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A Compilation of some Broken Hill mineral collections

Last Updated: 30th Jan 2020

By Peter Andersen

INTRODUCTION
The Mines of Broken Hill are known world wide to be a source of well crystallised minerals that are both colourful and rare. Because the main Broken Hill lode was a treasure trove of fine specimens of well crystallised and colourful mineral specimens then it is no wonder that the workers that came to work in the mines and the Broken Hill residents themselves became mineral collectors. They had a real jewel box to play with as multitudes of crystallised minerals came forth from the various mines that were established to work the marvellous mineral wealth that was the main Broken Hill lode. Not only was there fantastic crystallised examples of both rare and common mineral specimens coming forth from the main lode but there were also well crystallised mineral specimens being found in other mines, quarries and localities in a 100 kilometre radius around the main Broken Hill township. Places in the Broken Hill district with names such as Silverton, Thackaringa, Eurowie, Corona Station and Purnamoota were all capable of producing their share of collector quality minerals and rare species.

This article is a brief summary of just some of these very numerous mineral collections that were assembled by the Broken Hill residents and any of the workers that came to Broken Hill to work in the many mines that used to mine the mineral wealth of this district. This wealth of well crystallised mineral specimens that were available back then is exemplified by the fact that between the period of 1893 through to 1905 around 140 mineral specimen collections were sold by auction in the district and the details of these auctions were advertised in the local paper of that time period. These auctions occurred because residents that were leaving the district did not wish to take their collections with them as the cost of transporting goods was quite high. What is unknown is the number of collections of that era that were disposed by other means, one of which was just taking the entire mineral collection to the local rubbish tip and just dumping them there to be re buried as land fill.

To give you some idea as to the nature of these collections that existed back then, I have quoted below portions of John Rankin’s small article on ‘Broken Hill mineral collections sold in the early days’ that appeared in the June 2005 issue of the Australian Journal of Mineralogy:
“The mineral auction sales were conducted by sixteen different auctioneers, with John Souter the most active. The year 1896 was the busiest year when 26 mineral collections were auctioned. It should be pointed out that the majority of auctioned collections were owned by the more well-to-do-person who generally was not a miner. Usually advertised collections were part of a large estate and were sold with the other house contents on site. These advertisements showed the dining room as the most popular place for people to display their collection (a bit different to today!).

Highlights of those sales follow. The year 1893 started in January with the sale of ‘Three specimen cases, a choice collection’ (no name of the vendor). The following year, 1984 saw Kenny the Barberand Tobacconist sell ‘a case of minerals (from his shop) and Mr Delbridge left for Coolgardie after selling his ‘Splendid collection of Specimens and case’. In February 1895, John M. Stephens auctioned the mineral collection of two Block 14 Mine staff, the Accountant (Rodda) and the Assayer (Harris). In the same year Doolette, the photographer, sold his ‘specimens and case’. The year 1896 saw the sale of Mr Bridle’s ‘Glass case with capital Collection of Specimens’ in his dining room and Mr McAllister sold his ‘Very Handsome inlaid specimen case and choice specimens’. 1897 saw Mr Giesecke sell his ‘Magnificent lot of specimens and case(very large)’. In 1898 Mr Clarke sold a ‘Splendid case of specimens including opals and silver buttons’. 1899 saw Mr Milbourne sell his ‘Splendid specimen case and very choice specimens (a good lot)’. William Greenslade, a canvasser, sold his six room house along with a ‘Specimen case with choice collection of specimens’ in the dining room in November,1900.

In March 1901 the Block 14 Mine accountant, Duncan Mclaren died unexpectedly of illness at age 42. Six days later his ‘Specimen case with stand and specimens (a rare lot)’ were sold. This quick sale would be unseemly hasty today. I suspect the wife and children had no attachment to Broken Hill and wanted to depart as soon as possible.

In August of the same year, Dominic O’Connor of Shaw and Co., Jewellers, sold his six-room house and contents including a ‘Specimen Chest with 12 drawers of mineral specimens’ in the dining room. During 1903, S. Prior, the Editor of the Barrier Miner, sold his seven-room house and contents including a ‘Cedar specimen case and fine collection of Specimens’ housed in the No 2 bedroom. The same year Sam Mayne, the underground Manager for the South Mine, sold his ‘First class Cedar specimen case with specimens and table’ in the drawing room. By the end of the next year the sale of mineral collections by auction had virtually ceased” (Rankin, 2005).

