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Monte Somma, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Naples Province, Campania, Italy
© Chinellato Matteo
|Name:||Named in 1847 by Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann in honor of the French physicist, mathematician, meteoriticist, astronomer, and mineralogist, Jean Baptiste Biot [April 21, 1774 Paris, France - February 3, 1862 Paris, France], who studied the optical properties of the micas. Biot and his associate, Félix Savart, discovered that an electric current in a wire produced a magnetic field. Biot received many awards in his lifetime in recognition of the value of his scientific researches.|
A series or subgroup of the Mica Group. Biotite-Phlogopite Series is a synonymn.
The CNMMN Subcommittee on Nomenclature of the Micas (1998, 1999) has recommended that the name biotite be used for a series including Phlogopite, Siderophyllite, Annite and Eastonite, and is therefore no longer to be regarded as a species name. Fluorophlogopite and Fluorotetraferriphlogopite should be included. It is most commonly used for the micas on the Fe-rich end of the series, including Annite, Fluorannite, Tetra-ferri-annite and Siderophyllite.
Also used as a generic field term for any dark mica.
Classification of Biotite
|IMA status:||Discredited 1999|
|Explanation of status:||The CNMMN Subcommittee on Nomenclature of the Micas (1998, 1999) has recommended that the name biotite be used for a series including phlogopite, siderophyllite, annite and eastonite, and is therefore no longer to be regarded as a species name.|
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Crystallography of Biotite
About Crystal AtlasThe mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
|X-Ray Powder Diffraction:|
Radiation - Copper Kα
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Relationship of Biotite to other Species
|Member of:||Mica Group|
|Other Members of Group:|
Other Names for Biotite
|Health Warning:||No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.|
References for Biotite
Parry, W.T. and Nackowski, M.P. (1963) Copper, lead, and zinc in biotites from Basin and Range quartz monzonites. Economic Geology: 58: 1126-1144.
Dodge, F.C.W., V.C. Smith & R.E. May (1969), Biotites from the granitic rocks of the central Sierra Nevada batholith: Journal of Petrology: 10: 250-271.
Lovering, T.G., Cooper, J.R., Drewes, H.D., and Cone, G.C. (1970) Copper in biotite from igneous rocks in southern Arizona as an ore indicator. USGS Professional Paper 700-B: 1-8.
Giardini, A.A., Hurst, V.J., Melton, C.E., John, C., and Stormer, J. (1974) Biotite as a primary inclusion in diamond: Its nature and significance American Mineralogist: 59: 783-789.
Kesler, S.E., Issigonis, M.J., Brownlow, A.H., Damon, P.E., Moore, W.J., Northcote, K.E., and Preto, V.A. (1975) Geochemistry of biotites from mineralized and barren intrusive systems. Economic geology: 70: 559-567.
Rehrig, W.A. and McKinney, C.N. (1976) The distribution and origin of anomalous copper in biotite. Mining Engineering: 27, 68 pp.
Ohta, T., Takeda, H., and Takéuchi, Y. (1982) Mica polytypism: similarities in the crystal structures of coexisting 1M and 2M 1 oxybioites. American Mineralogist: 67: 298-310.
Dymek, R.F. (1983) Titanium, aluminium and interlayer cation substitution in biotite from high-grade gneisses, West Greenland. American Mineralogist: 68: 880-899.
Banfield, J.F. and Eggleton, R.A. (1988) Transmission electron microscope study of biotite weathering. Clays and Clay Minerals: 36: 47-60.
Walmsley, J.C. and Lang, A.R. (1992b) Oriented biotite inclusions in diamond coat. Mineralogical Magazine: 56: 108-111.
Nomenclature of the Micas: The Canadian Mineralogist: 36, pp. x-xx (1998)
The Canadian Mineralogist (1998): 36: 905-912.
Li, G., Peacor, D.R., and Essene, E.J. (1998) The formation of sulfides during alteration of biotite to chlorite-corrensite. Clays and Clay Minerals: 46: 649-657.
Ibhi, A. and Nachit, H (2000) The substitution mechanism of Ba and Ti into phyllosilicate phases: the example of barium-titanium biotite. Annals of Chim. Sci. Mat.: 25: 627-634.
Parry, W.T., Wilson, P.N., Moser, D., and Heizler, M.T. (2001) U-Pb dating of zircon and 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite at Bingham, Utah. Economic Geology: 96: 1671-1683.
Internet Links for Biotite
|Specimens:||The following Biotite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.|
Localities for Biotite
The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.