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Franklin, New Jersey Essentials, Part 2: Localities

Last Updated: 20th Jun 2013

By Stephen Fritz

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The Franklin and Sterling Hill Ore Bodies



[1]

According to Frondel and Baum (1974)[2], the ore deposits, long associated with numerous rare minerals and complex petrology, are actually rather simple in bulk mineralogy. The minerals franklinite, willemite, zincite and calcite dominate the ore units as detailed in the table below.

Ore As Mined

Mineral Franklin Mine % Sterling Mine %
Franklinite 39 33
Willemite 24 16
Zincite <1 1
Tephroite 1
Rhodonite 1
Andradite 1
Calcite 28
Misc. 5


Gangue, or calcium silicate, units differ somewhat between the Franklin and Sterling Hill mines, both in composition and relations to the ore units. The composition of the calcium silicate units at the Franklin Mine are detailed below.

Franklin Mine Calcium Silicate Minerals (Less Franklinite, Willemite, Zincite and Calcite)

Mineral Weight %
Andradite 42
Rhodonite 28
"Feldspars" 13
Hendricksite 4
Pyroxene 4
Hardystonite 5
Fluorite 1
Epidote-Pb (Hancockite) 1
Misc. 2


While collectors often think of the two mines as being almost identical, there are important differences. The Franklin Mine was more economical to operate because of its higher ore grade and internal structure. According to Frondel and Baum (1974), the calcium silicate gangue units may represent interbedded argillaceous - siliceous layers that, while deformed, are often laterally-continuous. Based upon descriptions by Metsger, Tennant and Rodda (1958)[3] (1958), the internal structure of the Sterling Hill Mine contained a core of marble and calcium silicate units surrounded by ore-bearing zones that were thinner and lower grade.

Photographs of the Most Common Minerals in the Ore and Calcium Silicate Bodies

08769940014946346056774.jpg
Franklinite, Franklin Mine
00014550014946346061378.jpg
Willemite and Calcite, Sterling Mine
02214030014962047864194.jpg
Willemite and Calcite, Sterling Mine (Short Wave UV)
09497900014946345996832.jpg
Zincite, Franklin Mine
07360910014970051883812.jpg
Franklinite, Franklin Mine
00014550014946346061378.jpg
Willemite and Calcite, Sterling Mine
02213560014965873429988.jpg
Willemite and Calcite, Sterling Mine (Short Wave UV)
07247790014950247987777.jpg
Zincite, Franklin Mine
04632860014946346062378.jpg
Franklinite, Franklin Mine
07110710014946346068839.jpg
Willemite and Calcite, Sterling Mine
02214030014962047864194.jpg
Willemite and Calcite, Sterling Mine (Short Wave UV)
09497900014946345996832.jpg
Zincite, Franklin Mine
09729540014946346063516.jpg
Tephroite, Sterling Mine
02782530014946346074439.jpg
Rhodonite, Franklin Mine
05570830014946346075485.jpg
Andradite, Franklin Mine
08108980014946346075040.jpg
Bustamite, Hardystonite (deep blue), Calcite (red), Willemite (green) and Clinohedrite (dim orange), Franklin Mine (natural and Short Wave UV)
08199380015038907293644.jpg
Tephroite, Sterling Mine
01390780014984931506224.jpg
Rhodonite, Franklin Mine
05570830014946346075485.jpg
Andradite, Franklin Mine
08108980014946346075040.jpg
Bustamite, Hardystonite (deep blue), Calcite (red), Willemite (green) and Clinohedrite (dim orange), Franklin Mine (natural and Short Wave UV)
00093170014946346082953.jpg
Tephroite, Sterling Mine
02828660014946346088588.jpg
Rhodonite, Franklin Mine
05570830014946346075485.jpg
Andradite, Franklin Mine
05963880014946346089298.jpg
Bustamite, Hardystonite (deep blue), Calcite (red), Willemite (green) and Clinohedrite (dim orange), Franklin Mine (natural and Short Wave UV)



Economic Geology



Early attempts to exploit the ores is described by Shuster (1927)[4] and Dunn (2002)[5]. Continuous commercial production commenced in approximately 1848 as markets for zinc oxide as a pigment were developed, with minor byproduct ferromanganese (spiegeleisen or spiegel) sold as demand warranted. Commencing in the 1880’s, the demand for spiegel -- with widespread adoption of the Bessemer steel process -- increased to the point it became an important byproduct. Production was primarily from the Franklin Mine until it was depleted and closed in 1954; the Sterling Hill Mine, less economical to mine than Franklin, was the sole producer following 1954 and closed in 1986 due to economic conditions.