As can be seen by the nature of these mineral collection disposals, mineral collecting was very much functioning as an activity back in those early days with the majority of specimens in those early mineral cabinets consisting of the very colourful species that were available from the extensive oxidised zone of Broken Hill. These mineral collections would have contained the exquisitely crystallised specimens of anglesite, azurite, cerussite, chlorargyrite, copper, linarite, pyromorphite, silver, smithsonite, stolzite, etc. that were abundantly available back then. A lot of the mineral collections assembled back then did end up being thrown out, as did quite a number assembled since those glory days. One can only wonder as to where the majority of specimens are these days that were once present in all of these collections that were sold rather than being tossed out and even as to whether they have managed to survive the ravages of time until this day now.

The listing of collections below are only those that the author knows about and is thus only a small sampling of all of the mineral collections that were once assembled by the residents of Broken Hill since its existence as a major mining centre.

THE BROKEN HILL MINERAL COLLECTORS AND THEIR MINERAL COLLECTIONS

Albert Kersten Geocentre. The Albert Kersten Geocentre was established in Broken Hill in 1993 by the Broken Hill City Council as an institution to preserve the heritage of Broken Hill and to educate the public about the geosciences with special reference to Broken Hill. It contains a major mineral collection that incorporates all the mineral collections that the Broken Hill City Council had accumulated over the years so as to keep them in Broken Hill. These included the mineral collections of the Mine Managers Association (donated in 1988), Max Vincent (purchased in 1988), Roy Waldron (purchased in 1983) and part of the Arthur “Flossie” Campbell mineral collection (purchased in the early 1960’s). Some of the better specimens from this collection were illustrated in the 1999 edition of The Minerals of Broken Hill and these were alabandite (page 95), anglesite on cerussite (page 99), cerussite (page 126), rhodochrosite (page 213), rhodonite (page 218), sphalerite (page 237), stibnite (page 239) and stolzite (page 240).

Aldridge, E.W. Edward Aldridge was once the owners of the Duke of Cornwall and Grand Hotels and he assembled a collection of mainly oxidised mineral specimens that was reputed to number around 5000 specimens although at the time of its dispersal there was only half that number of specimens present. It was purchased in 1912 by the industrialist, Sir Hugh Dixon, for the sum of 7500 pounds and dispersed to four Sydney Institutions and the New South Wales Government: The Geology School of the University of Sydney received half of this collection and retained around 1240 specimens; the Australian Museum received 125 specimens; the Technological Museum (now Powerhouse Museum) received 92 specimens; the Mining Museum (now the former Earth Exchange Museum which has since closed) received 19 specimens; and the New South Wales Government received 508 specimens for exhibition purposes that appear to have been sent to London and are now part of the British Museum of Natural History’s mineral collection.

Alfonsi, D. Dominic Alfonsi has a very good mineral collection of Broken Hill and other specimens, the bulk of which was his late mother’s mineral collection that he inherited upon her death.

Alfonsi, T. Tess Alfonsi was once the owner and operator of the Triple Chance Mine at Thackaringa. Her mineral collection has excellent representatives of the various minerals such as beryl, feldspar and muscovite that her mine produced for commercial purposes. Most of her mineral collection has been retained by her son Dominic, but she gave part of it to the Sulphide Street Railway Museum in Broken Hill where it is now on display.

Bampton H.H. Mr Bampton was employed in the North Mine and his collection was well represented with the mineral specimens from this mine. In 1964 his widow donated this mineral collection to the Australian Museum.

Barratt, D (1901-1967). Doug Barrett was a metallurgist employed by the North Mine for the entire period of his working life. Over a 40 year period he built up a very representative collection of around 1500 Broken Hill and worldwide mineral specimens. His non Australian specimens were obtained in exchanges conducted with mainly H.J. Harwood of North Wales, E.T. McCarthy of Hamilton, Ohio and J.F. Mihelcic of Michigan. Anglesite, azurite, cerussite, cuprite, hemimorphite, malachite (pseudomorph after azurite), pyromorphite, quartz (amethyst), rhodochrosite, smithsonite, spessartine, stolzite and wulfenite were just some of the better Broken Hill mineral specimens contained in this collection. In 1969 Barratt’s widow donated the teaching and research specimens from this collection, which was about 1000 specimens, to the Department of Earth Sciences at Flinders University in Adelaide, South Australia. In 1990 the remaining 500 better quality specimens were donated to the Mineralogy Department of the South Australian Museum in Adelaide, South Australia.

