Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on MindatThe Mindat Store
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Copper

This page kindly sponsored by Paul Brandes
Formula:
Cu
System:
Isometric
Colour:
Copper-red. Tarnishes to ...
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Member of:
Name:
From Greek "kyprios", of Cyprus, the location of ancient copper mines; Latin "cuprum".
Copper Group.

Copper was one of the first metals to be worked into implements and the first metal to be smelted from ores. Its excellent ductility and high conductivity assure its use in modern society.

Classification of Copper

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
1.AA.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
A : Copper-cupalite family
Dana 7th ed.:
1.1.1.3
1.1.1.3

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
1 : Metals, other than the Platinum Group
1.1

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-1209.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Occurrences of Copper

Geological Setting:
In the oxidation zone above sulfide copper deposits, basalts, and sedimentary rocks (Red Bed deposits), rarely in meteorites.

Physical Properties of Copper

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Copper-red. Tarnishes to black or green in air.
Streak:
Copper-red
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=77 - 99 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Malleable
Cleavage:
None Observed
None
Fracture:
Hackly
Density:
8.94 - 8.95 g/cm3 (Measured)    8.93 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Copper

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fm3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 3.615Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 47.24 ų
Z:
4
Morphology:
Cubes, dodecahedra, and as tetrahexahedra; rarely as octahedra and complex combinations. Filliform, herringbone, arborescent, wires and massive.
Twinning:
Spinel twins {111}

Crystallographic forms of Copper

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Copper no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Copper no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Copper no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Copper no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Copper no.65 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Chemical Properties of Copper

Formula:
Cu
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Copper to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
Common Associates:
1.AA.05AluminiumAl
1.AA.05Electrum(Au, Ag)
1.AA.05GoldAu
1.AA.05LeadPb
1.AA.05NickelNi
1.AA.05SilverAg
1.AA.05UM2004-08-E:AuCuPd(Cu,Pd,Au)
1.AA.05UM1991-06-E:AuCuAu3Cu
1.AA.10aAuricuprideCu3Au
1.AA.10bTetra-auricuprideAuCu
1.AA.10aCuproaurideCu3Au
1.AA.15AnyuiiteAu(Pb,Sb)2
1.AA.15Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2
1.AA.15IodineI2
1.AA.15NovodnepriteAuPb3
1.AA.15UM1985-02-E:AlZnZnAl2
1.AA.20Cupalite(Cu,Zn)Al
1.AA.25HunchuniteAu2Pb
1.2SilverAg
1.5GoldAu
1.6AuricuprideCu3Au
1.7Tetra-auricuprideAuCu
1.8ZincZn
1.9CadmiumCd
1.10DanbaiteCuZn2
1.11ZhanghengiteCuZn
1.12MercuryHg
1.13KolymiteCu7Hg6
1.14MoschellandsbergiteAg2Hg3
1.15EugeniteAg11Hg2
1.16SchachneriteAg1.1Hg0.9
1.17ParaschachneriteAg3Hg2
1.18LuanheiteAg3Hg
1.19Weishanite(Au,Ag)3Hg2
1.20IndiumIn
1.21AluminiumAl
1.22Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2
1.23Cupalite(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24DiamondC
1.25GraphiteC
1.26ChaoiteC
1.27LonsdaleiteC
1.28SiliconSi
1.29TinSn
1.30LeadPb
1.31AnyuiiteAu(Pb,Sb)2
1.31NovodnepriteAuPb3
1.32LeadamalgamPb0.7Hg0.3
1.33ArsenicAs
1.34ArsenolampriteAs
1.35PaxiteCuAs2
1.36KoutekiteCu5As2
1.37DomeykiteCu3As
1.38Algodonite(Cu1-xAsx)
1.39NovákiteCu20AgAs10
1.40KutinaiteAg6Cu14As7
1.41AntimonySb
1.42StibarsenAsSb
1.43ParadocrasiteSb3As
1.44HorsforditeCu, Sb
1.45CuprostibiteCu2(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum(Ag1-xSbx)
1.47AurostibiteAuSb2
1.48DyscrasiteAg3Sb
1.49BismuthBi
1.50MaldoniteAu2Bi
1.51SulphurS8
1.52RosickýiteS
1.53SeleniumSe
1.54TelluriumTe
1.55ChromiumCr
1.56RheniumRe
1.57IronFe
1.58ChromferideFe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)
1.59FerchromideCr3Fe1-x
1.60WairauiteCoFe
1.61NickelNi
1.62Kamacite(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite(Fe,Ni)
1.64TetrataeniteFeNi
1.65AwaruiteNi3Fe
1.66Palladium(Pd,Pt)
1.67PotaritePdHg
1.68PaolovitePd2Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite(Pd,Cu)3Sn2
1.70CabriitePd2CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I(Pd,Cu,Pt)3Sn
1.72Atokite(Pd,Pt)3Sn
1.73Rustenburgite(Pt,Pd)3Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite(Pd,Pt,Au)3(Pb,Sn)
1.75PlumbopalladinitePd3Pb2
1.76Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82PlatinumPt
1.83HongshiitePtCu
1.84NiggliitePtSn
1.85IsoferroplatinumPt3Fe
1.86TetraferroplatinumPtFe
1.87TulameenitePt2CuFe
1.88FerronickelplatinumPt2FeNi
1.89Rhodium(Rh,Pt)

