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Niter

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Formula:
KNO
 
3
System:OrthorhombicColour:Colorless or white, ...
Lustre:Sub-VitreousHardness:2
Name:Evolved from "neter" or "nether" (Hebraic), which derived from "natar," a substance that effervesces, which corresponds to the "nitron" of the Greeks and the "nitrum" of the Romans.


Niter, potassium nitrate, is found as an efflorescence in hot, dry regions. Also known as saltpeter.

Chemically it is the K-analogue of nitratine.

Classification of Niter

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/A.01-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:5.NA.10

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
N : NITRATES
A : Without OH or H2O
Dana 7th edition ID:18.1.2.1
Dana 8th edition ID:18.1.2.1

18 : NORMAL NITRATES
1 : AXO3·xH2O, where x can equal zero
Hey's CIM Ref.:13.2

13 : Nitrates
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Occurrences of Niter

Geological Setting:Surface efflorescences in arid regions; in caves or other dry, sheltered places. Also in soils rich in organic materials, especially after rain during hot weather.

Physical Properties of Niter

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colorless or white, light yellow, very light gray
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):2
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Very Good
On {011} nearly perfect; on {010} fairly good; on {110} imperfect.
Parting:Twin gliding with K1 (110), K2 (130).
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (calculated):2.11 g/cm3

Crystallography of Niter

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Pmma
Cell Parameters:a = 5.414Å, b = 9.164Å, c = 6.431Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.591 : 1 : 0.702
Unit Cell Volume:V 319.07 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Massive, granular, earthy, mealy. Crusts, silky tufts, and delicate acicular crystallization. Artificial crystals are prismatic [001].
Twinning:Common on {110}, frequently as pseudo-hexagonal groupings.
Comment:Pmcm
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
4.66(20)
3.78 (100)
3.73 (60)
3.03 (60)
2.76 (30)
2.71 (20)
2.66 (40)
2.65 (60)
Comments:5-377 (synthetic)

Optical Data of Niter

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.332 nβ = 1.504 nγ = 1.504
2V:Measured: 7°
Birefringence:0.172
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.172

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:r
Optical Extinction:Parallel
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Niter

Formula:
KNO
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:KNO3
Essential elements:K, N, O
All elements listed in formula:K, N, O
Common Impurities:Na,Li

Relationship of Niter to other Species

Common Associates:
NitrocalciteGypsumEpsomite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
5.NA.05Nitratine
NaNO
 
3
5.NA.15Gwihabaite
(NH
 
4
,K)NO
 
3
5.NA.20Nitrobarite
Ba(NO
 
3
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
13.1Nitratine
NaNO
 
3
13.3Gerhardtite
Cu
 
2
(NO
 
3
)(OH)
 
3
13.4Nitromagnesite
Mg(NO
 
3
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
13.5Nitrocalcite
Ca(NO
 
3
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
13.6Nitrobarite
Ba(NO
 
3
)
 
2
13.7Buttgenbachite
Cu
 
19
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
32
Cl
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
13.8Sveite
KAl
 
7
(NO
 
3
)
 
4
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
13.9Darapskite
Na
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(NO
 
3
) · H
 
2
O
13.10Humberstonite
Na
 
7
K
 
3
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
13.11Mbobomkulite
(Ni,Cu)Al
 
4
((NO
 
3
)
 
2
,SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 3H
 
2
O
13.12Hydrombobomkulite
(Ni,Cu)Al
 
4
((NO
 
3
)
 
2
,SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 13-14H
 
2
O
13.13Nickelalumite
(Ni,Cu)Al
 
4
(SO
 
4
,(NO
 
3
)
 
2
)(OH)
 
12
· 3H
 
2
O

Other Names for Niter

Synonyms:
Nitrate of PotashNitreSalpeterSalpetreSaltpeter
Other Languages:
French:Potasse nitratée
German:Kalisalpeter
Natürlicher Salpeter
Salpetersaures Kali
Latin:Sal petrae
Russian:Калиевая селитра
Simplified Chinese:钾硝石
Spanish:Salitre

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent
Other Information:Readily soluble in water.
Health Warning:DETONATES WITH COMBUSTIBLE SUBSTANCES!!

