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Charlesite

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Formula:
Ca
 
6
(Al,Si)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
[B(OH)
 
4
](OH,O)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
System:TrigonalColour:Colorless, white, rarely ...
Hardness:
Member of:Ettringite Group
Name:
Named in 1983 by Pete J. Dunn, Donald R. Peacor, Peter B. Leavens, and Jack Leach Baum in honor of Dr. Charles Palache, [July 18, 1869 San Franciso, California, USA - December 5, 1954 near Charlottesville, Virginia, USA], systematic mineralogist, specialist on minerals of the Franklin District, Professor of Mineralogy at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
Isostructural with:Ettringite Group


Ettringite Group. Crystals are tabular [0001] with {1014}

Classification of Charlesite

IMA status:Approved 1981
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/D.13-40
Strunz 9th edition ID:7.DG.15
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.DG.15

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
G : With large and medium-sized cations; with NO3, CO3, B(OH)4, SiO4 or IO3
Dana 8th edition ID:32.4.4.1

32 : COMPOUND SULFATES
4 : Hydrated Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Hey's CIM Ref.:10.3.3

10 : Borates with other anions
3 : Borates with sulphate
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Type Occurrence of Charlesite

Type Locality:Franklin Mine, Franklin, Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA
General Appearance of Type Material:Vug and fracture coating
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Harvard University
Year of Discovery:1981
Geological Setting of type material:Metamorphosed stratiform cabonate hosted zinc silicate and oxide deposit
Associated Minerals at type locality:
WillemiteRoeblingitePrehnitePennantitePectolite
GanophylliteDatoliteClinohedrite

Physical Properties of Charlesite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Waxy, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colorless, white, rarely pale yellow, rarely pink
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
1010
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):1.77 g/cm3
Density (calculated):1.79 g/cm3

Crystallography of Charlesite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:P3 1c
Cell Parameters:a = 11.16Å, c = 21.21Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.901
Unit Cell Volume:V 2,287.70 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Tabular to 6 mm
Comment:Probable class, space group by analogy to ettringite
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
9.70 (100)
5.58 (80)
3.855 (80)
2.749 (70)
2.538 (70)
2.193 (70)
2.133 (50)
Comments:natural material

Optical Data of Charlesite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.492() nε = 1.475(3)
Birefringence:0.017
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.017

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Optical Extinction:parallel
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Charlesite

Formula:
Ca
 
6
(Al,Si)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
[B(OH)
 
4
](OH,O)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12·26H2O
Essential elements:Al, B, Ca, H, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Al, B, Ca, H, O, S, Si

Relationship of Charlesite to other Species

Member of:Ettringite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Bentorite
Ca
 
6
(Cr
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
Buryatite
Ca
 
3
(Si,Fe,Al)(SO
 
4
)[B(OH)
 
4
]O(OH)
 
5
· 12H
 
2
O
Carraraite
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)[Ge(OH)
 
6
](CO
 
3
) · 12H
 
2
O
Ettringite
Ca
 
6
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
Hielscherite
Ca
 
3
Si(SO
 
4
)(SO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 11H
 
2
O
Imayoshiite
Ca
 
3
Al(CO
 
3
)[B(OH)
 
4
](OH)
 
6
· 12H
 
2
O
Jouravskite
Ca
 
3
Mn
4+
 
(SO
 
4
}(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 12H
 
2
O
Kottenheimite
Ca
 
3
Si(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
·12H
 
2
O
Micheelsenite
(Ca,Y)
 
3
Al(HPO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 12H
 
2
O
Sturmanite
Ca
 
6
(Fe
3+
 
,Al,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
[B(OH)
 
4
](OH)
 
12
· 25H
 
2
O
Thaumasite
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)[Si(OH)
 
6
](CO
 
3
) · 12H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.DG.05Darapskite
Na
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(NO
 
3
) · H
 
2
O
7.DG.10Clinoungemachite
(Na, K, Fe, SO
 
4
)
7.DG.10Humberstonite
Na
 
7
K
 
3
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.DG.10Ungemachite
K
 
3
Na
 
8
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
6
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.DG.15Bentorite
Ca
 
6
(Cr
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
7.DG.15Ettringite
Ca
 
6
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
7.DG.15Jouravskite
Ca
 
3
Mn
4+
 
(SO
 
4
}(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 12H
 
2
O
7.DG.15Sturmanite
Ca
 
6
(Fe
3+
 
,Al,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
[B(OH)
 