Barrett, G. Gwen Barrett is the wife of the late Lawrie Barrett and her mineral collection was world wide in scope but had a very good selection of Broken Hill minerals in it. Her mineral specimens were mostly in the Thumbnail and Miniature size range. They are still in her possession

Barrett, L. Lawrence (Laurie) Barrett is the husband of Gwen Barrett and he built up two mineral collections. The first he sold to Joe McClemen, who operated Joe’s Rock Shop in Broken Hill. The second collection was sold to a collector in Adelaide and it was quite large in scope. These mineral collections were world wide in scope and his best Broken Hill specimens were his specimens of johannsenite and native silver.

Black, P. Peter Black came to Broken Hill in 1969 as a science teacher at the Broken Hill High school and has since built up a mineral collection that is worldwide in its scope. This mineral collection is still in his possession.

Blackmore, G.H. Mr Blackmore was the chief assayer for the central Mine between 1888 and 1895. His collection consisted mainly of specimens from the oxidised portion of the main Broken Hill lode and contained some unusual specimens of marshite. This collection was purchased in 1942 by the Australian Museum.

Blackwell, J. Joe Blackwell worked for many years in the Zinc Corporation Mine, rising to the position of Underground Shift Boss, and seeing Max Vincent’s vug with the dogtooth calcite crystals on the 18th level of this mine was the inspiration for starting his mineral collection of Broken Hill minerals. Joe worked mainly on the levels between level 17 and level 21 and so managed to collect the better specimens of bannisterite, pyrosmalite, bladed rhodonite, spessartine, etc. that is so ell known from this region of this mine. One of Blackwell’s better Broken Hill mineral specimens was illustrated in the 1999 edition of The Minerals of Broken Hill and it was a specimen of inesite with associated fluorapohyllite (page 165). His mineral collection was sold to the well known Melbourne mineral dealer, Cyril Kovac, in 2006 who dispersed its contents to his many customers.

Braes, B. Barry Braes has built up quite a substantial collection of Broken Hill minerals that he still maintains.

Broken Hill City Council The Broken Hill City Council established its own collection of the minerals that came from the mines of Broken Hill that was kept on display in the Broken Hill town Hall. They were willing to purchase private collections and even single specimens such as the 42 kilogram dyscrasite-silver specimen recovered from Browne’s Shaft, so that the specimens remained in Broken Hill and those that they did included part of the Arthur “Flossie” Campbell mineral collection (purchased in the early 1960’s) and the mineral collections of Max Vincent (purchased in 1988) and Roy Waldron (purchased in 1983). The Mine Managers Association also donated the mineral collection that they had assembled in 1988 to the Broken Hill City Council. In 1993 the entire mineral collection of the Broken Hill City Council was transferred to the newly established Albert Kersten Geocentre that had just been established in Broken Hill by the City Council of Broken Hill.

Broken Hill Proprietary Mine. The Broken Hill Proprietary Mine established its own official mineral collection as soon as they started mining the main Broken Hill lode. The company still maintains this collection at its current head offices in Melbourne, even though it no longer has any mining interests in Broken Hill. In 1892 the Broken Hill Proprietary Mine donated a suite of specimens from its mine to the New South Wales Mining Museum (now the former Earth Exchange Museum which has since closed) in Sydney and repeated this donation in 1925. The 1925 mineral donation contained a superb suit of the silver and copper halide minerals. One of B.H.P.’s better Broken Hill mineral specimens was illustrated in the 1999 edition of The Minerals of Broken Hill and it was a specimen of stolzite (page 244).

Campbell, A.R (1896-1964). Arthur Rupert “Floss” Campbell built up quite a substantial collection of Broken Hill specimens as a direct result of his position of Inspector of Mine Safety Conditions with the Barrier Industrial Council at Broken Hill. This position gave Arthur or “Floss” as he was called the opportunity to collect specimens himself from the many mines of the main lode as well as contact with those people that could provide him with the superb crystallised minerals that he was after. Possibly the best specimen in this collection was the world’s best crystallised specimen of manganpyrosmalite from the South Mine now currently residing in the Australian Geological Survey Organisation’s mineral collection in Canberra. In 1962 Campbell donated a number of specimens from his collection to the National Museum of Victoria (now Museum Victoria). The majority of his very fine Broken Hill mineral collection was purchased in 1963 by the Bureau of Mineral Resources (now the Australian Geological Survey Organisation) in Canberra. The remainder of this collection was dispersed with a number of these specimens ending up in the Broken Hill City Council mineral collection that has since been given to the Albert Kersten Geocentre in Broken Hill. Two of the specimens from the Arthur “Flossie” Campbell collection were illustrated in the 1999 edition of The Minerals of Broken Hill and these were hemimorphite (page 159) and pyrite (page 200).

