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List of minerals found in the Larvik Plutonic Complex

Last Updated: 13th Aug 2017

By Knut Edvard Larsen

The Langesundsfjorden area or more precisely the Larvik plutonic complex, in the south-eastern part of Norway, are among the famous alkaline provinces worldwide, beside the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex (Greenland), the Khibina and Lovozero alkaline massifs (Russia) and Mont Saint-Hilaire (Canada). A large number of syenite pegmatites occur within the Larvik plutonic complex (LPC) and the large number of minerals found here during more than 200 years of mineral history has made this area famous (Brøgger 1890, Larsen et al. 2010).

To-date (2017) a total of 29 mineral species for which the different localities in the complex are type localities are described and still valid (including pyrochlore sensu lato).

Exactly how many valid mineral species have been found in these pegmatites is a question often heard among collectors and mineralogist interested in this area. This question is not always easy answered as one problem is that there are no current updated official list available.

Of course, several systematic lists of the minerals found in the pegmatites of the Larvik plutonic complex, southeastern Norway has been published during the years. The latest official list was published in: Larsen, A. O. et al. (2010) The Langesundsfjord. History, Geology, Pegmatites, Minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp.

Since the publication of that book, new species have been found and some have also been descredited. As with all lists in a printed book, the list is now already out of date. Non-static list, such as those in Mindat are easier to keep updated. But due to the fact that the Larvik plutonic complex (LPC) covers an area that is divided by two counties, Telemark and Vestfold counties and 6 different municipalities, the hierarchical structure in Mindat will not be able to supply a complete list for the minerals found in the LPC. Thus, the following list is made as a service to the collector community.

Only valid and verified mineral species that have been published are listed below:
Any comments are welcomed and appreciated.

X= Minerals described in Larsen et al. (2010)

