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Tamarugite

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Formula:
NaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless; colourless ...
Hardness:
3
Name:
Named after its discovery locality, Cerro Pintados, Tamarugal Pampa, Tarapaca, Chile.
This page provides mineralogical data about Tamarugite.

Classification of Tamarugite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7.CC.10

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
29.5.3.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
5 : AB(XO4)2·xH2O
25.6.12

25 : Sulphates
6 : Sulphates of Al and Tl
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First Recorded Occurrence of Tamarugite

Year of Discovery:
1889

Occurrences of Tamarugite

Geological Setting:
Occurs under arid conditions by the oxidation of sulphides in aluminous and alkali-rich environments.

Physical Properties of Tamarugite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness (Mohs):
3
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {010}, perfect; not easy.
Density:
2.07 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Crystallography of Tamarugite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.35Å, b = 25.22Å, c = 6.09Å
β = 95.2°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.291 : 1 : 0.241
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,124.24 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals short tabular {010} or short prismatic [001]. Fibrous or fine-grained massive.

Optical Data of Tamarugite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.484 nβ = 1.486 nγ = 1.497
2V:
Measured: 60° , Calculated: 48°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.013
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v to r < v strong

Chemical Properties of Tamarugite

Formula:
NaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Soluble in water.

Relationship of Tamarugite to other Species

7.CC.05KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2O
7.CC.15KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O Not confirmed
7.CC.15MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
7.CC.20Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.20Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.20Alum-(Na)NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.20Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.20LanmuchangiteTl+Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.25VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
7.CC.25ZincovoltaiteK2Zn5Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
7.CC.25PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
7.CC.25Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
7.CC.30KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
7.CC.35FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2O
7.CC.40GoldichiteKFe(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.45LöweiteNa12Mg7(SO4)13 · 15H2O
7.CC.50BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.50NickelblöditeNa2(Ni,Mg)(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.50ChangoiteNa2Zn(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.50Zincblödite
7.CC.55LeoniteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.55MereiteriteK2Fe(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.60Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.60CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.60Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.60Nickelboussingaultite(NH4)2Ni(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.60PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.65PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
7.CC.70LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2O
7.CC.75AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.80KonyaiteNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 5H2O
7.CC.85WattevilleiteNa2Ca(SO4)2 · 4H2O (?)
25.6.1RostiteAl(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
25.6.2JurbaniteAl(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
25.6.3KhademiteAl(SO4)F · 5H2O
25.6.4Meta-aluminiteAl2(SO4)(OH)4 · 5H2O
25.6.5AluminiteAl2(SO4)(OH)4 · 7H2O
25.6.6Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
25.6.7AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
25.6.8FelsőbányaiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 4H2O
25.6.9Basaluminite
25.6.10HydrobasaluminiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
25.6.11ZaheriteAl12(SO4)5(OH)26 · 20H2O
25.6.13MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
25.6.14Alum-(Na)NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
25.6.15NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
25.6.16KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O Not confirmed
25.6.17Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
25.6.18AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
25.6.19Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
25.6.20Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O

Other Names for Tamarugite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Tamarugite

Reference List:
Schulze (1889) Verh. Ver. Santiago: 2: 56.

Zambonini (1907) Reale accademia delle scienze fisische e matematiche, Naples. Rendus: 46: 321.

Ungemach (1935) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 58: 209 (as Lapparentite).

Bandy (1938) American Mineralogist: 23: 740. (as Lapparentite)

Gordon (1940) Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia, Notulae Naturae No. 57.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 466-468.

American Mineralogist (1966): 51: 1805.

American Mineralogist (1969): 54: 19-30.

American Mineralogist (1971): 56: 2159.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1987): 171.

Mereiter, K. (2013): Redetermination of tamarugite, NaAl(SO4)2·6H2O. Acta Crystallogr. E69, i63-i64.