Campbell, G. Gordon Campbell was the son of Arthur Flossie Campbell and he assembled a reasonable collection of Broken Hill minerals after his father had sold off his own mineral collection in 1963. This mineral collection has since been dispersed.

Campbell, L. Lionel, like his brother Arthur, Campbell built up quite a substantive collection of Broken Hill minerals. Upon his death the family dispersed his specimens with many of these ending up in the famed mineral collection of Albert Chapman.

Cannon, R. Richard (Dick) Cannon built up a very fine collection of minerals from the Broken Hill lode that consisted primarily of the well crystallised specimens from the oxidised zone. It was sold in the early 1970’s to the mineral dealer Kevin Davey who dispersed the specimens. All the silver halide specimens from this collection were sold as a complete unit by Davey to the Museum Victoria.

Cardwell, C. Craig Cardwell grew up in Broken Hill and worked for many years on the South Mine. His mineral collection was world wide in scope with a number of very good Broken Hill specimens of anglesite, azurite, cerussite, pyromorphite, smithsonite, etc. This mineral collection was dispersed in 2006 when Craig left the district with many specimens ending up in the mineral collection of Greg Murray.

Charley, P. Phillip Charley was one of the original syndicate members from the Mount Gipps Station to peg the main Broken Hill lode and his collection of mainly oxidised mineral specimens was sold off by auction in 1936. The purchasers were the Mining Museum (now the former Earth Exchange Museum which has since closed) and the Australian Museum and this collection was split between these two Sydney Institutions with the best specimen, a superb specimen of azurite from the B.H.P. Mine, going to the Mining Museum as the result of a flip of a coin.

Clark. R (1948-). Ross Clark came to Broken Hill in 1969 as a science teacher at Broken Hill High school and stayed on. His mineral collection consists not only of Broken Hill minerals but also in it he has in it a wide range of specimens, many of which are quite rare, from world wide localities. Ross was influenced in starting his mineral collecting by the late Geoff Lithgow and also in the fact that good crystallised mineral specimens could still be found in the old outlying mines. In this collection there is also a wide range of the minerals that come from the Broken Hill region including many fine specimens from the primary ore zone of the main Broken Hill lode. One of Ross Clark’s better Broken Hill mineral specimens was illustrated in the 1999 edition of The Minerals of Broken Hill and it was a specimen of bustamite (page118 and Figure ).

Combe, A. Arthur Combe was a fanatical mineral collector that actually went to Broken Hill in its early formative years just so that he could have the opportunity to collect its superb crystallised mineral specimens. Between 1910 and 1915 Combe worked in the South, Block 14, Junction North and Zinc Corporation mines. In 1919 Combe donated a number of Broken Hill specimens that were surplus to his own mineral collection to the New South Wales Mining Museum (now the former Earth Exchange Museum which has since closed). His superb collection of Broken Hill minerals, with its quite detailed locality information for the specimens that were present in this collection, was donated to the Australian Museum in 1946.

Coombes R. Ray Coombes was employed as a miner with the Zinc Corporation mine and like a number of his fellow miners, became fascinated with the diverse wealth of crystals that he encountered in the mine whilst just doing his daily job. Ray’s collection was strong in the minerals from the southern end of the lode but he also had some very fine specimens from the central portion as well. Probably his best specimens were the clusters of manganpyrosmalite that he had personally collected from a vug that he came across one time in the Zinc Corporation Mine. The Coombes’ mineral collection has now been dispersed.

Dart, T. (1968-) Trevor Dart, along with his wife Louise, have built up a very fine collection of world wide minerals with about 60% being Broken Hill minerals, many of which have been self collected. These self collected ones include include albite and titatite from Huonville, rutile from Thackaringa and gahnite from the Nine Mile Mine and Stirling Vale Homestead. Trevor’s collecting habits resulted from the fact that both his father and grandfather worked on the North Mine and both had collected many fine specimens of North Mine minerals such as fluorapophyllite, spessartine (especially the ones from the 32 level), rhodochrosite, rhodonite, etc. which they encountered in their daily work underground and which Trevor has inherited, being the only third generation person interested in continuing this collection. Trevor is a science teacher at Broken Hill High school having left Broken Hill in 1986 to pursue his education and work in other schools returning in 2000 to his alma mater.