Other Names for Copper

Name in Other Languages:
Afrikaans:Koper
Albanian:Bakri
Arabic:نحاس
Armenian:Պղինձ
Aymara:Anti
Azeri:Mis
Basque:Kobre
Belarusian:Медзь
Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa):Медзь
Bengali:তামা
Bosnian (Latin Script):Bakar
Bulgarian:Мед
Catalan:Coure
Chuvash:Пăхăр
Cornish:Kober
Corsican:Ramu
Croatian:Bakar
Czech:Měď
Danish:Kobber
Dutch:Koper
Erzya:Пиже
Esperanto:Kupro
Estonian:Vask
Finnish:Kupari
French:Cuivre
Friulian:Ram
Galician:Cobre
Haitian:Kuiv
Hebrew:נחושת
Hungarian:Réz
Icelandic:Kopar
Ido:Kupro
Indonesian:Tembaga
Irish Gaelic:Copar
Italian:Rame
Japanese:自然 銅
Javanese:Tembaga
Kongo:Mutako
Korean:구리
Kurdish (Latin Script):Mis
Latvian:Varš
Limburgian:Koper
Lithuanian:Varis
Lojban:tunka
Low Saxon:Kopper
Luxembourgish:Koffer
Macedonian:Бакар
Malay:Tembaga
Manx:Cobbyr
Maori:Konukura
Min Nan:Cu
Mongolian (Cyrillic Script):Зэс
Norwegian (Bokmål):Kobber
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Kopar
Occitan:Coire
Persian:مس
Polish:Miedź
Portuguese:Cobre
Quechua:Anta
Ripuarian:Koffer
Romanian:Cupru
Russian:Медь
Scottish Gaelic:Copar
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Бакар
Serbo-Croatian:Bakar
Sicilian:Rami
Simplified Chinese:自然铜
Slovak:Meď
Slovenian:Baker
Spanish:Cobre
Swahili:Shaba
Swedish:Koppar
Tagalog:Tanso
Tajik (Cyrillic Script):Мис
Turkish:Bakır
Ukrainian:Мідь
Uzbek (Latin Script):Mis
Vietnamese:Đồng
Welsh:Copr
Yiddish:קופער
Zulu:Umthofu

Other Information

Other Information:
Completely soluble with Gold.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Electrical wire, cooking utensils, in alloys such as brass and bronze.

References for Copper

Reference List:
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 57.

Dana (1886), American Journal of Science: 32: 413.

Bragg (1914), Philadelphia Magazine: 28: 255.

Ramsdell (1929) American Mineralogist: 14: 188.

Owen & Yates (1933), Philadelphia Magazine: 15: 472.

Vegard and Kloster (1934) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 89: 560.

Owen and Rogers (1935) Journal of the Institute of Metals, London: 57: 257.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 99-102.

Internet Links for Copper

Specimens:
The following Copper specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Copper

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2015, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: August 4, 2015 00:30:17 Page generated: August 1, 2015 22:57:03