Early attempts to produce economic products from the deposits failed due to a lack of understanding of the character of the ore minerals. Indeed, zincite was likely early mistaken for cuprite and franklinite was long mistaken for magnetite (early recognized in numerous other local deposits and an important source of iron ore). For instance, William Alexander Lord Stirling (owner of the Sterling Mine property) in the early 1770’s sent sacked “ore” (suspected to be hand-sorted zincite) to a copper smelter in Swansea, Wales, where attempts to smelt it failed. Attempts to smelt franklinite in local smelters also failed, leaving a residue of useless “salamander” in the furnace and fouling the stacks with white powder. The “salamander” was a mix of iron, manganese and zinc oxide while the white powder was zinc oxide. Zinc readily vaporizes and oxidizes to zinc oxide upon heating, leaving the deposits that fouled the furnaces. Once metallurgists understood this phenomenon, they were able to devise a method that captured the zinc oxide for use as a pigment and the residual ferromanganese was sold as spiegel.

Zincite was initially converted to zinc oxide as well; indeed, it was the economically-preferred ore for the process. Once the metallurgy of willemite was understood, it, too, was roasted for zinc oxide. However, as uses for metallic zinc were developed, these two ore minerals were reduced to metallic zinc. The company was able to produce high purity zinc more economically than its competitors because the ore itself is relatively free of objectionable metals and was selectively mined to avoid undesirable minerals. For instance, hardystonite (ideally Ca2Zn(Si2O7)) contains an objectionable amount of lead substituting for calcium. Miners were trained to avoid it where encountered.

Franklin Mine Localities

09594840014946346086105.jpg
Northern Franklin Mining District Detail

Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA

1. Palmer Shaft
2. Parker Shaft
3. Hamburg Mine
4. Trotter Mine
5. Double Rock was the outcrop of a large mass of pegmatite near the Trotter shaft, where abundant large crystals of garnet and pyroxene were found in the adjacent limestone
6. Buckwheat Open Cut
7. Tunnel to the Wallkill River from the Buckwheat Open Cut
8. Buckwheat Mine
9. Franklin Iron Company Quarry

Buckwheat Mine and Open Cut and Taylor Mine and Franklin Mineral Museum


The Buckwheat Mine was originally developed by stripping the overburden from the eastern limb of the ore deposit.  It was later purchased by Moses Taylor of New York City and developed into an underground mining operation with several shafts and winzes extending to several hundred feet deep.  It was mined northward through the Great Dike into an enormous stope several hundred feet long and over 100 feet tall.  Moses Taylor pursued litigation against the New Jersey Zinc Company through the 1860’s and eventually (rather than going to the Supreme Court), the New Jersey Zinc Company consolidated with Taylor’s company with Taylor ending up with a majority of the stock in the resulting company.  Following the 1897 Great Consolidation the company terminated underground operations and commenced mining by surface operations known as the Buckwheat Open Cut.  The marble overlying the ore was stripped away and either sold as crushed stone / furnace flux or returned to deeper levels of the mines for use as stope fill.  The existing Buckwheat Dump is the location some of this mine’s waste material, although much has been removed and other material has been added.  Among the material notable for this dump is the grey, vuggy dolomite (Buckwheat Dolomite) in which well-crystallized secondary vein minerals are encountered.

09955990014946346083554.jpg
Albite, Buckwheat Dolomite, Buckwheat Mine
06078330014946346098296.jpg
Andradite and Rhodonite, Buckwheat Mine
07614910014946346093591.jpg
Calcite, Buckwheat Dolomite, Buckwheat Mine
04630810014972408461112.jpg
Dolomite and Sphalerite, Buckwheat Dolomite, Buckwheat Mine
04406320015018731222454.jpg
Albite, Buckwheat Dolomite, Buckwheat Mine
06078330014946346098296.jpg
Andradite and Rhodonite, Buckwheat Mine
07614910014946346093591.jpg
Calcite, Buckwheat Dolomite, Buckwheat Mine
06428230015270975746308.jpg
Dolomite and Sphalerite, Buckwheat Dolomite, Buckwheat Mine
00919370014946346105156.jpg
Albite, Buckwheat Dolomite, Buckwheat Mine
07762820014946346109693.jpg
Andradite and Rhodonite, Buckwheat Mine
07614910014946346093591.jpg
Calcite, Buckwheat Dolomite, Buckwheat Mine
03057250014946244216193.jpg
Dolomite and Sphalerite, Buckwheat Dolomite, Buckwheat Mine


00241050014946346119663.jpg
Franklinite, Buckwheat Mine
01792240014946346114331.jpg
hardystonite, Willemite and Calcite, Buckwheat Mine
02940580014946346113873.jpg
Hendricksite, Buckwheat Mine
05313020014946346118075.jpg
Sphalerite, Buckwheat Dolomite, Buckwheat Mine
01078370014966525382405.jpg
Franklinite, Buckwheat Mine
00734350014966278185679.jpg
hardystonite, Willemite and Calcite, Buckwheat Mine
00265810014964117227945.jpg
Hendricksite, Buckwheat Mine
06978510014950382128426.jpg
Sphalerite, Buckwheat Dolomite, Buckwheat Mine
00704880014946346131692.jpg
Franklinite, Buckwheat Mine
06279400014962047863964.jpg
hardystonite, Willemite and Calcite, Buckwheat Mine
03605710014946346139853.jpg
Hendricksite, Buckwheat Mine
06407340014946346134418.jpg
Sphalerite, Buckwheat Dolomite, Buckwheat Mine