Davy K. Kevin Davy was born in Broken Hill and grew up there. His mineral collection consisted of a small collection of Broken Hill minerals that did contain one of the world’s best specimens of cerussite ever found. This specimen was featured on page 244 of Peter Bancroft’s book “Gem and Crystal Treasures” (Bancroft,1984) and is also the cover specimen of this issue of the Mineralogical Record. In the mid 1960’s Kevin Davey sold his entire Broken Hill mineral collection to the late Noel Franks in order to finance his entry into the mineral collecting hobby as a mineral dealer. This extremely fine cerussite specimen has since passed through the mineral collections of Albert Chapman and Warren Somerville where it now remains. As a mineral dealer Kevin Davey was instrumental in the dispersal of the Dick Cannon collection of Broken Hill minerals in the early 1970’s.

Forner, L. Lou Forner built up quite a substantial collection of Broken Hill minerals that he still has in his possession.

Gall, W. Mr Gall assembled a general collection of minerals from the main Broken Hill lode that consisted primarily of the minerals from the North Mine portion of this lode. In 1925 he donated this mineral collection to the New South Wales Mining Museum (now the former Earth Exchange Museum which has since closed) in Sydney.

Greenslade, W. William Greenslade was a canvasser in Broken Hill and his mineral collection was sold by auction in 1901 when he left the district.

Hall, T. Thomas Hall was a resident in Broken Hill in the early 1900’s and he assembled a very fine collection of 1 458 Broken Hill minerals that was rich in specimens from the oxidised zone. In this collection there were superb crystallised specimens of the more common Broken Hill minerals such as anglesite, azurite, cerussite, chlorargyrite, copper, cuprite, iodargyrite, pyromorphite, smithsonite and stolzite. In 1909, after some negotiation Thomas hall sold his very fine mineral collection to the South Australian museum for 600 pounds. Only around 250 high quality display specimens from this mineral collection were registered into the mineral collection of the South Australian museum, with the remainder of the Hall collection specimens being used as exchange material by Curators such as Sir Douglas Mawson.

Harvey G. Gary Harvey, the nephew of Bill Harvey below, maintains a small collection of minerals that he collected whilst employed as a miner with the Zinc Corporation Mine. This was passed on to his uncle Bill in 2008 when he finally decided to stop collecting minerals. It included very nice specimens of Rhodonite and Spessartine.

Harvey, W.C. (1927-) William (Bill) Harvey, with the help of his late wife, Fay, has built up a mineral collection that is worldwide in scope. It contains a large selection of minerals from the Broken Hill district, with the main representation being from the main lode. The better mineral specimens from Broken Hill in this collection include anglesite, azurite, cerussite, cuprite, fluorapophyllite, hedenbergite, pyrargyrite, rhodonite, silver, smithsonite, spessartine, etc. This mineral collection will soon be passed on to Bill Harvey’s son, Peter, who himself has built up a small mineral collection. Bill and Fay left Broken Hill in 1953 and moved to Mildura where they remained ever since.

Hibberd, J. Mr Hibberd assembled a general collection of minerals from the main Broken Hill lode that consisted primarily of the minerals from the oxidised portion of this lode. In 1895 he donated this mineral collection to the New South Wales Mining Museum (now the former Earth Exchange Museum which has since closed) in Sydney.

Hocking, C. Charlie Hocking built up a large collection of Broken Hill minerals that numbered around a 1000 specimens. Upon his death it was broken up and sold with many of the specimens being purchased by Milton Lavers, who incorporated the best into his own collection and dispersed the rest, and Graham Hogan who has retained those that he had obtained from this collection.

Hogan, G. Graham Hogan has built up a very large collection of Broken Hill minerals that contains a number of representative specimens from all parts of the main Broken Hill lode. The mineral species hoganite was recently named in his honour as it was graham who had collected the first specimens of this mineral. Two of the better specimens from this collection were illustrated in the 1999 edition of The Minerals of Broken Hill and these were fluorite (page 150) and sphalerite (page 237).

Holmeyer, W. The late Werner Holmeyer built up quite a substantial collection of Broken Hill minerals that has since been dispersed with the majority of specimens being purchased by Milton lavers who incorporated the best into his own mineral collection and dispersed the others.

Ireland, A. Alan Ireland was a resident of Broken Hill who operated a quarry at Thackaringa for the purpose of mining almandine for the abrasive industry. His collection was composed primarily of Thackaringa minerals, particularly of the type that he encountered in his mining operations. After his death his mineral collection was dispersed, but the better pieces were retained by his daughter Sue.

Ireland, S. Sue Ireland kept the better mineral specimens that were formerly in her late father’s mineral collection.