References for Niter

Reference List:

- +
Reuss, F.A. (1803) Lehrbuch der Mineralogie. Leipzig. part 2, volumes 3: 21 (as Salpeter).

Philips (1818): 137 (as Nitrate of Potash).

Leonhard, K.C. (1826) Handbuch der Oryktognosie. second edition, Heidelberg: 247 (as Kalisalpeter).

Naumann, C.F. (1828) Lehrbuch der Mineralogie, Berlin: 261.

Breithaupt, A. (1832) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 2nd. Ed.: 27 (as Kalinitrat).

Miller (1840) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 17: 38.

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition, vol. 2, in two parts: 1416.

Breithaupt, A. (1847) Vollständige Handbuch der Mineralogie. Dresden and Leipzig. Vol. 2: 94.

Schrauf (1860) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 41: 790.

Retgers (1889) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 3: 313.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 871.

Gossner (1903) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 38: 143.

Günther (1912) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 50: 92 (density - artif. xls.)(abstract).

Haigh (1912) Journal of the American Chemical Society: 34: 1137.

Johnsen (1914) Jahrb. Radioakt. Und Elektronik: 11: 246.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 5: 3.

Frood and Hall (1919) Union of South Africa Geological Survey Memorandum 14.

Edwards (1930) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 154.

Hintze, Carl (1930) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3A]: 2713.

Merwin (1930) Int. Crit. Tables: 7: 27.

Mansfield and Boardman (1932) U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 838.

Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 152.

Gibbs (1938) Ann. Sc. London: 3: 213.

Northrop (1942) University of New Mexico Bulletin, Geology Series, 6, no. 1: 227.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 303.

Janz, G.J. (1980) Molten-salts data as reference-standards for density, surface-tension viscosity and electrical conductance - KNO3 and NaCl. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data: 9: 791-829.

Chem. Geol. (1988): 67: 85.

Internet Links for Niter

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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  • Localities for Niter

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Australian Capital Territory
      • Brindabella Mtn
        • Cotter
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV
    Bahamas
     
    • San Salvador District
      • San Salvador Island
    Carb.&Evap. v.16 no.1 (2001)
    Bolivia
     
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 304.
    Bulgaria
     
    • Kardzhali Oblast (Kurdzhali; Kărdžali; Kurdjali)
      • Momchilgrad Obshtina
    Kunov, A. & Mandova, E. (1997): Supergene minerals of the Obichnik Au-Ag deposit (Eastern Rhodopes). Spisanie na Bulgarskoto Geologichesko Druzhestvo 58, 19-24. (in Bulgarian)
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
        • Sierra Gorda District
    http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/AmMin/TOC/Articles_Free/1998/Cooper_p390-399_98.pdf
      • Tocopilla Province
    http://www.albumdesierto.cl/aleman/1melena.htm
        • Pedro de Valdivia
    Pueyo, J. J., Chong, G. & Vega, M. (1998): Mineralogy and parental brine evolution in the Pedro de Valdivia nitrate deposit, Antofagasta, Chile. Revista Geologica de Chile 25, 3-15. (in Spanish)
    • Tarapacá Region
      • El Tamarugal Province
        • Pozo Almonte
    collected by Reynaldo Contreira
    Personally collected by Reynaldo Contreira in 2006
    China
     
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
      • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
        • Shanshan Co. (Piqan Co.; Pichan Co.)
          • Kanggur-Xifengshan gold belt
    Zhaoxin Han, Lijun Luan, and Chaoyou Wang (2004): Journal of Xi'an University of Science and Technology 24(3), 324-327; Kaiyin Bai and Zhaoxin Han (2007): Northwestern Geology 40(2), 114-117
        • Tulufan Co. (Turfan Co.; Turpan Co.)
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
        • Tuokexun Co. (Toksun Co.; Toqsun Co.)
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    Germany
     
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Mayen
          • Ettringen
            • Bellerberg volcano
    Blass, G., Graf, HW., Kolitsch, U., Sebold, D., Über neue Mineralfunde aus der Vulkaneifel, MW 6/2005
    Greece
     
    • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
      • Sámos Prefecture
        • Sámos Island
    Helvaci, C., Stamatakis, M. G., Zagouroglou, C., & Kanaris, J. (1993). Borate minerals and related authigenic silicates in northeastern Mediterranean Late Miocene continental basins. Exploration and Mining Geology, 2(2), 171-178.
    Italy
     
    • Calabria
      • Reggio Calabria Province
        • Aspromonte Massif
    Cataldo V.(2012) - Contratti e rapporti di produzione nella Calabria del XVIII secolo. ESI ed., Napoli. pp.240 (cap.III/6 pp.96-98 - La produzione del salnitro)
    • Puglia
      • Bari Province
        • Molfetta
          • Pulo di Molfetta
    Giornate di studio sul Pulo di Molfetta, 25 -27 Maggio 2012
    Mexico
     
    • Coahuila
      • Mun. de Cuatrociénegas
        • Cuatro Ciénegas (Cuatrociénegas de Carranza; Venustiano Carranza)
          • Limestone caves
    Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
    Philippines
     
    • Luzon
      • Bicol Region
        • Camarines Norte Province
          • Jose Panganiban (Mambulao)
    Jianmin Chen (2011): Global Geology 30(2), 145-153
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Pixley ka Seme District
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 304.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 304.
    Ukraine
     
    • Crimea Oblast'
      • Crimea peninsula
        • Bakhchisaray area
          • Skalistoye Village
    Dvoichenko P.A. The minerals of Crimea (1914) - Zapiski Krymskogo obshchestva estestvoispytatelei (Proceeding of the Crimea Society of Naturalistes), 1914, vol. 4, p. 1-208 (Rus.) - Popov S.P. Mineralogy of the Crimea (1938). - M.-L., AN SSSR, 1938, 352 p. (Rus.)
    USA
     