00873640014946346158710.jpg
Willemite and Calcite, Buckwheat Mine
06170790014946346158799.jpg
Willemite and Franklinite, Buckwheat Mine
00873640014946346158710.jpg
Willemite and Calcite, Buckwheat Mine
06170790014946346158799.jpg
Willemite and Franklinite, Buckwheat Mine
00873640014946346158710.jpg
Willemite and Calcite, Buckwheat Mine
06170790014946346158799.jpg
Willemite and Franklinite, Buckwheat Mine


Southwest Opening


The Southwest opening was a small surface and underground operation located at the southern end of the deposit on the keel of the ore body fold.  It was obliterated by mining the Buckwheat Open Cut.

Weights and Measures Opening


The Weights and Measures Opening was operated in approximately 1835 by Dr. Samuel Fowler -- the first to attempt economic exploitation of the ore body.  Dr. Fowler was then a United States Representative from New Jersey and co-sponsored the bill to establish a set of standard weights and measures to be used throughout the United States.  The bill, perhaps not coincidentally, required the use of American-produced copper and zinc for the standard brass weights; the zinc was obtained from zincite mined at the Opening and the copper from a property owned, perhaps not coincidentally, by a Pennsylvania Representative.  This operation was small and was also obliterated by Buckwheat Open Cut operations.

Trotter Mine and Dump


The Trotter Mine was an inclined shaft developed in the western limb of the ore body north of the Buckwheat Open Cut area.  It operated until the 1880’s, but was not a large operation.  It is notable for sphalerite (otherwise not common at Franklin), pegmatite and recrystallized ore deposit minerals and a mass of nickel arsenides.  The mine was obliterated by later operations, but the dump still exists, although it is on private property and not accessible.

05619960015652070361361.jpg
Nickeline and Fluorite, Trotter Shaft, Franklin Mine" height="355" width="365" >Nickeline and Fluorite, Trotter Shaft, Franklin Mine
09238090014946346155727.jpg
Pimelite on Nickeline, Trotter Shaft, Franklin Mine
05740970015652070377443.jpg
Willemite, Trotter Shaft, Franklin Mine" height="355" width="321" >Willemite, Trotter Shaft, Franklin Mine
05619960015652070361361.jpg
Nickeline and Fluorite, Trotter Shaft, Franklin Mine" height="237" width="244" >Nickeline and Fluorite, Trotter Shaft, Franklin Mine
06552680014970111229214.jpg
Pimelite on Nickeline, Trotter Shaft, Franklin Mine
05740970015652070377443.jpg
Willemite, Trotter Shaft, Franklin Mine" height="237" width="214" >Willemite, Trotter Shaft, Franklin Mine
05619960015652070361361.jpg
Nickeline and Fluorite, Trotter Shaft, Franklin Mine" width="289" >Nickeline and Fluorite, Trotter Shaft, Franklin Mine
09238090014946346155727.jpg
Pimelite on Nickeline, Trotter Shaft, Franklin Mine
05740970015652070377443.jpg
Willemite, Trotter Shaft, Franklin Mine" width="289" >Willemite, Trotter Shaft, Franklin Mine


Hamburg Mine or Hamburg Road Mine


The Hamburg Mine was a small surface operation.  It was known for well-crystallized secondary vein minerals.

Parker Shaft, Mine and Dump


The Parker Shaft and Mine were built in the 1890’s by the Lehigh Zinc and Iron Company of Allentown, Pennsylvania, a competitor of the New Jersey Zinc Company.  It was built to exploit ores just north of the outcrop’s limit and located with the assistance of diamond drilling.  Unfortunately, the drillers did not realize that deep holes drifted westerly in the dipping marble and the resultant shaft location was about 150 feet east of the ore body because they failed to account for the drift.  Once the company had crosscut west to the ore body, exploration and ore development commenced to their property limits.  All waste material from the shaft and mine development was placed on the Parker Dump.  Thus, the material could have come from numerous locations in the mine and precise localities were unknown.  A remarkable suite of minerals was encountered, including native lead and copper, clinohedrite, roeblingite, hancockite, glaucochroite, franklinite, leucophoenicite, cyprine, nasonite, axinite, datolite, willemite in exceptional crystals, barite, rhodonite, garnet, phlogopite, and the extremely rare lead silicates such as roeblingite.  The precise source of the lead silicates was a mystery for many years.  The local name “Parker Shaft Mineral,” when applied to a specimen, has considerable cache for Franklin collectors denoting rarity and/or provenance.