Lavers M. (1927-) Milton Lavers has in his lifetime had two mineral collections. The first was sold to Albert Chapaman in the 1960’s to finance the purchase of his house. It had superb specimens of alabandite and the world best crystals of ferroanbannisterite. He has also since then managed to build up what is possibly the best private collection of Broken Hill minerals ever assembled. At its peak in 1999 his mineral collection numbered around 4000 specimens and covered all facets of the Broken Hill main lode. During its building it incorporated many of the mineral specimens from the mineral collections that were assembled by Charlie Hocking and Max Vincent. Two of his specimens, the pyroxmangite and the Block 14 cerussite may rank as the finest specimens of their species in existence. This collection has been slowly dispersed over the last few years by private sale as no institution here in Australia had the funding to preserve it intact and our Governments here in Australia are not interested in preserving our natural history heritage. Some of the better specimens from this very large mineral collection were illustrated in the 1999 edition of The Minerals of Broken Hill and these were anglesite (a very rare green crystal-page 95), barite (page 108), bustamite (page 117), calcite (pages 121 and 122), fluorapatite (page 146), galena (page 152), manganoanhedenbergite (page 158), hemimorphite (page 161), pyrite coating calcite (page 200), pyromorphite (page 202), pyroxmangite (page 205), quartz (page 207) rhodochrosite (page 212) and rhodonite (page 216).

Lithgow G. Geoff Lithgow has built up a mineral collection that is world wide in scope. It contains a number of excellent crystallised minerals that have come from the main Broken Hill lode. Upon his death in 2005 the entire mineral collection (as well as the entire contents of his house) was donated to a Museum in Tasmania.

Lohmann, J.H. (1939-1973) John Herman Lohmann was born in Broken Hill in 1939 and grew up there. He became a fitter and turner in the Zinc Corporation Mine and worked in that mine until he left the district and moved south to Mildura in the early 1960’s as a direct consequence of the death of his father in that same mine. He donated his portion of his father’s mineral collection to Merbein High School (now called Merbein Secondary College) soon after he arrived in the district where it was then used in the classroom. Like many of the mineral collections given to schools in the past, this once fine mineral collection suffered its share of destruction and pillage by the students until Pat Sutton moved to the school in the early 1970’s. With the blessing of the then principal, as well as the current science coordinator, Pat salvaged what was left of this collection, incorporated the remainders he had garnished into his own mineral collection and replaced what he had removed with specimens more suitable for classroom useage in the school’s science program.

Lohmann, R.F. (1919-1960) Robert Ferdinand Lohmann arrived in Broken Hill in the late 1930’s where he started work in the Zinc Corporation Mine. He was intrigued by the well crystallised colourful minerals that he encountered during his daily work and he put together a nice collection of these minerals that included anglesite, azurite, cerussite, pyromorphite, rhodonite, spessartine, smithsonite, etc. When he was killed in the Zinc Corporation Mine as a result of a rockfall then his mineral collection passed on to his children with the majority of the collection going to his son John. Some specimens from this mineral collection still remain in the Lohmann family to this day.

Maitland E.L. Mr Maitland built up a fine collection of Broken Hill minerals that he donated in 1911 to the New South Wales Mining Museum (now the former Earth Exchange Museum which has since closed) in Sydney.

Marsh C.W. Charles William Marsh built up a very fine mineral collection as he was associated with the British Mine in its early operational days. One of the British Mine leases, Block 16, was known as Marsh’s section and Marsh’s shaft was also on this block. It was Marsh that provided many of the specimens that Professor Liversidge was to describe in his many papers on the Broken Hill minerals. The mineral collection that Marsh had built up of mainly Broken Hill minerals from the oxidised zone was dispersed upon his death. The mineral species marshite was named in his honour.

Mawby M. (1904-1977) Sir Maurice Mawby built up a general world wide mineral collection that numbered around 1100 specimens at the time of his death. This mineral collection was donated to the Museum Victoria’s department of Mineralogy just prior to Mawby’s passing in 1977 and 561 mineral specimens representing 249 mineral species, which incorporated 160 specimens from the Broken Hill district, were registered into the Museum Victoria’s mineral collection. Highlights of Mawby’s Broken Hill mineral specimens that were registered into the Museum Victoria’s mineral collection included a total of 70 different species that incorporated 2 anglesite, 13 Azurite, capgaronnite, 5 chlorargyrite, 2 dyscrasite, ferrobannisterite, 2 manganpyrosmalite, 2 marshite, miersite, 4 perroudite, 8 pyromorphite, 3 raspite, 12 smithsonite, 11 stolzite, 2 tocornalite, 3 wulfenite, plus a host of others as well. The remaining 549 unregistered specimens were dispersed by the Curator through exchanges and the author ended up with the majority of them as the result of a “Museum Cleanout” exchange that he conducted with the museum back in 1988. When the Author donated his own mineral collection to the Museum Victoria’s mineral collection then a further 20 specimens from the Sir Maurice Mawby mineral collection were then registered into the Museum’s mineral collection as part of the Andersen mineral collection. Some of the better specimens from the Sir Maurice Mawby mineral collection were illustrated in the 1999 edition of The Minerals of Broken Hill and these were miersite (page 184), rhodochrosite (page 212), and smithsonite (page 233). The mineral species mawbyite was named in his honour.