4
](OH)
 
12
· 25H
 
2
O
7.DG.15Thaumasite
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)[Si(OH)
 
6
](CO
 
3
) · 12H
 
2
O
7.DG.15Carraraite
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)[Ge(OH)
 
6
](CO
 
3
) · 12H
 
2
O
7.DG.15Buryatite
Ca
 
3
(Si,Fe,Al)(SO
 
4
)[B(OH)
 
4
]O(OH)
 
5
· 12H
 
2
O
7.DG.20Rapidcreekite
Ca
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(CO
 
3
) · 4H
 
2
O
7.DG.20Korkinoite
Ca
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 9(H
 
2
O)
7.DG.25Tatarskite
Ca
 
6
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
Cl
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.DG.30Nakauriite
Cu
 
8
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 48H
 
2
O
7.DG.35Chessexite
(Na,K)
 
4
Ca
 
2
(Mg,Zn)
 
3
Al
 
8
(SO
 
4
)
 
10
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
· 40H
 
2
O
7.DG.40Carlosruizite
K
 
6
(Na,K)
 
4
Na
 
6
Mg
 
10
(SeO
 
4
)
 
12
(IO
 
3
)
 
12
· 12H
 
2
O
7.DG.40Fuenzalidaite
K
 
6
(Na,K)
 
4
Na
 
6
Mg
 
10
(SO
 
4
)
 
12
(IO
 
3
)
 
12
· 12H
 
2
O
7.DG.45Chelyabinskite
(Ca,Mg)
 
3
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
2
[Si(OH)
 
6
] · 9H
 
2
O (?)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
10.3.1Sulfoborite
Mg
 
3
[B(OH)
 
4
]
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH,F)
 
2
10.3.2Heidornite
Na
 
2
Ca
 
3
B
 
5
O
 
8
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Cl(OH)
 
2

Other Names for Charlesite

Synonyms:
IMA1981-043
Other Languages:
German:Charlesit
Spanish:Charlesita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Pale violet to pale green in SW
weaker in LW
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Charlesite

Reference List:

- +
American Mineralogist: 68: 1033-1037.

Isao KUSACHI, Naoko SHIRAISHI, Kazumasa SHIMADA, Masayuki OHNISHI and Shoichi KOBAYASHI (2008): CO3-rich charlesite from the Fuka mine, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 103, 47-51.

Internet Links for Charlesite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Charlesite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Charlesite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Localities for Charlesite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Germany
     
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Mayen
          • Ettringen
            • Bellerberg volcano
    Christof Schäfer collection
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chugoku Region
        • Okayama Prefecture
          • Takahashi City
            • Bicchu-cho (Bitchu-cho)
              • Fuka
    Tanimoto et al (2001) Koubutsu-Gakkai Kou'en-Youshi (Abstracts of the Meeting of the Mineralogical Society of Japan), 113; Isao KUSACHI, Naoko SHIRAISHI, Kazumasa SHIMADA, Masayuki OHNISHI and Shoichi KOBAYASHI (2008): CO3-rich charlesite from the Fuka mine, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 103, 47-51.
    Norway
     
    • Sør-Trøndelag
      • Meldal
        • Grutseter
    Jørgensen, L. B. & Sagvold, E. B. (2001): Geologiske severdigheter og mineralforekomster i Løkkenfeltet. Orkla Industrimuseum 42p
    Romania
     
    • Brașov Co.
      • Racoş Commune
    Szakáll, S., Kristály, F., 2010. Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Sfântu Gheorghe-Miercurea Ciuc-Târgu Mureş. 2010.
    • Harghita Co.
      • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
        • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
    Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
    Slovakia
     
    • Prešov Region
      • Vranov nad Topľou Co.
    Ďuďa,R., et al., 1981: Mineralógia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca, Monografia 2, 98s
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Kalahari manganese field
        • Hotazel
    Minerals of South Africa
        • Kuruman
          • N'Chwaning Mines
    Minerals of South Africa
    USA
     
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Franklin
    Dunn, et al: Am. Min.:68:1033-1037 (1983); Dunn (1995):Pt5:631.
    FOMS Millsite Committee (1986) (circa), List of Mineral Species Found on the Franklin Mill Site, Franklin-Ogdensburg Mineralogical Society (unpublished).
    Richard Gunter
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