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Copper

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Formula:
Cu
System:IsometricColour:Copper-red. Tarnishes to ...
Lustre:MetallicHardness:2½ - 3
Member of:Copper Group
Name:From Greek "kyprios", of Cyprus, the location of ancient copper mines; Latin "cuprum".


Copper Group.

Copper was one of the first metals to be worked into implements and the first metal to be smelted from ores. Its excellent ductility and high conductivity assure its use in modern society.

Classification of Copper

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:1/A.01-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:1.AA.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
A : Copper-cupalite family
Dana 7th edition ID:1.1.1.3
Dana 8th edition ID:1.1.1.3

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
1 : Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Hey's CIM Ref.:1.1

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
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Occurrences of Copper

Geological Setting:In the oxidation zone above sulfide copper deposits, basalts, and sedimentary rocks (Red Bed deposits), rarely in meteorites.

Physical Properties of Copper

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Copper-red. Tarnishes to black or green in air.
Streak:Copper-red
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=77 - 99 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Malleable
Cleavage:None Observed
None
Fracture:Hackly
Density (measured):8.94 - 8.95 g/cm3
Density (calculated):8.93 g/cm3

Crystallography of Copper

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:Fm3m
Cell Parameters:a = 3.615Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 47.24 ų
Z:4
Morphology:Cubes, dodecahedra, and as tetrahexahedra; rarely as octahedra and complex combinations. Filliform, herringbone, arborescent, wires and massive.
Twinning:Spinel twins {111}
Crystal Atlas:
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Copper no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Copper no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Copper no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Copper no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Copper no.65 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Chemical Properties of Copper

Formula:
Cu
Essential elements:Cu
All elements listed in formula:Cu

Relationship of Copper to other Species

Member of:Copper Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Common Associates:
TenoriteMalachiteCuprite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
1.AA.05Aluminium
Al
1.AA.05Electrum
(Au, Ag)
1.AA.05Gold
Au
1.AA.05Lead
Pb
1.AA.05Nickel
Ni
1.AA.05Silver
Ag
1.AA.05UM2004-08-E:AuCuPd
(Cu,Pd,Au)
1.AA.05UM1991-06-E:AuCu
Au
 
3
Cu
1.AA.10aAuricupride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.AA.10bTetra-auricupride
AuCu
1.AA.10aCuproauride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.AA.15Anyuiite
Au(Pb,Sb)
 
2
1.AA.15Khatyrkite
(Cu,Zn)Al
 
2
1.AA.15Iodine
I
 
2
1.AA.15Novodneprite
AuPb
 
3
1.AA.15UM1985-02-E:AlZn
ZnAl
 
2
1.AA.20Cupalite
(Cu,Zn)Al
1.AA.25Hunchunite
Au
 
2
Pb
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
1.2Silver
Ag
1.5Gold
Au
1.6Auricupride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.7Tetra-auricupride
AuCu
1.8Zinc
Zn
1.9Cadmium
Cd
1.10Danbaite
CuZn
 
2
1.11Zhanghengite
CuZn
1.12Mercury
Hg
1.13Kolymite
Cu
 
7
Hg
 
6
1.14Moschellandsbergite
Ag
 
2
Hg
 
3
1.15Eugenite
Ag
 
11
Hg
 
2
1.16Schachnerite
Ag
 
1.1
Hg
 
0.9
1.17Paraschachnerite
Ag
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.18Luanheite
Ag
 
3
Hg
1.19Weishanite
(Au,Ag)
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.20Indium
In
1.21Aluminium
Al
1.22Khatyrkite
(Cu,Zn)Al
 
2
1.23Cupalite
(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24Diamond
C
1.25Graphite
C
1.26Chaoite
C
1.27Lonsdaleite
C
1.28Silicon
Si
1.29Tin
Sn
1.30Lead
Pb
1.31Anyuiite
Au(Pb,Sb)
 
2
1.31Novodneprite
AuPb
 
3
1.32Leadamalgam
Pb
 
0.7
Hg
 
0.3
1.33Arsenic
As
1.34Arsenolamprite
As
1.35Paxite
CuAs
 
2
1.36Koutekite
Cu
 
5
As
 
2
1.37Domeykite
Cu
 
3
As
1.38Algodonite
(Cu
 
1-x
As
 
x
)
1.39Novakite
Cu
 
20
AgAs
 
10
1.40Kutinaite
Ag
 
6
Cu
 
14
As
 
7
1.41Antimony
Sb
1.42Stibarsen
AsSb
1.43Paradocrasite
Sb
 
3
As
1.44Horsfordite
Cu, Sb
1.45Cuprostibite
Cu
 
2
(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum
(Ag
 
1-x
Sb
 
x
)
1.47Aurostibite
AuSb
 
2
1.48Dyscrasite
Ag
 
3
Sb
1.49Bismuth
Bi
1.50Maldonite
Au
 
2
Bi
1.51Sulphur
S
 
8
1.52Rosickýite
S
1.53Selenium
Se
1.54Tellurium
Te
1.55Chromium
Cr
1.56Rhenium
Re
1.57Iron
Fe
1.58Chromferide
Fe
 