07802710015652070374349.jpg
Barysilite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine" height="202" width="252" >Barysilite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
04104390014946346164390.jpg
Margarosanite, Willemite and Epidote-(Pb) [Hancockite], Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
04501630014946346164178.jpg
Nasonite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
04833720014946346165644.jpg
Xonotlite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
07802710015652070374349.jpg
Barysilite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine" height="134" width="168" >Barysilite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
00307930015533948711508.jpg
Margarosanite, Willemite and Epidote-(Pb) [Hancockite], Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
06586570015014926741339.jpg
Nasonite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
01179760014958170993045.jpg
Xonotlite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
07802710015652070374349.jpg
Barysilite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine" width="287" >Barysilite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
04104390014946346164390.jpg
Margarosanite, Willemite and Epidote-(Pb) [Hancockite], Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
04501630014946346164178.jpg
Nasonite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
06885560014946346167627.jpg
Xonotlite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine


01411720015652070387888.jpg
Roeblingite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine" height="212" width="218" >Roeblingite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
01624700014946346176133.jpg
Charlesite, Clinohedrite and Epidote-(Pb) [Hancockite]
04234310014946346171580.jpg
Native Lead, Native Copper, Celsian and Willemite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
09658960014950336629804.jpg
Willemite, Axinite-(Mn) and Rhodonite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine" height="212" width="249" >Willemite, Axinite-(Mn) and Rhodonite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
01411720015652070387888.jpg
Roeblingite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine" height="141" width="145" >Roeblingite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
07758570015018886067518.jpg
Charlesite, Clinohedrite and Epidote-(Pb) [Hancockite]
04234310014946346171580.jpg
Native Lead, Native Copper, Celsian and Willemite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
09658960014950336629804.jpg
Willemite, Axinite-(Mn) and Rhodonite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine" height="141" width="166" >Willemite, Axinite-(Mn) and Rhodonite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
01411720015652070387888.jpg
Roeblingite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine" width="287" >Roeblingite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
09338190014962047865325.jpg
Charlesite, Clinohedrite and Epidote-(Pb) [Hancockite]
00401150014946346181360.jpg
Native Lead, Native Copper, Celsian and Willemite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine
09658960014950336629804.jpg
Willemite, Axinite-(Mn) and Rhodonite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine" width="287" >Willemite, Axinite-(Mn) and Rhodonite, Parker Shaft, Franklin Mine


Palmer Shaft and Mill Site


The Palmer Shaft was an inclined shaft in the footwall gneiss that was completed in approximately 1909.  Upon completion, all material was hoisted through this opening.  Late in the mine’s history, during supporting shaft pillar removal, a small amount of the lead silicate minerals that had first been encountered more than 50 years earlier during Parker Shaft operations were recovered, mostly by a single miner.  Thus was the mystery of their provenance finally solved, although most of the rare minerals went down the waste chutes.  The Mill Site is where the ore was treated and waste material disposed, including that from the Picking Table where objectionable gangue was hand picked from the ore feed.  During the later 20th century, material was collected from the Mill Site waste dumps, including such rare fluorescent species as margarosanite and esperite.

00901690014946346185135.jpg
Esperite, Palmer Shaft Mill Site, Franklin Mine
04304360014946346181855.jpg
Margarosanite, Palmer Shaft Mill Site, Franklin Mine
05041950015025935023614.jpg
Esperite, Palmer Shaft Mill Site, Franklin Mine
04304360014946346181855.jpg
Margarosanite, Palmer Shaft Mill Site, Franklin Mine
06751580014946346183073.jpg
Esperite, Palmer Shaft Mill Site, Franklin Mine
01052910014946346197087.jpg
Margarosanite, Palmer Shaft Mill Site, Franklin Mine


The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection maintains maps of the Franklin Mine. Trotter and Taylor Mine Workings. Franklin Borough Property Tax Maps.

Sterling Mine Localities


15. East Leg of the Sterling Hill ore body where the pocket containing the largest crystals of franklinite and of Willemite (var. troostite) in the Canfield collection occurred
16. Passaic Mine
17. The Lord Stirling pits were those from which zincite was mined by Lord Stirling about 1772
18. Noble mine
19. Gahnite locality in the wall of the east leg of the Sterling Hill ore body
20. Tunnel into the Noble Pit

Passaic Pit


The Passaic Pit was a surface mine operated for hemimorphite (locally referred to as “maggot ore” due to its habit) and possible minor manganese.  It was located in the saprolite between the two legs of the ore body and the ore obtained primarily from the contact of the overburden with bedrock.  Specimens are well represented on mindat.