Mayne, S. Sam Mayne was the Underground Mine Manager for the South Mine and he put together a rather fine collection of Broken Hill minerals, most of which would have been self collected. His mineral collection was sold in auction in 1903.

McClaren, D. (1859-1901) Duncan McClaren was an accountant in the Block 14 Mine and he assembled a very nice collection of the oxidised species from that mine. His collection would have been rich in the species of anglesite, azurite, cerussite, chlorargyrite, pyromorphite, smithsonite etc. that was so very much prevalent back in those early days. His fine mineral collection was sold in auction in 1901 when he died unexpectedly from an illness in that year.

McClemen, J. Joe McClemen was the only person to establish a formal mineral dealer’s shop in Broken Hill. His dealership was established in Argent Street up near top end of town and he operated under the distinguished name of “Joe’s Rock Shop”. The mineral specimens that he sold through his outlet was rather eclectic as his main stock comprised minerals that he had imported from the basalt quarries of the Indian Deccan Plateau and from the Tsumeb Mine. When he could obtain them at a cheap price he did sell Broken Hill specimens but they were mainly calcite, galena and sphalerite.

McCulloch, S. Sam McCulloch was the great grandson of George McCulloch who was one of the founding members of the Broken Hill Proprietary company. George McCulloch’s daughter was the one who got her grandson interested in collecting minerals by keeping some of the specimens that she had obtained from her father and passing them onto Sam. As far as the author knows Sam still maintains his mineral collection.

Mills, K. Ken Mills, along with his wife Frankie, arrived in Broken Hill in 2003 with his mineral collection already started. It is world wide in scope and since they have been in the Hill they have added a number of local specimens to their collection, many of which have been self collected.

Mine Managers Association. The Mine Managers Association of Broken Hill built up a quite representative mineral collection of Broken Hill minerals as a result of these managers themselves saving well crystallised miners that were encountered in the mines that they looked after. This extensive mineral collection was donated to the Broken Hill City Council who then incorporated it as part of the mineral collection of the Albert Kersten Geocentre that was established in Broken Hill in 1993.

Minerals Mining and Metallurgy The company that took over the South Mine leases in 1972 had its own company mineral collection, the majority of which had been collected by its geologist Arnold van der Heyden. The 265 specimens that made up this mineral collection came mainly from its mining operations of the Block 14 and Kintore Open cuts. Consolidated Broken Hill limited inherited this mineral collection when they took over the Minerals Mining and Metallurgy leases in 2001. In 2005 Consolidated Broken Hill Limited donated the entire mineral collection to Museum Victoria.

Murray, G. (1985-) Greg Murray has continued on with his mother’s and grandfather’s mineral collections and has since built up quite an impressive collection of minerals as a result of both field collecting and purchasing collections at garage sales throughout Broken Hill. His mineral collection is world wide in scope and numbers around 500+ specimens. Greg was influenced very much by Ross Clark who offered lots of encouragement in his collecting minerals. The better Broken Hill specimens in his mineral collection include anglesite (including a number of green ones), bromian-chlorargyrite, bustamite (including several very good hairy ones), cerussite pseudomorphs after large anglesite crystals, hedenbergite, pyromorphite, rhodonite, smithsonite, spessartine etc. The outstanding specimen in this collection is the secondary galena crystals on colloform sphalerite that his grandfather collected personally from the 360 metre water course deposit encountered in the South Mine.

Murray, H. (1951-) Hal Murray has built up a small collection of Broken Hill minerals that will eventually be passed on to his son Greg. Hal was originally trained as a metallurgist and became a science teacher after being disillusioned with his profession. He came to Broken Hill in 1981 after having married Margaret Wiele who was herself a former Broken Hill resident.

New Broken Hill Consolidated Mine. The New Broken Hill Consolidated Mine’s mineral collection was on display for many years in its model room (see Figure ) that was part of its offices on the Broken Hill lease that the company had. It was passed on to the Pasminco company when this group took over the New Broken Hill Consolidated Mine’s Broken Hill leases in 1988.

