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Beryl

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Formula:
Be
 
3
Al
 
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
System:HexagonalColour:Green, blue, yellow, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Waxy, GreasyHardness:7½ - 8
Member of:Beryl Group
Name:Possibly from the Greek "beryllos" which referred to a number of blue-green stones in antiquity.


May be confused with apatite.

The largest beryl crystal reported was 18 m long and 3.5 m wide from Malakialina, Madagascar, but in the absence of anything more than a personal communication, the report is doubtful.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Beryl. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Beryl

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/E.12-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.CJ.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
C : Cyclosilicates
J : [Si6O18]12- 6-membered single rings (sechser-Einfachringe), without insular complex anions
Dana 8th edition ID:61.1.1.1

61 : CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
1 : Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Hey's CIM Ref.:16.6.1

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
6 : Aluminosilicates of Be
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Occurrences of Beryl

Geological Setting:Commonly found in pegmatites. Red beryl is found in topaz rhyolites.

Physical Properties of Beryl

Lustre:Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Waxy, Greasy
Colour:Green, blue, yellow, white, pink, etc.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):7½ - 8
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Imperfect/Fair
{0001}
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.63 - 2.92 g/cm3

Crystallography of Beryl

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:P6/mcc
Cell Parameters:a = 9.21Å, c = 9.19Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.998
Unit Cell Volume:V 675.10 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Crystal Atlas:
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Beryl no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Beryl no.23 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Beryl no.24 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Beryl no.32 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Beryl no.98 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Beryl - Tabular {001}

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Structure
  Reference
Artioli G Rinaldi R Stahl K Zanazzi P F (1993) Structure refinements of beryl by single-crystal neutron and X-ray diffraction Sample no. 2, aquamarine, probed with neutrons, T = 295 K. American Mineralogist 78:762-768.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
7.98 (90)
4.60 (50)
3.99 (50)
3.25 (100)
3.01 (40)
2.87 (100)
2.52 (30)
1.99 (20)

Optical Data of Beryl

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.568 - 1.602 nε = 1.564 - 1.595
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.004 - 0.007

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate

Chemical Properties of Beryl

Formula:
Be
 
3
Al
 
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
Simplified for copy/paste:Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Essential elements:Al, Be, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, Be, O, Si
Common Impurities:Fe,Mn,Mg,Ca,Cr,Na,Li,Cs,O,H,OH,H2O,K,Rb

Relationship of Beryl to other Species

Member of:Beryl Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Bazzite
Be
 
3
Sc
 
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
Pezzottaite
Cs(Be
 
2
Li)Al
 
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
Stoppaniite
Be
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
) · H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.CJ.05Bazzite
Be
 
3
Sc
 
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
9.CJ.05Indialite
Mg
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
5
O
 
18
)
9.CJ.05Stoppaniite
Be
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
) · H
 
2
O
9.CJ.10Cordierite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
5
O
 
18
)
9.CJ.10Sekaninaite
(Fe,Mg)
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
5
O
 
18
)
9.CJ.15aCombeite
Na
 
2
Ca
 
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
 
0.5
9.CJ.15bImandrite
Na
 
12
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
 
2
9.CJ.15aKazakovite
Na
 
6
Mn
2+
 
Ti(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
9.CJ.15cKoashvite
Na
 
6
(Ca,Mn)(Ti,Fe)Si
 
6
O
 
18
· H
 
2
O
9.CJ.15aLovozerite
Na
 
2
Ca(Zr,Ti)(Si
 
6
O
 
12
)[(OH)
 
4
O
 
2
] · H
 
2
O
9.CJ.15aTisinalite
Na
 
3
H
 
3
(Mn,Ca,Fe)TiSi
 
6
(O,OH)
 
18
· 2H
 
2
O
9.CJ.15aZirsinalite
Na
 
6
(Ca,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Zr(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
9.CJ.15aLitvinskite
Na
 
2
(◻,Na,Mn)ZrSi
 
6
O
 
12
(OH,O)
 
6
9.CJ.15aKapustinite
Na
 
5
(Na,Mn
2+
 
)
 
<1
Zr(H
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
9.CJ.25Baratovite
KCa
 
7
(Ti,Zr)
 
2
Li
 
3
Si
 
12
O
 
36
F
 
2
9.CJ.25Katayamalite
KCa
 
7
Ti
 
2
Li
 
3
Si
 
12
O
 
36
(OH)
 