3
Cr
 
1-x
(x=0.6)
1.59Ferchromide
Cr
 
3
Fe
 
1-x
1.60Wairauite
CoFe
1.61Nickel
Ni
1.62Kamacite
(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite
(Fe,Ni)
1.64Tetrataenite
FeNi
1.65Awaruite
Ni
 
3
Fe
1.66Palladium
(Pd,Pt)
1.67Potarite
PdHg
1.68Paolovite
Pd
 
2
Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite
(Pd,Cu)
 
3
Sn
 
2
1.70Cabriite
Pd
 
2
CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I
(Pd,Cu,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.72Atokite
(Pd,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.73Rustenburgite
(Pt,Pd)
 
3
Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite
(Pd,Pt,Au)
 
3
(Pb,Sn)
1.75Plumbopalladinite
Pd
 
3
Pb
 
2
1.76Osmium
(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium
(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82Platinum
Pt
1.83Hongshiite
PtCu
1.84Niggliite
PtSn
1.85Isoferroplatinum
Pt
 
3
Fe
1.86Tetraferroplatinum
PtFe
1.87Tulameenite
Pt
 
2
CuFe
1.88Ferronickelplatinum
Pt
 
2
FeNi
1.89Rhodium
(Rh,Pt)
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
1.1.1.1Gold
Au
1.1.1.2Silver
Ag

Other Names for Copper

Synonyms:
CupperNative CopperNative CuVenusYarvi
Other Languages:
Afrikaans:Koper
Albanian:Bakri
Arabic:نحاس
Armenian:Պղինձ
Aymara:Anti
Azeri:Mis
Basque:Kobre
Belarusian:Медзь
Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa):Медзь
Bengali:তামা
Bosnian (Latin Script):Bakar
Bulgarian:Мед
Catalan:Coure
Chuvash:Пăхăр
Cornish:Kober
Corsican:Ramu
Croatian:Bakar
Czech:Měď
Danish:Kobber
Dutch:Koper
Erzya:Пиже
Esperanto:Kupro
Estonian:Vask
Finnish:Kupari
French:Cuivre
Friulian:Ram
Galician:Cobre
Georgian:სპილენძი
German:Kupfer
Gediegen Kupfer
Greek:Χαλκός
Gujarati:તાંબુ
Haitian:Kuiv
Hebrew:נחושת
Hindi:ताम्र
Hungarian:Réz
Icelandic:Kopar
Ido:Kupro
Indonesian:Tembaga
Irish Gaelic:Copar
Italian:Rame
Japanese:
Javanese:Tembaga
Kongo:Mutako
Korean:구리
Kurdish (Latin Script):Mis
Latin:Cuprum
Aes Cyprium
Latvian:Varš
Limburgian:Koper
Lithuanian:Varis
Lojban:tunka
Low Saxon:Kopper
Luxembourgish:Koffer
Macedonian:Бакар
Malay:Tembaga
Malayalam:ചെമ്പ്
Manx:Cobbyr
Maori:Konukura
Marathi:तांबे
Min Nan:Cu
Mongolian (Cyrillic Script):Зэс
Nahuatl:Chīltic tepoztli
Norwegian (Bokmål):Kobber
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Kopar
Occitan:Coire
Persian:مس
Polish:Miedź
Portuguese:Cobre
Quechua:Anta
Ripuarian:Koffer
Romanian:Cupru
Russian:Медь
Sanskrit:ताम्रम्
Scottish Gaelic:Copar
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Бакар
Serbo-Croatian:Bakar
Sicilian:Rami
Simplified Chinese:自然铜
Slovak:Meď
Slovenian:Baker
Spanish:Cobre
Swahili:Shaba
Swedish:Koppar
Tagalog:Tanso
Tajik (Cyrillic Script):Мис
Tamil:செப்பு
Telugu:రాగి
Thai:ทองแดง
Turkish:Bakır
Ukrainian:Мідь
Urdu:تانبا
Uzbek (Latin Script):Mis
Vietnamese:Đồng
Welsh:Copr
Yiddish:קופער
Zulu:Umthofu
Varieties:
Auriferous Zincian CopperNickeloan CopperPalladian CopperStanniferous CopperWhitneyite

Other Information

Other Information:Completely soluble with Gold.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Electrical wire, cooking utensils, in alloys such as brass and bronze.

References for Copper

Reference List:

- +
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 57.

Dana (1886), American Journal of Science: 32: 413.

Bragg (1914), Philadelphia Magazine: 28: 255.

Ramsdell (1929) American Mineralogist: 14: 188.

Owen & Yates (1933), Philadelphia Magazine: 15: 472.

Vegard and Kloster (1934) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 89: 560.

Owen and Rogers (1935) Journal of the Institute of Metals, London: 57: 257.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 99-102.

Best Localities for Copper

Best of Species:Copper

Internet Links for Copper

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Copper details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
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  • Copper specimens for sale - minfind.com
  • Specimens:The following Copper specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Copper

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