03935160014947079331060.jpg
Augite, Passaic Pit" height="167" width="249" >Augite, Passaic Pit
00395210014961054684025.jpg
Chalcophanite, Passaic Pit
06162980015652070386941.jpg
Hemimorphite, Passaic Pit" height="167" width="209" >Hemimorphite, Passaic Pit
04711940014946346191695.jpg
Hydrozincite, Passaic Pit
03935160014947079331060.jpg
Augite, Passaic Pit" height="111" width="166" >Augite, Passaic Pit
00395210014961054684025.jpg
Chalcophanite, Passaic Pit
06162980015652070386941.jpg
Hemimorphite, Passaic Pit" height="111" width="139" >Hemimorphite, Passaic Pit
00905930014965365877157.jpg
Hydrozincite, Passaic Pit
03935160014947079331060.jpg
Augite, Passaic Pit" width="287" >Augite, Passaic Pit
00395210014961054684025.jpg
Chalcophanite, Passaic Pit
06162980015652070386941.jpg
Hemimorphite, Passaic Pit" width="287" >Hemimorphite, Passaic Pit
05810460014946346206009.jpg
Hydrozincite, Passaic Pit


Noble Pit


The Noble Pit was also a surface mine similar to the Noble Mine in minerals and operations.  The hemimorphite from this locality tended to be more iron stained than that from the Passaic Pit.

North Ore Body


The North Ore Body was an administrative designation and not a separate unit.  It was reached through a winze remote from the main shaft.

Mud Zone


The Mud Zone was an area of deep weathering between the two legs of the ore body.  It was never mined, but limited exploration work produced fine hemimorphite specimens.

Sterling Mine and Sterling Hill Mining Museum


The Sterling Hill Mining Museum consists of refurbished and rehabilitated surface structures housing museum exhibits as well as an underground tour.  In addition to original mine workings, a considerable amount of new workings were driven by former miners and highly competent geologists and collectors; the new workings were designed to allow access to scientifically and historically significant parts of the mineral deposit.  There was also considerable collecting in the deeper mine workings prior to flooding, with excellent examples of barite and wollastonite (among other species) collected.

06209370015652070398026.jpg
Friedelite, Sterling Mine" height="201" width="268" >Friedelite, Sterling Mine
07176950015652070391553.jpg
Holdenite, Sterling Mine" height="201" width="268" >Holdenite, Sterling Mine
05389920015652070403324.jpg
Sarkinite, Sterling Mine" height="201" width="247" >Sarkinite, Sterling Mine
09158400015652070401904.jpg
Willemite (var. Troostite), Sterling Mine" height="201" width="180" >Willemite (var. Troostite), Sterling Mine
06209370015652070398026.jpg
Friedelite, Sterling Mine" height="134" width="179" >Friedelite, Sterling Mine
07176950015652070391553.jpg
Holdenite, Sterling Mine" height="134" width="179" >Holdenite, Sterling Mine
05389920015652070403324.jpg
Sarkinite, Sterling Mine" height="134" width="164" >Sarkinite, Sterling Mine
09158400015652070401904.jpg
Willemite (var. Troostite), Sterling Mine" height="134" width="120" >Willemite (var. Troostite), Sterling Mine
06209370015652070398026.jpg
Friedelite, Sterling Mine" width="287" >Friedelite, Sterling Mine
07176950015652070391553.jpg
Holdenite, Sterling Mine" width="287" >Holdenite, Sterling Mine
05389920015652070403324.jpg
Sarkinite, Sterling Mine" width="287" >Sarkinite, Sterling Mine
09158400015652070401904.jpg
Willemite (var. Troostite), Sterling Mine" width="287" >Willemite (var. Troostite), Sterling Mine
01376580014946346224027.jpg
Hemimorphite, Mud Zone, Sterling Mine
01096490015652070413873.jpg
Gahnite, Sterling Mine" height="189" width="201" >Gahnite, Sterling Mine
09279630014977226294264.jpg
Barite, Sterling Mine" height="189" width="187" >Barite, Sterling Mine
03938200015652070414249.jpg
Wollastonite, Sterling Mine" height="189" width="325" >Wollastonite, Sterling Mine
03086780014967366747224.jpg
Hemimorphite, Mud Zone, Sterling Mine
01096490015652070413873.jpg
Gahnite, Sterling Mine" height="126" width="134" >Gahnite, Sterling Mine
09279630014977226294264.jpg
Barite, Sterling Mine" height="126" width="124" >Barite, Sterling Mine
03938200015652070414249.jpg
Wollastonite, Sterling Mine" height="126" width="216" >Wollastonite, Sterling Mine
04179350014962047876144.jpg
Hemimorphite, Mud Zone, Sterling Mine
01096490015652070413873.jpg
Gahnite, Sterling Mine" width="287" >Gahnite, Sterling Mine
09279630014977226294264.jpg
Barite, Sterling Mine" width="287" >Barite, Sterling Mine
03938200015652070414249.jpg
Wollastonite, Sterling Mine" width="287" >Wollastonite, Sterling Mine


The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection maintains maps of the Sterling Mine.

Iron Mines

01727190014946346249454.jpg
Red dots denote Iron Mines

There are numerous iron mines in the New Jersey Highlands. A comprehensive 1910 report may be found here. The mines are generally hosted in Precambrian gneiss, although several in the District are hosted in the Franklin Marble. Those in gneiss are generally tabular and while sometimes there are sharp contacts between magnetite and gneiss, often they are gradational. They were up to 50 feet thick, but most commonly 4 to 20 feet thick.

