Optical Data of Chalcanthite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.514 nβ = 1.537 nγ = 1.543
2V:Measured: 56° , Calculated: 56°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.029

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:r < v

Chemical Properties of Chalcanthite

Formula:
CuSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:CuSO4·5H2O
Essential elements:Cu, H, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Cu, H, O, S
Common Impurities:Fe,Mg,Co

Relationship of Chalcanthite to other Species

Member of:Chalcanthite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Jôkokuite
MnSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
Pentahydrite
MgSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
Siderotil
FeSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.CB.05Dwornikite
(Ni,Fe)SO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Gunningite
ZnSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Kieserite
MgSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Poitevinite
(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Szmikite
MnSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Szomolnokite
FeSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Cobaltkieserite
CoSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.07Sanderite
MgSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CB.10Bonattite
CuSO
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Aplowite
(Co,Mn,Ni)SO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Boyleite
(Zn,Mg)SO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Ilesite
(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Rozenite
FeSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Starkeyite
MgSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Drobecite
CdSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Cranswickite
MgSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.20Jôkokuite
MnSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CB.20Pentahydrite
MgSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CB.20Siderotil
FeSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Bianchite
(Zn,Fe)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite
(Mn,Mg)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Ferrohexahydrite
FeSO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Hexahydrite
MgSO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Moorhouseite
(Co,Ni,Mn)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite
(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.30Retgersite
NiSO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Bieberite
CoSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Boothite
CuSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Mallardite
MnSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Melanterite
FeSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite
(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Alpersite
(Mg,Cu)[SO
 
4
] · 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.40Epsomite
MgSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.40Goslarite
ZnSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.40Morenosite
NiSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.45Alunogen
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 17H
 
2
O
7.CB.45Meta-alunogen
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CB.50Aluminocoquimbite
FeAl(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
7.CB.55Coquimbite
Fe
 
2-x
Al
 
x
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O, x ~0.5
7.CB.55Paracoquimbite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
7.CB.55Rhomboclase
(H
 
5
O
 
2
)Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CB.60Kornelite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.65Quenstedtite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 10H
 
2
O
7.CB.70Lausenite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
·6H
 
2
O
7.CB.75Lishizhenite
ZnFe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 14H
 
2
O
7.CB.75Römerite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 14H
 
2
O
7.CB.80Ransomite
CuFe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Apjohnite
Mn
2+
 
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Bílinite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Dietrichite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Halotrichite
FeAl
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Pickeringite
MgAl
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Redingtonite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
·22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Wupatkiite
(Co,Mg,Ni)Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
·22H
 
2
O
7.CB.90Meridianiite
MgSO
 
4
· 11H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.2.1Chalcocyanite
CuSO
 
4
25.2.2Bonattite
CuSO
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
25.2.4Boothite
CuSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
25.2.5Dolerophanite
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)O
25.2.6Antlerite
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
25.2.7Brochantite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
25.2.8Posnjakite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
25.2.9Langite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.10Wroewolfeite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.11Kröhnkite
Na
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.12Natrochalcite
NaCu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
25.2.13Piypite
K
 
2
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
O
25.2.14Fedotovite
K
 
2
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
O
25.2.15Cyanochroite
K
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
25.2.16Euchlorine
KNaCu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
O
25.2.17Devilline
CaCu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O
25.2.18Leightonite
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.19Chalcoalumite
CuAl
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 3H
 
2
O
25.2.20Cyanotrichite
Cu
 
4
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.21Woodwardite
Cu
 
1-x
Al
 
x
(OH)
 
2
[SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
25.2.22Campigliaite
Mn
2+
 
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 4H
 
2
O
25.2.23Guildite
CuFe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
25.2.24Ransomite
CuFe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
25.2.26Klyuchevskite
K
 
3
Cu
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)(SO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
2
25.2.27Poitevinite
(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
25.2.28Argentojarosite
AgFe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6

Other Names for Chalcanthite

Synonyms:
Blue StoneBlue VitriolChalkanthiteCopper vitriolCyanosite
Cyprian vitriolSulphate of Copper
Other Languages:
Basque:Kalkantita
Catalan:Calcantita
Czech:Chalkantit
Dutch:Chalcanthiet
French:Chalcantite
Couperouse Bleue
Cuivre Sulfaté
Cyanose
Galician:Calcantita
German:Chalkanthit
Chalcanthit
Chalkantit
Cyanosit
Kupferchalcanthit
Kupfervitriol
Hungarian:Kalkantit
Italian:Calcantite
Vitriolo di Rame
Japanese:胆礬
Latin:Chalcanthum
Vitriolum cupri
Vitriolum Cypri
Vitriolum veneris
Polish:Chalkantyt
Portuguese:Calcantite
Russian:Халькантит
Simplified Chinese:胆矾
Slovak:Chalkantit
Spanish:Chalcantita
Calcantita
Chalcanthita
Chalkanthita
Cyanosita
Vitriolo azul
Ukrainian:Халькантит
Varieties:
Phillipite

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in water. Dehydrates in dry air forming lighter powder.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements from:
Bø Mine,..., Valle, Aust-Agder, NorwayWater soluable
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:On occasion it is found in sufficient volume to be mined as an ore of copper.

References for Chalcanthite

Reference List:

- +
Kupffer (1826) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 8: 217.

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 486 (as Cyanose).

von Kobell, Fr. (1853): 31 (as Chalkanthit).

Pape (1874) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 6: 35.

Retgers (1889) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 3: 289.

Lavenir (1891) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 14: 115.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 944.

Retgers (1894) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 15: 563.

Retgers (1895) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 16: 583.

Stortenbeker (1895) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 17: 647.

Stortenbeker (1900) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 34: 111.

Schaller (1903) University of California, Department of Geology Bull.: 3: 191.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 192: 1-53.

Boeris (1905) Att. soc. ital. sc. nat. Milan: 44: 73.

Boeris (1907) Rivista di mineralogia e cristallografia italiana, Padua: 33: 5.

Groth, P. (1908) Chemische Krystallographie. Leipzig. 5 volumes: vol. 2: 419 (orientation of Barker).

Tutton, A.E.H. (1911) Crystals 301 pp., London: 301.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 105.

Haas (1920) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 43: 228.

Tutton, A.E.H. (1922) Crystallography and Practical Crystal Measurement. 946 pp., London. Second edition: vol. 1 (Form and Structure): 282.

Collins (1923) Mineralogical Magazine: 20: 32.

Doelter, C. (1927) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie: 4[2]: 280.

Mélon (1928) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 51: 194.

Gossner and Brückl (1929) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 69: 422.

Vavrinecz (1929) Magyar Chemiai Folyóirat, Budapest: 35: 4.

Barth and Tunell (1933) American Mineralogist: 18: 187.

Beevers and Lipson (1934) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: 146A: 570.

Ungemach (1935) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 58: 214.

Bandy (1938) American Mineralogist: 23: 718.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 488-491.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 605.

Internet Links for Chalcanthite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Chalcanthite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Specimens:The following Chalcanthite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Chalcanthite

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