Internet Links for Tamarugite

Localities for Tamarugite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Antarctica
 
  • Western Antarctica
Barczuk A. & Tatur A. 2003: BIOGENIC PHOSPHATE AND SULPHATE MINERALS IN THESOILS OF ANTARCTIC PENINSULA. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 23, pp. 41-43
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Murray Basin
      • Murray Riverlands
        • Barmera
Mark Raven , Rob Fitzpatrick , Paul Shand and Stuart McClure, 2010, Minerals diagnostic of acid sulfate soils. Extended Abstracts – 21st Australian Clay Minerals Conference – Brisbane, August 2010
Rob Fitzpatrick, Paul Shand, Mark Raven and Stuart McClure, 2010, Occurrence and environmental significance of sideronatrite and other mineral precipitates in Acid Sulfate Soils. 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World
        • Renmark
Rob Fitzpatrick, Paul Shand, Mark Raven and Stuart McClure, 2010, Occurrence and environmental significance of sideronatrite and other mineral precipitates in Acid Sulfate Soils. 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World
  • Victoria
Segnit, E. R. "Tamarugite from Anglesea, Victoria, Australia." Mineral. Mag 40 (1976): 642-644.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Sierra Gorda District
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter, Curator of Hamburg Mineralogical Museum, Germany
        • Caracoles
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 467: 467; maurizio dini collection
Malcherek, T. & Schlüter, J. (2010): Anatacamite from La Vendida mine, Sierra Gorda, Atacama desert, Chile: a triclinic polymorph of Cu2(OH)3Cl. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 187, 307-312.
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Cerritos Bayos
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 467.; Kampf, A.R.; Mills, S.J.; Housley, R.M.; Williams, P.A.; Dini, M. (2012): Alcaparrosaite, K3Ti4+Fe3+(SO4)4O(H2O)2, a new hydrophobic Ti4+ sulfate from Alcaparrosa, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine 76, 851-861; Mereiter, K. (2013): Redetermination of tamarugite, NaAl(SO4)2·6H2O. Acta Crystallogr. E69, i63-i64.
        • Chuquicamata District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 467.
          • Toki Cu deposit (Toki Cluster)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 467: 467.
Dana 7:II:457.
  • Atacama Region
    • Copiapó Province
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 467.
  • Tarapacá Region
    • El Tamarugal Province
      • Pampa del Tamarugal
NJMM (1987), 171; Peter G. Seroka collection
      • Salar Grande
Samples analysed by Anthony Kampf, Curator Emeritus of LAC Mineralogical Museum, California
China
 
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Shanshan Co. (Piqan Co.; Pichan Co.)
        • Kanggur-Xifengshan gold belt
Zhaoxin Han, Lijun Luan, and Chaoyou Wang (2004): Journal of Xi'an University of Science and Technology 24(3), 324-327; Kaiyin Bai and Zhaoxin Han (2007): Northwestern Geology 40(2), 114-117
Cyprus
 
  • Nicosia District (Lefkoşa District; Lefkosia District)
    • Skouriotissa
Dana 7:II: 465,467.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Liberec Region
Scharm, B.: Přehled minerálů nalezených v oblasti uranových koncentrací v severočeské křídě. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1995, roč. 3, s. 169-172.
French West Indies
 
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 467.
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Alsdorf
Analyses Thomas Witzke
    • Ruhr Coal Mining area
      • Bottrop
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
      • Herne
No reference listed
  • Saxony
    • Dresden
      • Freital
Thalheim, K.; Reichel, W. & Witzke, T. (1991): Die Minerale des Döhlener Beckens.- Schriften des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, Nr. 3
Thalheim, K.; Reichel, W. & Witzke, T. (1991): Die Minerale des Döhlener Beckens.- Schriften des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, Nr. 3
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Plaka
          • Plaka Mines
Hanke, H. (1994): Neues aus Lavrion: Eisen-, kupfer- und kobalthaltige Hydro-Sulfate aus dem Revier Plaka. Emser Hefte, 1994 (2); Möckel, S. (2000): Strashimirit und 11 weitere Neubestimmungen aus Lavrion (GR). Lapis 25 (7-8), 74.
  • Macedonia Department
    • Chalkidiki Prefecture
      • Kassandra Peninsula
Lazaridis G., Melfos V., Papadopoulou L. (2011): The first cave occurrence of orpiment (As2S3) from the sulfuric acid caves of Aghia Paraskevi (Kassandra Peninsula, N. Greece). International Journal of Speleology, 40(2), 133-139.
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
    • Borsodi Mts
  • Heves Co.
    • Bükk Mts
ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
    • Mátra Mts
      • Recsk
HOM Collection,2006
Iceland
 
  • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
    • Heimaey island
      • Heimaey
Balić-Žunić, T., Garavelli, A., Acquafredda, P., Leonardsen, E., & Jakobsson, S. P. (2009). Eldfellite, NaFe (SO4) 2, a new fumarolic mineral from Eldfell volcano, Iceland. Mineralogical Magazine, 73(1), 51-57.
Iran
 
  • Yazd Province
    • Saghand (Sagand; Saqand)
Bariand, P., Cesbron, F. & Berthelon, J. P. (1977): Iron sulfates of Saghand near Yazd (Iran). Memoire Hors-Série de la Société Géologique de France 8, 77-85.
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Phlegrean Volcanic complex
      • Naples Province
        • Phlegrean Fields
          • Cape Miseno
B. Onac et al (2009, July) Mineralogical and Stable Isotope Investigations of Minerals from Caves on Cerna Valley (Romania). Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. pp318-323
  • Sardinia
    • Medio Campidano Province
      • Furtei
Da Pelo, S. & Frau, F (2000): Magnesian aubertite, (Cu,Mg)Al(SO4)2Cl·14H4O, from the gold mine of Furtei in Sardinia, Italy. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, 2000(6), 279-288.
  • Sicily
    • Messina Province
      • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
        • Lipari
          • Vulcano Island
            • Porto Levante
LOMBARDI G., SPOSATO A. (1981): Tamarugite from Vulcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy. - Canadian Mineralogist - 19, 403-407.
LOMBARDI G., SPOSATO A. (1981): Tamarugite from Vulcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy. - Canadian Mineralogist - 19, 403-407.
LOMBARDI G., SPOSATO A. (1981): Tamarugite from Vulcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy. - Canadian Mineralogist - 19, 403-407.; B. Onac et al (2009, July) Mineralogical and Stable Isotope Investigations of Minerals from Caves on Cerna Valley (Romania). Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. pp318-323
LOMBARDI G., SPOSATO A. (1981): Tamarugite from Vulcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy. - Canadian Mineralogist - 19, 403-407.
  • Tuscany
    • Siena Province
      • Chiusdino
Mineralogical Record, 15 (1), 27-36.
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Iburi Province
Matsubara, S. et al (2002) Sublimates of Usu Volcano, Hokkaido, Japan (2002 annual meeting of Japanese Association of Mineralogists, Petrologists and Economic Geologists)
  • Kyushu Region
    • Oita prefecture
      • Beppu
Minakawa (1994) Chigaku Kenkyu, 43, 195-199.
Minakawa (1994) Chigaku Kenkyu, 43, 195-199.
New Zealand
 
  • Kermadec Islands
de Ronde, C.E.J.; Hannington, M.D.; Stoffers, P.; Wright, I.C.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Reyes, A.G.; Baker, E.T.; Massoth, G.J.; Lupton, J.E.; Walker, S.L.; Greene, R.R.; Soong, C.W.R.; Ishibashi, J.; Lebon, G.T.; Bray, C.J.; Resing, J.A. 2005 Evolution of a submarine magmatic-hydrothermal system : Brothers volcano, southern Kermadec arc, New Zealand. Economic geology, 100(6): 1097-1133
  • North Island
    • Bay of Plenty
Mackenzie, K, et al, Min Mag Vol 59
    • Waikato
      • Taupo
        • Orakeikorako Thermal Area
Rod Martin, Minerals of Ruatapu Cave, Orakei Korako, Taupo Volcanic Zone. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Pacific Ocean
 