Numerous iron mines occur within the district, or in close proximity.  There are several immediately south of the Franklin Mine in a linear belt within the Franklin Marble and Cork Hill Gneiss.  These include the Longshore Shaft, Pike’s Peak Mine (Franklin Iron Mine), Furnace Mine, Panic Mine and Gooseberry Mine.

Only the Gooseberry Mine is well represented in collections.

There are several iron mines in proximity to the Sterling Mine.  The Edison Mine is noteworthy as the site where Thomas Edison attempted to exploit low-grade iron ore concentrated by magnetic separation.  The operation failed due to lower cost competition from Mesabi Range iron ores, but the magnetic separator was purchased by the New Jersey Zinc Company, where John Price Wetherill III refined the system to extract franklinite from the ore.



The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection maintains maps of the Edison Mine. Edison Mines Cross Sections. Edison Mines Cross Sections with Drill Holes. Edison Mines Maps

Quarries and Other Localities


10. Franklin Furnace locality. In excavating in limestone for the foundation of the old iron furnace, pockets were found containing corundum, spinel, rutile, marcasite, mica, hornblende, and other minerals, according to Mr. Hancock
11. Furnace Quarry
12. Ball’s Hill Iron Mines
13. Fowler Quarry
14. At this locality were found loose boulders of limestone containing, according to Mr. Canfield, large crystals of phlogopite.
m. Magnetite Mines

According to Palache (1934), minerals in the Franklin Marble (in addition to calcite and dolomite) include amphiboles, mainly tremolite and edenite; pyroxenes, especially diopside and leucaugite; scapolite; green and brown magnesian tourmaline (uvite); and chondrodite and norbergite, graphite, molybdenite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, fluorite, quartz, corundum, hematite, ilmenite, magnetite, spinel, rutile, anorthite, phlogopite, titanite, and apatite. Dunn (1995)[6] also mentions fluoborite.

Dunn (1995) also provides a petrological synopsis, summarized and somewhat reworded here, although the bulk of the text is Dunn's. The Franklin Marble is graphitic throughout its extent, except within 1.5-1.8 meters of the contact with the Franklin ore body. Most of this graphite occurs in thin bands, some of which are deformed; they are usually conformable with other bands in the marble. Irregular bands and irregular blocks of gneissic rocks are common in the Franklin Marble. Accessory minerals are locally abundant in the Franklin Marble, providing lithologic information in part, but also providing a wealth of information on the trace-element and minor-element composition of the marble formation as a whole. The mineral assemblages of the Franklin Marble are little studied; numerous replacement textures are also in need of study. Some species occurring in fine crystals, such as uvite, pyrite, and phlogopite, tend to occur as isolated euhedra with few other associated minerals. Many crystals, particularly of the silicate minerals, are often dull-edged, rounded, and subhedral. Of the numerous assemblages of note within the Franklin Marble, a few of the many treasured by the collector are spinel-chondrodite-calcite, norbergite-pyrrhotite-phlogopite- graphite, and the uncommon margarite-corundum- anorthite assemblage.



Furnace Quarry


This is one of the many marble quarries in the area.  It is best known for pyrite, although it also contains the characteristic Franklin Marble minerals.

08894960014950895509177.jpg
Pyrite, Furnace Quarry" height="699" width="528" >Pyrite, Furnace Quarry
04339690014946346244651.jpg
Tourmaline Group Mineral, Furnace Quarry
08894960014950895509177.jpg
Pyrite, Furnace Quarry" height="467" width="353" >Pyrite, Furnace Quarry
04339690014946346244651.jpg
Tourmaline Group Mineral, Furnace Quarry
08894960014950895509177.jpg
Pyrite, Furnace Quarry" width="291" >Pyrite, Furnace Quarry
04339690014946346244651.jpg
Tourmaline Group Mineral, Furnace Quarry


Fowler Quarry (B. Nicholl Quarry; Nicholl Quarry; Nichol Quarry; Cellate Quarry)


Similar to the Furnace Quarry and best know for pyrite as described in Palache (1935).  It also contains the characteristic Franklin Marble minerals.

Franklin Quarry (Moses Bigelow Quarry; Farber Quarry)


A recently active quarry with the characteristic Franklin Marble minerals.  It is well represented on mindat.

03842700014946346254343.jpg
Corundum, Franklin Quarry
05138990014946346258608.jpg
Fluorborite, Franklin Quarry
06428340014946346252838.jpg
Margarite with Pyrite, Franklin Quarry
02463340015652070435604.jpg
Phlogopite, Franklin Quarry" height="227" width="361" >Phlogopite, Franklin Quarry
03842700014946346254343.jpg
Corundum, Franklin Quarry
05138990014946346258608.jpg
Fluorborite, Franklin Quarry
06428340014946346252838.jpg
Margarite with Pyrite, Franklin Quarry
02463340015652070435604.jpg
Phlogopite, Franklin Quarry" height="151" width="240" >Phlogopite, Franklin Quarry
04699740014946346262372.jpg
Corundum, Franklin Quarry
05138990014946346258608.jpg
Fluorborite, Franklin Quarry
05193990014946346269948.jpg
Margarite with Pyrite, Franklin Quarry
02463340015652070435604.jpg
Phlogopite, Franklin Quarry" width="287" >Phlogopite, Franklin Quarry