Mineral Group Type locality-first described Reference-Commmetaries
Actinolite Amphibole supergroupX
AegirinePyroxene group Låven Berzelius (1835) X
Aegirine-augitePyroxene groupX
Aenigmatite Aenigmatite groupX
AlbiteFeldspar groupX
Alflarsenite Zeolite group Tuften Quarry Raade et al. (2009)X
Allanite-(Ce) Allanite groupX
Amesite Kaolinite-serpentine groupX
Analcime Zeolite group X
Anatase X
Ancylite-(Ce) Ancylite groupX
Andradite Garnet structural groupX
Anglesite X
Ankerite Dolomite groupX
Annite Mica groupX
Aragonite Aragonite groupX
Arfvedsonite Amphibole supergroupX
Arseniosiderite Mitridatite groupSelbekk et al. (2010)
Arsenopyrite Arsenopyrite groupX
Astrophyllite Astrophyllite group Låven Weibye (1848); Scheerer (1854)X
Augite Pyroxene group Piilonen et al. (2013b)
Baddeleyite X
Barylite X
Bastnäsite-(Ce) Bastnäsite groupX
Bastnäsite-(La) Bastnäsite groupKolitsch et al. (2010)
Bavenite X
Behoite X
Berborite X
Bertrandite X
Böhmite X
Bornite X
Brookite Larsen (2013)
Britholite-(Ce) Britholite groupX
Bromellite X
BurpaliteWöhlerite group Friis et al. (2010)
Calcioancylite-(Ce) Ancylite groupX
Calciohilairite Larsen (2015)
Calcite Calcite groupX
Cancrinite Cancrinite group X
Cappelenite-(Y) Natrolittodden Brøgger(1884)X
Catapleiite Låven Weibye (1850)X
Cassiterite Rutile group Kolitsch et al. (2010)
Cerussite Aragonite groupX
Chalcopyrite Chalcopyrite groupX
Chamosite Chlorite groupX
Chevkinite-(Ce) Chevkinite groupX
Chiavennite Zeolite groupX
Chromatite ? Piilonen et al. (2012) Larsen (2013)
Chrysoberyl Spinel groupX
Chrysocolla X
Clinozoisite Clinozoisite groupX
Columbite-(Fe) Columbite groupX
Dalyite? Dalyite group Andersen et al. (2012)
Datolite Gadolinite groupX
Diaspore Diaspore groupX
Digenite X
Diopside Pyroxene groupBrøgger (1890) Piilonen et al. (2013b)
Edenite Amphibole supergroup Larsen (1998)
Eirikite Leifite group Vesle Arøya Larsen et al. (2010)X
Elpidite X
Ephesite Mica group X
Epididymite X
Epidote Clinozoisite groupX
Eudialyte Eudialyte groupX
Eudidymite Lille Arøya Brøgger (1887) X
Fayalite Olivine groupX
Fergusonite-(Y) Fergusonite group X
Ferrimolybdite X
Ferri-fluoro-leakeite Amphibole supergroup Oberti et al. (2014)
Ferri-nybøite Amphibole supergroup Piilonen et al. (2013b)
Ferro-edenite Amphibole supergroup X
Ferro-ferri-nybøite Amphibole supergroup Piilonen et al. (2013b)
Ferrochiavennite Zeolite group Blåfjell & A/S Granit Q Grice et al. (2013)
FerrokentbrooksiteEudialyte group X
Ferro-pargasite Amphibole supergroup Piilonen et al. (2013b)
Ferro-richterite Amphibole supergroup Piilonen et al. (2013b)
Fluorapatite Apatite group X
Fluorapophyllite-(K) Apophyllite group X
Fluorcalciopyrochlore Pyrochlore group Piilonen et al. (2013a)
Fluorite X
Fluoro-richterite Amphibole supergroup Oberti et al. (2015)
Gadolinite-(Ce) Gadolinite group X
Gaidonnayite X
Galena Galena group X
Genthelvite Helvite group X
Gibbsite X
Goethite X
Gonnardite Zeolite group X
Gonyerite Chlorite group X
Graphite X
Grenmarite Seidozerite supergroup Natrolittodden Belezza et al. (2004) X
Grossular Garnet strutural group X
Gypsum X
Hainite-(Y) Seidozerite supergroup X
HalloysiteKaolinite-serpentine group X
Hambergite Salbutangen Brøgger (1890) X
Hansesmarkite A/S Granit Q Friis et al. (2016)
Hastingsite Amphibole supergroup X
Hedenbergite Pyroxene group Piilonen et al. (2013b)
Helvite Helvite group X
HematiteHematite group X
Heulandite-CaZeolite groupX
Heulandite-KZeolite groupX
HeyerdahliteAstrophyllite supergroupBratthagen I Sokolova et al. (2017)
Hilairite X
Hingganite-(Ce) Gadolinite groupX
Hingganite-(Y) Gadolinite group X
Hiortdahlite I Cuspidine group Langodden Brøgger (1890) X
Homilite Gadolinite groupStokkøya Paijikull (1876)X
Hydroxylgugiaite Mellilite group Larsen (2013) CNMNC Newsletter No. 31 (2016)
IlmeniteIlmenite groupX
Karibibite Larsen (2013)
Katophorite Amphibole supergroup X
Kochite ? Seidozerite supergroup Andersen et al. (2012)
Kupletskite Astrophyllite group X
Låvenite Wöhlerite group Låven Brøgger (1885) X
LeadAndresen (2013)
LeucophaniteLåven Erdmann (1840) X
LöllingiteLöllingite groupX
Loparite-(Ce)Perovskite groupX
Luinaite-(OH) Tourmaline group Kolitsch et al. (2013)
Magnesio-hastingsite Amphibole supergroupX
MagnetiteSpinel group X
Malachite X
Melanocerite-(Ce) Kjeøya Brøgger (1887)X
Meliphanite Langesundsfjorden og Stavern Scheerer (1852) X
Micheelsenite Ettringite group Berge (2011)
Microcline Feldspar group Stavern Breithaupt (1830) X
MilariteOsumilite groupX
Mimetite Apatite group X
Monazite-(Ce)Monazite groupX
Montmorillonite Smectite group X
Mosandrite-(Ce)Seidozerite supergroup Låven Erdmann (1840)X
Muscovite Mica groupX
Natrolite Zeolite group X
Neotocite X
Nepheline X
Nordenskïoldine Arøya Brøgger (1890) X
Nordstrandite X
Opal X
Oxycalciopyrochlore Chukanov (2014)
ParanatroliteZeolite groupX
PargasitePiilonen et al. (2013)
Perovskite Perovskite groupX
Perrierite-(La)Chevkinite groupX
Peterandresenite A/S Granit Q. Friis et al. (2014)
PharmacosideritePharmacosiderite group X
Philipsbornite Alunite supergroup Larsen (2013)
Phlogopite Mica groupx
Polylithionite Mica groupX
Pyrrhotite Pyrrhotite groupEldjarn (1983) Larsen (2013)
Pyrite Pyrite groupX
Pyrochlore group Stavern (Wöhler 1826)
Pyrophanite Ilmenite groupX
Rhabdophane group Piilonen et al. 2013b
Rhodochrosite Calcite groupX
Riebeckite Amphibole supergroup X
Rinkite-(Ce) Seidozerite supergroup Larsen & Muriel (2010)
Rosenbuschite Seidozerite supergroup Skudesundskjær Brøgger (1887)X
Rutile X
Schorl Tourmaline group X
Scorodite Variscite group X
Senaite Chrichtonite group X
Sérandite Wollastonite group X
Siderite Calcite group X
Sodalite Sodalite groupX
Sphaerobertrandite Tuften Pekov et al. (2003) X
Sphalerite Sphalerite groupX
Stilbite-Ca Zeolite groupX
Stillwellite-(Ce) X
StilpnomelaneStilpnomelane groupX
Sulphur X
SurkhobiteJinshajiangite group Kristiansen (2013)
SveinbergeiteAstrophyllite supergroup Khomyakov et al.(2011)
Taramite Amphibole supergroup Piilonen et al. (2012)
Tainiolite Mica groupX
Tetrahedrite Tetrahedrite group X
Tetrawickmanite Stottite groupX
Thomsonite-Ca Zeolite groupX
Thorite Løvøya Berzelius (1829)X
Tobermorite Tobermorite groupX
Tritomite-(Ce)Britholite group Låven Weibye (1850)X
Tvedalite Zeolite group Vevja Q. Larsen et al. (1992) X
Wickmanite Schoenfliesite groupX
Wöhlerite Wohlerite group Løvøya Scheerer (1843)X
Wulfenite X
Xenotime-(Y) Xenotime group X
YukoniteLarsen (2013)
ZektzeriteTuhualite group Larsen & Kolitsch (2013)
Zirconolite X
Zirsilite-(Ce)Eudialyte groupX

