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Charlesite

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Dr Charles Palache
Formula:
Ca6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Colorless, white, rarely ...
Hardness:
Name:
Named in 1983 by Pete J. Dunn, Donald R. Peacor, Peter B. Leavens, and Jack Leach Baum in honor of Dr. Charles Palache, [July 18, 1869 San Franciso, California, USA - December 5, 1954 near Charlottesville, Virginia, USA], systematic mineralogist, specialist on minerals of the Franklin District, Professor of Mineralogy at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
Isostructural with:
Ettringite Group. Crystals are tabular [0001] with {1014}

Classification of Charlesite

Approved 1981
7.DG.15

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
G : With large and medium-sized cations; with NO3, CO3, B(OH)4, SiO4 or IO3
32.4.4.1

32 : COMPOUND SULFATES
4 : Hydrated Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
10.3.3

10 : Borates with other anions
3 : Borates with sulphate
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First Recorded Occurrence of Charlesite

General Appearance of First Recorded Material:
Vug and fracture coating
Place of Conservation of First Recorded Material:
Harvard University
Year of Discovery:
1981
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
Metamorphosed stratiform cabonate hosted zinc silicate and oxide deposit

Physical Properties of Charlesite

Sub-Vitreous, Waxy, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colorless, white, rarely pale yellow, rarely pink
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
1010
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
1.77 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.79 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Charlesite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
P3 1c
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.16Å, c = 21.21Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.901
Unit Cell Volume:
V 2,287.70 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Tabular to 6 mm
Comment:
Probable class, space group by analogy to ettringite
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
9.70 (100)
5.58 (80)
3.855 (80)
2.749 (70)
2.538 (70)
2.193 (70)
2.133 (50)
Comments:
natural material

Optical Data of Charlesite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.492() nε = 1.475(3)
Birefringence:
0.017
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.017
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Optical Extinction:
parallel
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Charlesite

Formula:
Ca6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Charlesite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
BentoriteCa6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
BuryatiteCa3(Si,Fe,Al)(SO4)[B(OH)4]O(OH)5 · 12H2O
CarraraiteCa3(SO4)[Ge(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
HielscheriteCa3Si(SO4)(SO3)(OH)6 · 11H2O
ImayoshiiteCa3Al(CO3)[B(OH)4](OH)6 · 12H2O
JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4}(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
KottenheimiteCa 3Si(SO4)2(OH)6·12H2O
Micheelsenite(Ca,Y)3Al(HPO4,CO3)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
7.DG.05DarapskiteNa3(SO4)(NO3) · H2O
7.DG.10Clinoungemachite(Na, K, Fe, SO4)
7.DG.10HumberstoniteNa7K3Mg2(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2O
7.DG.10UngemachiteK3Na8Fe(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2O
7.DG.15BentoriteCa6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
7.DG.15EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
7.DG.15JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4}(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
7.DG.15SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
7.DG.15ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
7.DG.15CarraraiteCa3(SO4)[Ge(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
7.DG.15BuryatiteCa3(Si,Fe,Al)(SO4)[B(OH)4]O(OH)5 · 12H2O
7.DG.20RapidcreekiteCa2(SO4)(CO3) · 4H2O
7.DG.20KorkinoiteCa4(SO4)2(CO3)2 · 9(H2O)
7.DG.25TatarskiteCa6Mg2(SO4)2(CO3)2(OH)4Cl4 · 7H2O
7.DG.30NakauriiteCu8(SO4)4(CO3)(OH)6 · 48H2O
7.DG.35Chessexite(Na,K)4Ca2(Mg,Zn)3Al8(SO4)10(SiO4)2 · 40H2O
7.DG.40CarlosruiziteK6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(SeO4)12(IO3)12 · 12H2O
7.DG.40FuenzalidaiteK6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(SO4)12(IO3)12 · 12H2O
7.DG.45Chelyabinskite(Ca,Mg)3(SO4,CO3)2[Si(OH)6] · 9H2O (?)
10.3.1SulfoboriteMg3[B(OH)4]2(SO4)(OH,F)2
10.3.2HeidorniteNa2Ca3B5O8(SO4)2Cl(OH)2

Other Names for Charlesite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Charlesit
Spanish:Charlesita

Other Information

Pale violet to pale green in SW
weaker in LW
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Charlesite

Reference List:
American Mineralogist: 68: 1033-1037.

Isao KUSACHI, Naoko SHIRAISHI, Kazumasa SHIMADA, Masayuki OHNISHI and Shoichi KOBAYASHI (2008): CO3-rich charlesite from the Fuka mine, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 103, 47-51.

Internet Links for Charlesite

Localities for Charlesite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Germany
 
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
Christof Schäfer collection
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku Region
      • Okayama Prefecture
        • Takahashi City
          • Bicchu-cho (Bitchu-cho)
            • Fuka
Tanimoto et al (2001) Koubutsu-Gakkai Kou'en-Youshi (Abstracts of the Meeting of the Mineralogical Society of Japan), 113; Isao KUSACHI, Naoko SHIRAISHI, Kazumasa SHIMADA, Masayuki OHNISHI and Shoichi KOBAYASHI (2008): CO3-rich charlesite from the Fuka mine, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 103, 47-51.
Norway
 
  • Sør-Trøndelag
    • Meldal
      • Grutseter
Jørgensen, L. B. & Sagvold, E. B. (2001): Geologiske severdigheter og mineralforekomster i Løkkenfeltet. Orkla Industrimuseum 42p
Romania
 
  • Brașov Co.
    • Racoş Commune
Szakáll, S., Kristály, F., 2010. Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Sfântu Gheorghe-Miercurea Ciuc-Târgu Mureş. 2010.
  • Harghita Co.
    • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
      • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
Slovakia
 
  • Prešov Region
    • Vranov nad Topľou Co.
Ďuďa,R., et al., 1981: Mineralógia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca, Monografia 2, 98s
South Africa
 
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Minerals of South Africa
      • Kuruman
        • N'Chwaning Mines
Minerals of South Africa
USA
 
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Dunn, et al: Am. Min.:68:1033-1037 (1983); Dunn (1995):Pt5:631.
FOMS Millsite Committee (1986) (circa), List of Mineral Species Found on the Franklin Mill Site, Franklin-Ogdensburg Mineralogical Society (unpublished).
Richard Gunter
Mineral and/or Locality  
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