05300090015652070447477.jpg
Rutile, Franklin Quarry" height="318" width="256" >Rutile, Franklin Quarry
04410910015652070453308.jpg
Tourmaline Group Mineral, Franklin Quarry" height="318" width="498" >Tourmaline Group Mineral, Franklin Quarry
06824320015652070467645.jpg
Tremolite, Franklin Quarry" height="318" width="213" >Tremolite, Franklin Quarry
05300090015652070447477.jpg
Rutile, Franklin Quarry" height="212" width="171" >Rutile, Franklin Quarry
04410910015652070453308.jpg
Tourmaline Group Mineral, Franklin Quarry" height="212" width="332" >Tourmaline Group Mineral, Franklin Quarry
06824320015652070467645.jpg
Tremolite, Franklin Quarry" height="212" width="142" >Tremolite, Franklin Quarry
05300090015652070447477.jpg
Rutile, Franklin Quarry" width="289" >Rutile, Franklin Quarry
04410910015652070453308.jpg
Tourmaline Group Mineral, Franklin Quarry" width="289" >Tourmaline Group Mineral, Franklin Quarry
06824320015652070467645.jpg
Tremolite, Franklin Quarry" width="289" >Tremolite, Franklin Quarry


Edison-Bodnar Quarry (Rudeville Quarry)


This is one of the many marble quarries in the area.  It is best known for the borate minerals collected in the 1970’s.

02887380015652070489712.jpg
Fluoborite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry" height="206" width="135" >Fluoborite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry
05729300014946346281058.jpg
Fluoborite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry
01392620015652070505589.jpg
Graphite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry" height="206" width="253" >Graphite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry
05906240014947115874597.jpg
Sinhalite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry
02887380015652070489712.jpg
Fluoborite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry" height="137" width="90" >Fluoborite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry
05729300014946346281058.jpg
Fluoborite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry
01392620015652070505589.jpg
Graphite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry" height="137" width="169" >Graphite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry
08657880014962047873024.jpg
Sinhalite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry
02887380015652070489712.jpg
Fluoborite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry" width="287" >Fluoborite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry
05729300014946346281058.jpg
Fluoborite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry
01392620015652070505589.jpg
Graphite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry" width="287" >Graphite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry
05906240014947115874597.jpg
Sinhalite, Edison-Bodnar Quarry


Franklin Iron Company Quarry (Pistol Range Quarry)


This is one of the many marble quarries in the area, but it is not well represented in collections or on mindat.

Sussex Calcite Company Quarry (Munson Quarry, New Jersey Mineral Company Quarry)


This is one of the many marble quarries in the area, but it is not well represented in collections or on mindat.

Limecrest Quarry


This quarry is not in the Franklin Mining District as defined by Dunn, however it is also a Franklin Marble Quarry that has been recently active.  It has been heavily collected over the years and is well represented on mindat.

03740350014977525365681.jpg
Calcite, Limecrest Quarry" height="260" width="181" >Calcite, Limecrest Quarry
01073560015652070512604.jpg
Corundum, Limecrest Quarry" height="260" width="209" >Corundum, Limecrest Quarry
02192970015652070514733.jpg
Graphite in Norbergite, Limecrest Quarry" height="260" width="354" >Graphite in Norbergite, Limecrest Quarry
07328140014946963615778.jpg
Norbergite, Limecrest Quarry" height="260" width="219" >Norbergite, Limecrest Quarry
03740350014977525365681.jpg
Calcite, Limecrest Quarry" height="173" width="121" >Calcite, Limecrest Quarry
01073560015652070512604.jpg
Corundum, Limecrest Quarry" height="173" width="139" >Corundum, Limecrest Quarry
02192970015652070514733.jpg
Graphite in Norbergite, Limecrest Quarry" height="173" width="236" >Graphite in Norbergite, Limecrest Quarry
07328140014946963615778.jpg
Norbergite, Limecrest Quarry" height="173" width="146" >Norbergite, Limecrest Quarry
03740350014977525365681.jpg
Calcite, Limecrest Quarry" width="287" >Calcite, Limecrest Quarry
01073560015652070512604.jpg
Corundum, Limecrest Quarry" width="287" >Corundum, Limecrest Quarry
02192970015652070514733.jpg
Graphite in Norbergite, Limecrest Quarry" width="287" >Graphite in Norbergite, Limecrest Quarry
07328140014946963615778.jpg
Norbergite, Limecrest Quarry" width="287" >Norbergite, Limecrest Quarry


