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The Minas do Camaquã, Caçapava do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Last Updated: 24th Nov 2019

By Paulo Cesar Pereira das Neves; Darcson Vieira; Daniel Atencio

The mining district of Minas do Camaquã is located in the south-central portion of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (UTM 6,577,786,000mN; 266,541,000 mE), Caçapava do Sul, South-rio-grandense Shield, Mantiqueira Province, Brazil.
It consists of the Uruguay, São Luiz and Santa Maria mines, whose mineralizations are associated with red bed conglomerates and sandstones deposited in a Neoproterozoic coastal alluvial fan system (FRAGOSO CÉSAR et al., 1985).
These deposits have been mined since 1865 (TONIOLO et al., 2010), operating until 1979, when their explorations also began to operate in the open pit, and the genesis of their mineralizations is a typical epithermal hydrothermal model. Its activities ended in 1996, when from then on its mining potential was revalued.
The district comprises two main deposits: the Minas do Camaquã itself (Uruguay and São Luiz mines, which subsurfacely interconnected) with essentially cupriferous ore, with coarse conglomerate fittings and remobilized philonian ore over the widespread and the Santa Maria deposit, with mineralization essentially based on Pb-Zn with subordinate Ag, with the enclosing sandstone and fine conglomerate being the ore exclusively disseminated.


1. Santa Maria mine

Ankerite, bornite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, covellite, galena, hematite, pyrite, quartz, silver, sphalerite, and stephanite (VEIGEL; DARDENNE, 1990; NEVES, ATENCIO, 2019).

2. Uruguay mine

Albite, antlerite, “apatite”, azurite, baryte, bornite, brochantite, chalcanthite, calcite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, carrolite, chamosite, chlinoclore, chrysocolla, copper, cuprite, digenite, gold, gypsum, hematite, “illite”, kaolinite, malachite, pyrite, quartz, “sericite”, silver, and wittichenite (RIBEIRO, 1978; VEIGEL; DARDENNE, 1990;TROIAN, 2009; TONIOLO et al., 2010; NEVES; ATENCIO, 2019).

3. São Luiz mine

Albite, antlerite, “apatite”, azurite, baryte, bornite, brochantite, calcite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, “chlorite”, copper, cuprite, hematite, malachite, pyrite, quartz, and “sericite” (RIBEIRO, 1978; NEVES; ATENCIO, 2019).

FRAGOSO CÉSAR, A. R. S.;FACCINI, V. F.; PAIM, P. S.; LAVINA, EL. L.; ALTAMIRANDO, J. A. F. Revisão estratigráfica das molassas do Ciclo Brasiliano no Rio Grande do Sul. In: SIMPÓSIO SUL-BRASILEIRO DE GEOLOGIA, 2, Florianópolis, 1985. Anais... Florianópolis, SBG, p. 477-491.
NEVES, P. C. P. das; ATENCIO, D. Enciclopédia dos minerais do Brasil – filossilicatos. ULBRA: Canoas, 2019, pp. 361-362.
RIBEIRO, M. J. Mapa previsional do cobre no Escudo Sul-rio-grandense – nota explicativa, Departamento Nacional da Produção Mineral, Brasília, 1978, 104 pp.
TONIOLO, J. A.; REMUS, M. V. D.; REISCHL, J. L. Depósito de cobre das Minas do Camaquã, Rio Grande do Sul. In: BRITO, R. S. C. de; SILVA, M. da G. da; KUYUMJIAN, R. M. (eds.). Modelos de depósitos de cobre do Brasil e sua resposta ao intemperismo, Brasília: CPRM, 2010, pp. 163-188.
TROIAN, G. C. A cloritização na Mina Uruguai, Minas do Camaquã/RS-Brasil. 2009, 86 pp., Dissertação (Mestrado em Geociências). Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, 2009.
VEIGEL, R.; DARDENNE, M. A. Paragênese e sucessão mineral nas diferentes etapas da evolução da mineralização Cu-Pb-Zn do Distrito de Camaquã – RS. Revista Brasileira de Geociências, p. 55-67, 1990.

Figure I - Uruguay open pit mine, currently filled with water.

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