    • Alabama
      • Calhoun Co.
        • Weaver Station
    Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
    Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
    Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
      • Jackson Co.
    Rocks & Min 70:5 pp 320-333
    Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
      • Lawrence Co.
    Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
      • Limestone Co.
    Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
    Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
      • Marshall Co.
        • Newsome Sinks
    Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
      • Morgan Co.
        • Trinity
    Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
      • Winston Co.
        • Black Warrior River
    Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
    • Arizona
      • Coconino Co.
        • Winona
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 313; Guild, F.N. (1910), Mineralogy of Arizona; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 56.
      • Greenlee Co.
        • Peloncillo Mts
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 199, 313; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 56.
      • Pinal Co.
        • Galiuro Mts
          • Aravaipa Creek area
    Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 56.
    • Arkansas
    The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture (http://encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
    • California
      • Imperial Co.
    Merrill, Frederick James Hamilton (1916), San Diego, Imperial Counties: California Mining Bureau. Report 14: 741; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279.
      • Inyo Co.
        • China Ranch (Morrison Ranch)
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 165-174; Phalen, William Clifton (1913), Potash salts; summary for 1912: Mineral Resources U.S., 1912, part 2: 894; Noble, Levi Fatzinger, George Rogers Mansfield, et al (1922), Nitrate deposits in the Amargosa region, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 724: 22-88; Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
        • Death Valley
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 304; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 169; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279, 341.
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 69; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279.
        • Saratoga District (Tecopa Mountain District; Shoshone District ?)
          • Dublin Hills
            • Shoshone
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 71; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 341.
      • Kern Co.
        • Sec. 16; T32S; R34E; MDM
    Mansfield, George Rogers & Leona Boardman (1927), Potash: Mineral Resources US, 1924: 25; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279.
      • Modoc Co.
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279.
      • Riverside Co.
        • Joshua Tree National Monument
          • Twenty-Nine Palms area
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 31; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
        • Salton
          • Northeast of Salton
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 169; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279.
        • Vivet Eye
    Turner, Henry Ward (1907), The sodium nitrate deposits of the Colorado: Mining and Scientific Press: 94: 634-636; Ingalls, Walter Renton, ed. (1908) The Mineral Industry, Its Statistics, Technology and Trade during 1907, Vol. XVI, Hill Publishing Co., New York & London: 833.
      • San Bernardino Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 310.
        • Death Valley National Park
          • Death Valley
            • Owlshead Mts
              • Owl Hole Springs
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
        • Slate Range
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 63; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
      • San Mateo Co.
        • Menlo Park
          • Sharon Heights
    Pampeyan, E.H. (2010): USGS Open-File Report 10-1053
    • Georgia
      • Bartow Co.
        • Kingston
    Minerals of Georgia: Their properties and occurrences. Robert Cook GGWRD Bull 92
    • Idaho
      • Clark Co.
        • Dubois
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 304; Rocks & Minerals: 70(4): 242-263.
    Anderson (1994) Kentucky Geol. Survey Ser. XI Spec. Pub 20
      • Rockcastle Co.
    http://www.rkci.org/library/gsp/engle.htm
    • Missouri
      • Callaway Co.
        • Portland
    R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
      • Maries Co.
    R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
    • Nevada
      • Churchill Co.
        • Lake District
    U.S. Bureau of Mines Circular 7093 (1939).
      • Clark Co.
        • Spring Mts
          • Charleston District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Esmeralda Co.
        • Silver Peak District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Lander Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Washoe Co.
        • Leadville District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Mexico
      • Eddy Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Hidalgo Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 306; Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
        • Animas Valley
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    NSS Bull. 43:127-132
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 304; Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Burke Co.
        • Linville Gorge
    United States Saltpeter Cave Survey
    Genth,F.A and Kerr,W.C,1885,Minerals and Mineral Localities of North Carolina,Geologic Survey,Vol.2,p.81
      • Swain Co.
    Mineralogical Record March - April 2000
    Pough,Fredrick H., 1996, Rocks and Minerals,pg#204
      • Cannon Co.
    www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    www.nashevillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    www.nashevillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
      • Claiborne Co.
    www.nashevillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    www.nashevillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
      • Coffee Co.
    www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
      • Cumberland Co.
    www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
      • DeKalb Co.
        • Dowelltown
    www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
      • Fentress Co.
        • Buffalo Cove
    www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
      • Franklin Co.
    www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
      • Grainger Co.
    www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
      • Hamilton Co.
    www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
      • Hickman Co.
    www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
      • Knox Co.
    www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
      • Marion Co.
    www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
    www.mtsuedu / ~ cwtech / saltpeter / Saltpeter. html
      • Monroe Co.
    www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
    www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
    www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
      • Roane Co.
    www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
      • Robertson Co.
    Travis A. Paris (2011) Tennessee mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 86, #4, 300-328.
      • Shelby Co.
    www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
      • Smith Co.
    Travis A. Paris (2011) Tennessee mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 86, #4, 300-328.
    Travis A. Paris (2011) Tennessee mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 86, #4, 300-328.
      • Van Buren Co.
    www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
      • White Co.
    www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
    www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
    • Texas
      • Brewster Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 302.; American Mineralogist (1926) 11:189-190
      • Presidio Co.
    BEG Min Res Circ 73
    • Utah
      • Iron Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Millard Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Virginia
      • Augusta Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Bath Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Bland Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Botetourt Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Craig Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Giles Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Highland Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Lee Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Page Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Pulaski Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Rockbridge Co.
        • Glasgow
    Rocks & Min.: 60:157.
      • Scott Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Smyth Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich; Robert C. Whisonant (2001) GEOLOGY AND HISTORY OF CONFEDERATE SALTPETER CAVE OPERATIONS IN WESTERN VIRGINIA, Virginia Minerals Vol 47 No. 4
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Wise Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Wythe Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • West Virginia
      • Grant Co.
    Davies, William E Caverns of West Virginia West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey Volume 19A (July 1958)
      • Greenbrier Co.
    Davies, William E Caverns of West Virginia West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey Volume 19A (July 1958)
    Johnson, 1960. Source Book for the Rock & Mineral Collector.
      • Pendleton Co.
    Burton Faust, 1964, Saltpetre Caves and Virginia History, Econo Print, Falls Church, VA, pp. 56.
    Burton Faust, 1964, Saltpetre Caves and Virginia History, Econo Print, Falls Church, VA, pp. 56.
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