07262500014946346298663.jpg
Phlogopite and Diopside (natural and SW UV), Limecrest Quarry
08805040014946346298707.jpg
Pyrite, Limecrest Quarry
04181600015652070512980.jpg
Rutile, Limecrest Quarry" height="197" width="195" >Rutile, Limecrest Quarry
05170660015652070512708.jpg
Spinel, Limecrest Quarry" height="197" width="156" >Spinel, Limecrest Quarry
07262500014946346298663.jpg
Phlogopite and Diopside (natural and SW UV), Limecrest Quarry
09344920014954218458768.jpg
Pyrite, Limecrest Quarry
04181600015652070512980.jpg
Rutile, Limecrest Quarry" height="131" width="130" >Rutile, Limecrest Quarry
05170660015652070512708.jpg
Spinel, Limecrest Quarry" height="131" width="104" >Spinel, Limecrest Quarry
07262500014946346298663.jpg
Phlogopite and Diopside (natural and SW UV), Limecrest Quarry
08805040014946346298707.jpg
Pyrite, Limecrest Quarry
04181600015652070512980.jpg
Rutile, Limecrest Quarry" width="287" >Rutile, Limecrest Quarry
05170660015652070512708.jpg
Spinel, Limecrest Quarry" width="287" >Spinel, Limecrest Quarry


Table of Linked Illustrations



Linked Illustrations

Number Description
1 Geologic Map of the Franklin Mining District (Palache 1934)
2 Cross Section of the Keel of the Franklin Ore Body at 1000S (Frondel and Baum 1974)
3 Generalized Plan of the Sterling Ore Body (Metsger 1958)
4 Mindat.org Franklin Mine Locality Page
5 Geologic Map of the Franklin Mine Vicinity (Palache 1934)
6 Mindat Buckwheat Mine and Open Pit Locality Page
7 Mindat Taylor Mine Locality Page
8 Franklin Mineral Museum Home Page
9 Buckwheat Open Pit Minerals
10 Mindat Southwest Opening Locality Page
11 Mindat Weights and Measures Opening Locality Page
12 Mindat Trotter Mine Locality Page
13 Mindat Hamburg Mine Locality Page
14 Mindat Parker Shaft and Dump Locality Page
15 Minerals of the Parker Shaft and Dump
16 Mindat Palmer Shaft and Mill Site Locality Page
17 New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Map of the Franklin Mine
18 New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Maps of the Trotter and Taylor Mines
19 New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Franklin Mine Borough Tax Maps
20 Mindat Sterling Mine Locality Page
21 Geologic Map of the Sterling Mine Vicinity (Palache 1934)
22 Mindat Passaic Pit Locality Page
23 Passaic Pit Minerals
24 Mindat Noble Pit Locality Page
25 Sterling Hill Mining Museum Home Page
26 Northern New Jersey Iron Mines
27 Mindat Longshore Mine Locality Page
28 Mindat Pike's Peak Mine Locality Page
29 Mindat Furnace Mine Locality Page
30 Mindat Panic Mine Locality Page
31 Mindat Gooseberry Mine Locality Page
32 Gooseberry Mine Minerals
33 Mindat Edison Mine Locality Page
34 New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Edison Mine Cross Sections
35 New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Edison Mine Cross Sections with Drill Holes
36 New Jersey Department of Enviornmental Protection Edison Mine Maps
37 Geologic Map of the Quarries south of the Franklin Mine (Palache 1934)
38 Mindat Furnace Quarry Locality Page
39 Furnace Quarry Minerals
40 Mindat Fowler Quarry Locality Page
41 Fowler Quarry Minerals
42 Mindat Franklin Quarry Locality Page
43 Franklin Quarry Minerals
44 Mindat Edison-Bodnar Quarry Locality Page
45 Edison-Bodnar Quarry Minerals
46 Mindat Franklin Iron Company (Pistol Range) Quarry Locality Page
47 Mindat Sussex Calcite Company Locality Page
48 Mindat Limecrest Quarry Locality Page
49 Limecrest Quarry Minerals

Footnotes

1.Palache, Charles, The Minerals of Franklin and Sterling Hill, Sussex County, New Jersey, U.S.G.S. Professional Paper 180, 19352.Frondel, C., and Baum, J.L., 1974, Structure and mineralogy of the Franklin zinc-iron-manganese deposit, New Jersey: Economic Geology, v. 69, p. 157–180)3.R. W Metsger, C. B Tennant and J. L Rodda, Geochemistry of the Sterling Hill Zinc Deposit, Sussex County, New Jersey Geological Society of America Bulletin,June 1958, v. 69, no. 6, p. 775-7884.Shuster, E.D., Historical Notes on the Iron and Zinc Mining Industry in Sussex County, New Jersey, 19275.Dunn, P. J., Mine Hill in Franklin and Sterling Hill in Ogdensburg, Sussex County, New Jersey - Mining History, 1765-1900. Final Report - Part One, Volumes 1-7: Privately printed, 200, 1102 pp.
6.Dunn, P. J., Franklin and Sterling Hill, New Jersey: The World’s Most Magnificent Mineral Deposits, 1995




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