A total of 224 minerals and 2 mineral groups (status pr. 27.02.2017).
3 are marked with a "?". Chromatite is marked by an ?, because it may be a contamination from machinery used during the construction of the water tunnel which the dump material the analyzed sample originates from. The two others are mentioned in litterature but without analytical data.

My sincerest thanks especially to Svein Arne Berge for his constructicve comments that helped to improve the manuscript.

Andersen, T., Erambert, M., Larsen, A.O. & Selbekk, R. S. (2012) Petrology of nepheline syenite pegmatites in the Oslo Rift, Norway: Zr and Ti mineral assemblages in miaskitic and agpaitic pegmatites in the Larvik Plutonic Complex. Mineralogia Polonica. 43 (2),3- 34.

Andresen, P. (2013) Gedigent bly og andre spennende mineraler fra en unik pegmatitt i Tvedalen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 50: 83-87.

Berge, S. A. (2011) Micheelsenitt-et nytt mineral for Norge. Stein. 8 (2): 12-13.

Chukanov, N.V. (2014) Infrared spectra of mineral species. Extended library. Springer, Dordrecht 2014., p.434.

Eldjarn, K. (1983) Mineraler fra Syenitt-Pegmatitter i Langesundsfjordområdet. NAGS-Nytt. 10 (2): 4-41.

Friis, H., Balić Žunić, T., Williams, T., Petersen, O. V. (2010) Minerals of the låvenite group from South Greenland and Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseet Skrift. 43: 35-39.

Friis, H., Larsen, A.O., Kampf, A.R., Evans, R.J., Selbekk, R.S., Aranda Sanchez, A., Kihle, J. (2014) Peterandresenite, Mn4Nb6O19·14H2O, a new mineral containing the Lindqvist ion from a syenite pegmatite of the Larvik Plutonic Complex, southern Norway. European Journal of Mineralogy. 26: 567-576.

