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Crocoite

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Formula:
Pb(CrO
 
4
)
System:MonoclinicColour:Orange, red, yellow; ...
Lustre:AdamantineHardness:2½ - 3
Name:Named from the Greek κρόκος "crocon" = saffron, alluding to the saffron-orange colour of its powder.


Crocoite is commonly found as crystals, usually as long prismatic crystals and more rarely as equant crystals, but are most often poorly terminated, and are usually of a bright hyacinth-red color, which are translucent and have an adamantine to vitreous lustre. When fine grained it can be bright yellow to orange, and some crystals are dark red.

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Classification of Crocoite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/F.01-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.FA.20

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
F : Chromates
A : Without additional anions
Dana 7th edition ID:35.3.1.1
Dana 8th edition ID:35.3.1.1

35 : ANHYDROUS CHROMATES
3 : AXO4
Hey's CIM Ref.:27.2.5

27 : Sulphites, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
2 : Chromates
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Type Occurrence of Crocoite

Type Locality:Tsvetnoi Mine, Uspenskaya Mt, Berezovskoe Au Deposit (Berezovsk Mines), Berezovskii (Berezovskii Zavod), Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk), Sverdlovskaya Oblast', Middle Urals, Urals Region, Russia
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Natural History Museum, Paris

Occurrences of Crocoite

Geological Setting:Uncommon secondary mineral in lead deposits associated with chromium bearing rocks.

Physical Properties of Crocoite

Lustre:Adamantine
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:Orange, red, yellow; orange-red in transmitted light.
Streak:Yellow-orange
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
Distinct on {110}, indistinct on {001} and {100}.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):5.97 - 6.02 g/cm3
Density (calculated):5.97 g/cm3
Comment:6.06 (Dundas mat.); 6.12 (artificial mat.)

Crystallography of Crocoite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b
Cell Parameters:a = 7.12Å, b = 7.421Å, c = 6.8Å
β = 102.41°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.959 : 1 : 0.916
Unit Cell Volume:V 350.90 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals commonly prismatic [001] to acicular crystals with nearly square outline; elongated parallel to [_101]; pseudo-octahedral at times, with {111} {_111}, or acute rhombohedral with {110} {_hOl}. Faces usually smooth and brilliant; {110} commonly striated [001], and the steep orthodomes rounded or distorted. Crystals are often cavernous or hollow. Massive; imperfectly columnar to granular.
Crystal Atlas:
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Crocoite no.76 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Crocoite no.111 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Crocoite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 2.290(2) nβ = 2.360(2) nγ = 2.660(2)
2V:Measured: 57° , Calculated: 54°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.370

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:very strong r > v inclined
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:X= Red-orange
Y = b = Red-orange
Z ^c +5½° = Blood red

Chemical Properties of Crocoite

Formula:
Pb(CrO
 
4
)
Simplified for copy/paste:Pb(CrO4)
Essential elements:Cr, O, Pb
All elements listed in formula:Cr, O, Pb
Common Impurities:Zn,S

Relationship of Crocoite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.FA.05Tarapacáite
K
 
2
[CrO
 
4
]
7.FA.10Chromatite
Ca[CrO
 
4
]
7.FA.15Hashemite
Ba(Cr,S)O
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
27.2.1Tarapacáite
K
 
2
[CrO
 
4
]
27.2.2Lópezite
K
 
2
[Cr
 
2
O
 
7
]
27.2.3Chromatite
Ca[CrO
 
4
]
27.2.4Hashemite
Ba(Cr,S)O
 
4
27.2.6Phoenicochroite
Pb
 
2
(CrO
 
4
)O
27.2.7Santanaite
Pb
 
11
(CrO
 
4
)O
 
12
27.2.8Iranite
Pb
 
10
Cu(CrO
 
4
)
 
6
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(F,OH)
 
2
27.2.9Hemihedrite
Pb
 
10
Zn(CrO
 
4
)
 
6
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(F,OH)
 
2

Other Names for Crocoite

Synonyms:
Beresofite (of Shepard)Beresowite (of Shepard)CallochromeChromate of leadCrocoisite
KollochromLehmanniteRed lead oreRed lead-ore from Beresov
Other Languages:
Catalan:Crocoita
Dutch:Crocoiet
French:Crocoïte
Crocoise
Minerai de plomb rouge
Plomb chromaté
Plombe rouge de Sibérie
German:Krokoit
Bleichromat
Bleiischer Chromspath
Chrombleispath
Chromsaures Blei
Crocoisit
Kallochrom
Krokoisit
Lehmannit
Rotbleierz
Rothes Bleierz
Italian:Crocoite
Japanese:紅鉛鉱
Latin:Minera plumbi rubra
Minera spathiforma rubra
Nova minera plumbi
Low Saxon:Krokoit
Russian:Крокоит
Simplified Chinese:铬铅矿
Slovak:Krokoit
Spanish:Crocoisita
Crocoita
Lehmannita

Other Information

Health Warning:Chromate minerals contain the carcinogenic and mutagenic chromate ion. Always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when handling or breaking. Never lick or ingest. Do not pour chromate-containing solutions down the drain.

References for Crocoite

Reference List:

- +
Lomonosov (1763) Grundlagen der Metallurgie: 1: 44 (as Red lead-ore from Beresov)

Lehmann (1766) Nov. Comm. Ac. Petrop. (as Nova minera Plumbi).

Pallas (1770) Reise durch versch. Prov. russ. Reichs: 2: 235 (as Minerai de plomb rouge).

Werner, A.G. (1774) Von d. äusserlichen Kennzeichen d. Fossilien. Leipzig: 296 (as Rotbleierz and Rothes Bleierz).

Wallerius, J.G. (1775) Systema mineralogicum. Holmiae. vol. 2: 309 (as Minera Plumbi rubra).

Macquart (1789) Le Journal de physique et le radium, Paris: 36: 389 (as Plombe rouge de Sibérie).

Vauquelin (1794) Le Journal de physique et le radium, Paris: 45: 393 (as Plombe rouge de Sibérie).

Vauquelin (1798) Le Journal de physique et le radium, Paris: 46: 152, 311 (as Plombe rouge de Sibérie).

Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol.; also (1801), Paris: 3: 357 (as Plomb chromaté).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen: 1084 (as Kallochrom).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 669 (as Crocoise).

Kobell, Fr. Von (1838) Grundzüge der Mineralogie. Nürnberg: 282 (as Krokoisit).

Breithaupt, A. (1841) Vollständige Handbuch der Mineralogie. Vol. 2: 262 (as Bleiischer Chromspath).

Brooke, H.J. and Miller, W.H. (1852) Introduction to Mineralogy by Wm. Phillips, London, 1823. New edition by Brooke and Miller. 8vo, London: 557 (as Lehmannite).

Shepard C.U. (1844) Treatise on Mineralogy. second edition: 121 (as Beresofite).

Dauber (1860) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Ber.: 42: 19.

Des Cloizeaux (1882) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 5: 103.

de Schulten (1904) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 27: 135.

Anderson, C. (1906) Mineralogical Notes: No. III - Axinite, petterdite, crocoite, datolite. Records of the Australian Museum: 6(3), 133-144.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 63.

Goldschmidt, V. (1922) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 7: 130.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4030.

Brill (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 77: 506.

Gliszczynski (1939) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 101: 1.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.:646-649.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 176: 75-83.

Acta Crystallographica: 19: 287-289.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 167.

Mindat.org articles about Crocoite

Article entries:
Untold Story 40Richard Swierczek

Best Localities for Crocoite

Best of Species:Crocoite

Internet Links for Crocoite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Crocoite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Crocoite

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