  • Kermadec-Tonga trench
A. G. Reyes, C.E.J. DE Ronde, and C. W. R. Soong (2004) a Submarine Magmatic-hydrothermal System at Brothers Volcano, Kermadecs. Proceedings 26th NZ Geothermal Workshop pp 46-52
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Turoszow
Stepisiewicz, M. (1983): Sideronatrite and copiapite from Turoszow, Lower Silesia. Archiwum Mineralogiczne 38, 35-44 (in Polish).
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
Kruszewski, Ł. (2013). Supergene sulphate minerals from the burning coal mining dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, South Poland. International Journal of Coal Geology, 105, 91-109.
Romania
 
  • Caraş-Severin Co.
    • Cerna valley
Pušcaš, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povarǎ, I. (2005): Tamarugite from Diana Cave (SW Romania) -first true karst occurrence.EGU General Assembly 2012, held 22-27 April, 2012 in Vienna, Austria., p.5305; B. Onac et al (2009, July) Mineralogical and Stable Isotope Investigations of Minerals from Caves on Cerna Valley (Romania). Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. pp318-323
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Cerna valley
Onac, B. P. (2009): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 38/1, 27-39
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Sakhalinskaya Oblast'
      • Kuril Islands
        • Paramushir Island
Bortnikova, S. B., Bessonova, E. P., & Zelenskii, M. E. (2005). Hydrogeochemistry of thermal springs at Ebeco volcano (Kuril Islands). In Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005. Antalia, Turkey, 24-29 April.
Saint Kitts and Nevis
 
  • Nevis
    • Jessup Village
C. Osborne Hutton (1970) Coquimbite from Nevis, West Indies. Mineralogical Magazine 37:939-941
Senegal
 
  • Ziguinchor Region
Montoroi, J. P. (1995) Mise eli évidence d'une séquence de précipitation des sels dails les sols sulfatés acides d'une vallée aménagée de Basse-Casamance (Sénégal). C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 320, série II a, p. 395-402
Spain
 
  • Asturias
    • Gozon
Calvo, M., Viñals, J. & González, J.R. (2007). The presencie of tamarugite in the cliffs of llumeres (Asturias). Mineral Up, 2007-2, 49-52
Switzerland
 
  • Vaud (Waadt)
    • Bex
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 400.
UK
 
  • England
    • Co. Durham
      • Billingham
Mineralogical Magazine 1959 32 : 172-175.
    • Isle of Wight
      • Freshwater
Mineralogical Magazine 1998 62 : 371-372
Ukraine
 
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
      • Balaklava area
Dobrovolskaya T.I., Polkanov Y.A. The Paleovolcano Fiolent. Giude (2004) - Simferopol, 2004, 19 p. (in Russ.) Oleg V. Zinchenko at al. (2008).The mineralogy of seasonal sulfates in the cape Fiolent - Zapiski Ukrainskogo Mineralogichnogo Tovaristva (Proceeding Ukrainian Mineralogical Society), 2008, #5, p. 75-83 (in Ukr.)
    • Simferopol area
      • Petropavlovka Village area
A. Tischenko. Minerals of the Crimea - World of stones, 1996, #9, p. 9-18
USA
 
  • Hawaii
    • Hawaii Co. (Hawaii Island)
Hon, K., Bove, D.J., Lee, L., and Thornber, C., 2009, The origin and zonation of sublimates and precipitates in active Hawaiian lava tubes: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 41, no. 7, p.193.
AmMin 20:537
    • Callaway Co.
      • Fulton
Rocks & Min., March 1998.
    • St. Louis Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 467; Rocks & Minerals: 73(2): 98-117.
  • Utah
    • San Juan Co.
      • White Canyon District
        • Red Canyon
          • Chocolate Drop
J. Plášil, A.R. Kampf, A.V. Kasatkin, J. Marty, R. Škoda, S. Silva, J. Čejka (2013): Meisserite, Na5(UO2)(SO4)3(SO3OH)(H2O), a new uranyl sulfate mineral from the Blue Lizard mine, San Juan County, Utah, USA. Mineral. Mag. 77, 2975-2988
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