Friis, H., Weller, M.T., Kampf, A.R. (2016) Hansesmarkite, Ca2Mn2Nb6O19·20H2O, a new hexaniobate from a syenite pegmatite in the Larvik Plutonic Complex, southern Norway. Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 543-554.

Khomyakov, A.P., Cámara, F., Sokolova, E.,Abdu, Y. & Hawthorne, F.C. (2011) Sveinbergeite, Ca(Fe6 2+6 Fe3+)Ti2(Si4O12)2O2(OH)5(H2O)4, a new astrophyllite-group mineral from the Larvik Plutonic Complex, Oslo Region, Norway: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine. 75(5): 2687–2702.

Kolitsch, U., Andresen, P., Husdal, T. A., Ertl, A., Haugen, A., Ellingsen, H. V. and Larsen, A. O. (2013): Tourmaline-group minerals from Norway, part II: Occurrences of luinaite-(OH) in Tvedalen, Larvik and Porsgrunn, and fluor-liddicoatite, fluor-elbaite and fluor-schorl at Ågskardet, Nordland. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 50: 23-41.

Kristiansen, R. (2013) Surkhobitt fra Bratthagen i Lågendalen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 50: 89-92.

Larsen, A. O.(1998) Revisjon av nomenklatur for de sorte amfibolene fra Oslofeltets syenittpegmatitter. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 14:9.

Larsen, A. O. (2013) Contributions to the mineralogy of the syenite pegmatites in the Larvik Plutonic complex. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 50: 101-109.

Larsen, A. O. & Erambert, Muriel (2010) Mosandritt og rinkitt fra nefelinsyenittpegmatitter i Langesundsfjordområdet. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 43: 95-102.

Larsen, K. E. (2015) Noen funn av mineraler i Norge 2013-2015. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015: 79-88.

Larsen, K. E. & Kolitsch, U. (2012) An unique mineral suite in a syenite pegmatite at Virikkollen, Sandefjord, Larvik Plutonic Complex, Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 49: 35-44.

Oberti, R., Boiocchi, M., Hawthorne, F.C., Kristiansen, R. (2014) Ferri-fluoro-leakeite: a second occurrence at Bratthagen (Norway), with new data on Zn partitioning and the oxo component in Na amphiboles. Mineralogical Magazine. 78: 861-869.

Oberti, R., Boiocchi,M.,Hawthorne, F. C., Cámara, F., Ciriotti, M. C. and Berge, S. A. (2015): Ti-Rich fluoro-richterite from Kariåsen (Norway): the oxo-component and the use of Ti4+ as a proxy. Canadian Mineralogist. 53:285-294.

Pekov, I.V., Chukanov, N. V., Larsen, A.O., Merlino, S.,Pasero, M., Pushcharovsky, D.Y., Ivaldi, G., Zadov, A.E., Grishin, V. G., Åsheim, A., Taftø, J. & Chistyakova, N.I. (2003) Sphaerobertrandite, Be3SiO4(OH)2: new data, crystal structure and genesis. European Journal of Mineralogy. 15: 157-166.

Piilonen, P.C., McDonald, A.M., Poirier, G., Rowe, R. & Larsen, A.O. (2012) The mineralogy and crystal chemistry of alkaline pegmatites in the Larvik Plutonic Complex, Oslo rift valley, Norway. Part 1. Magmatic and secondary zircon: implications for petrogenesis from trace-element geochemistry. Mineralogical Magazine. 76: 649-672.

Piilonen, P.C., Poirier, G., Rowe, R. & Larsen, A.O. (2013a) Pyrochlore supergroup minerals from the alkaline pegmatites in the Larvik Plutonic Complex, southern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 50: 63-82.

Piilonen, P.C., McDonald, A.M., Poirier, G., Rowe, R. & Larsen, A.O. (2013b) Mafic minerals of the alkaline pegmatites in the Larvik plutonic complex, Oslo rift, southern Norway. Canadian Mineralogist. 51: 735-770

Selbekk, R. S., Husdal, T. A. & Berg, H.-J. (2010) Nye mineraler for Norge i 2010. Stein 37 (4): 24-26

Sokolova, E., Day, M.C., Hawthorne, F.C. and Kristiansen, R. (2017) Heyerdahlite, IMA 2016-108. CNMNC Newsletter No. 36, April 2017, page 407; Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 403–409.

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