2
9.CJ.25Aleksandrovite
KCa
 
7
Sn
 
2
Li
 
3
Si
 
12
O
 
36
F
 
2
9.CJ.30Dioptase
CuSiO
 
3
· H
 
2
O
9.CJ.35Kostylevite
K
 
2
Zr(Si
 
3
O
 
9
) · H
 
2
O
9.CJ.40Petarasite
Na
 
5
Zr
 
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(Cl,OH) · 2H
 
2
O
9.CJ.45Gerenite-(Y)
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Y,REE)
 
3
Si
 
6
O
 
18
· 2H
 
2
O
9.CJ.50Odintsovite
K
 
2
Na
 
4
Ca
 
3
Ti
 
2
Be
 
4
Si
 
12
O
 
38
9.CJ.55Mathewrogersite
Pb
 
7
FeAl
 
3
GeSi
 
12
O
 
36
(OH,H
 
2
O)
 
6
9.CJ.60Pezzottaite
Cs(Be
 
2
Li)Al
 
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
16.6.2Euclase
BeAl(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
16.6.3Bavenite
Ca
 
4
Be
 
2
Al
 
2
Si
 
9
O
 
26
(OH)
 
2
16.6.4Aminoffite
Ca
 
2
(Be,Al)(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(H
 
2
O,OH)
16.6.5Milarite
K
 
2
Ca
 
4
Al
 
2
Be
 
4
Si
 
24
O
 
60
· H
 
2
O
16.6.6Lovdarite
K
 
2
Na
 
6
Be
 
4
Si
 
14
O
 
36
•9H
 
2
O
16.6.7Surinamite
(Mg,Fe)
 
3
Al
 
4
BeSi
 
3
O
 
16
16.6.8Ferrotaaffeite-6N'3S
(Be,Zn,Mg)FeAl
 
4
O
 
8

Other Names for Beryl

Synonyms:
BeryliteBerylleBerylls
Other Languages:
Basque:Berilo
Bishnupriya Manipuri:বেরিলো
Bosnian (Latin Script):Beril
Bulgarian:Берил
Croatian:Beril
Czech:Beryl
Dutch:Beryl
Finnish:Berylli
French:Béryl
Galician:Berilo
German:Beryll
Berylit
Hebrew:בריל
Hungarian:Berill
Italian:Berillo
Japanese:緑柱石
Latin:Beryllus
Latvian:Berils
Lithuanian:Berilas
Low Saxon:Beryll
Polish:Beryl
Portuguese:Berilo
Romanian:Beril
Russian:Берилл
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Берил
Simplified Chinese:绿柱石
绿色绿宝石
Slovak:Beryl
Spanish:Berilo
Berylita
Swedish:Beryll
Traditional Chinese:綠柱石
Turkish:Beril
Ukrainian:Берил
Wolof:Beril
Varieties:
AeroidesAlkali-berylAméthiste Basaltine (of Egleston)AquamarineBlue Beryl (Maxixe)
EmeraldGosheniteHeliodorMorganitePachea
RaspberylRed BerylRiesling BerylTrapiche emeraldVorobyevite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Beryl

Reference List:

- +
Scandale, E., Scordari, F., and Zarka, A. (1979a) étude des défauts dans des monocristaux natures de béryl. I. Observations des dislocations. Journal of Applied Crystallography: 12: 70-77.

Scandale, E., Scordari, F., and Zarka, A. (1979b) étude des défauts dans des monocristaux natures de béryl. II. Etude de croissance. Journal of Applied Crystallography: 12: 78-83.

Graziani, G., Lucchesi, S., and Scandale, E. (1990) General and Specific Growth Marks in Pegmatite Beryls. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 17: 379-384.

Scandale, E., Lucchesi, S., and Graziani, G. (1993) Improvements on the growth history reconstruction of a beryl crystal by growth marks. Neues Jahrbuch für Minweralogie Monatshefte: 4: 172-184.

American Mineralogist (1993): 78: 762-768.

Scandale, E. and Lucchesi, S. (2000) Growth and sector zoning in a beryl crystal. European Journal of Mineralogy: 12: 357-366.

H. A. Hänni and M. S. Krzemnicki (2003): Caesium-rich morganite from Afghanistan and Madagascar. Journal of Gemmology, 28, 417-429.

Beryl and Its Color Varieties, Extra Lapis English No. 7.

Mindat.org articles about Beryl

Article entries:
Pre Hibernation CollectingPaul Gilmore
Hopelessly Lost on South Twin Mountain, Rumford, MaineDouglas Watts

Best Localities for Beryl

Best of Species:Beryl

Internet Links for Beryl

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Beryl details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Specimens:The following Beryl specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Beryl

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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