O’Connor, D. Dominic Oconnor was a Jeweller working in broken Hill and his fine collection of early Broken Hill specimens, housed in a 12 drawer cabinet, was sold at auction in 1901.

O’Dwyer, J. (1957-) John O’Dwyer has built up quite a substantial collection of around 800+ Broken Hill minerals that he still has in his possession. His family came to Broken Hill in 1961 and John completed his schooling at local schools. John started collecting minerals as a result of what he had seen available whilst working as a miner on the 26 and 32 levels of the North Mine. He has also worked in the N.B.H.C. and Zinc Corporation Mines. As a result of being on the spot when good specimens were encountered John’s collection is rich in superb self collected specimens of alabandite, inesite, manganaxinite, spessartine, sphalerite, rhodonite (with many coming from the 32 level of the North Mine), etc. He has also purchased other collections which have provided him with very fine specimens of bannisterite, pyrosmalite, pyromorphite, amongst others.

Pace, F. (1948-) Frank Pace had built up a very large collection of Broken Hill minerals of approximately 600 specimens that contains a number of representative specimens of superb well crystallised minerals from all parts of the main Broken Hill lode. He came to the Hill in 1950 as his father was then employed by the water board and had to move to Broken Hill as part of his employment and Frank completed his schooling at the local schools. Since his starting as a miner in 1966 on the 20-25 levels of the Zinc Corporation Mine, Frank has been fascinated with the colour and beauty of the minerals that he encountered during his daily employment. In fact it was a vug of manganocalcite encountered by Frank on the 20th level that kicked his collecting instincts into being. Since then Frank has done the best that he could in preserving the fabulous crystals that he has encountered in his employment underground in the mines of Broken Hill. Frank also purchased a number of fine specimens from a local copper by the name of Kevin Davey. Some of the better specimens from this collection were illustrated in the 1999 edition of The Minerals of Broken Hill and these were alabandite (page 95), cerussite (page 125), prehnite (page 196), pyrite (page 200) and rhodochrosite (page 213). Other fine specimens from Broken Hill in his collection included anglesite, azurite, calcite, johannsenite, raspite, silver, smithsnite, etc. A large percentage of this mineral collection was sold to Warren Somerville where it is now on display in Bathurst as part of the Somerville/Australian Museum collection. After this sale Frank has been rebuilding up his mineral collection and purchased much of the Bernad William’s collection upon its dispersal in 2006. The mineral species paceite was recently named in his honour as it was Frank who passed on the unusual minerals from the Potosi Open Cut to the investigators that ended up describing it as a new mineral species.

Pasminco. The official mineral collection of the Pasminco company was displayed in the former model room of the New Broken Hill Consolidated Mine. It contained a number of impressive mineral specimens from the main Broken Hill lode, with the majority of them coming from the two CRA mines that worked the southern portion of the lode.

Pincombe, G.E. Mrs Pincombe built up a very fine collection of minerals from the Broken Hill oxidised zone that she donated to the Australian Museum in 1951.

Porter, W. William (Bill) Porter had a general mineral collection that consisted primarily of Broken Hill minerals but there was also some very good specimens from the CSA mine of Cobar New South Wales that Bill’s son (a miner in this mine before it closed) had contributed to his father’s mineral collection. The highlights from Broken Hill included a very good manganpyrosmalite and specimens of anglesite, smithsonite, etc. from the more recent operations. This collection is slowly being dispersed in a piecemeal fashion.

Prior, S. Mr Prior was the editor of the Barrier Miner and his fine collection of Broken Hill minerals was sold in auction in 1903.

Proprietary Block 14 Mine The Proprietary Block 14 Mine assembled a superlative collection of minerals from the section of the main Broken Hill lode that it mined on its block 14 lease. This mineral collection consisted mainly of the well crystallised mineral specimens that it extracted from the oxidised portion of the lode. Included in his collection were many superb examples of anglesite, azurite, cerussite, copper, cuprite, hemimorphite, malachite (pseudomorph after azurite), pyromorphite, raspite, silver, smithsonite, stolzite and wulfenite. Its best mineral specimen was the incredible statuesque specimen of crystallised cerussite that was regarded as being the world’s best by many mineral collectors and curators and was featured on page 59 in Peter Bancroft’s book “The world’s finest mineral and crystals”. The official mineral collection of the Proprietary Block 14 Mine was presented to the Australian Museum in Sydney upon its closure in 1930.

Savage, A.E. Mr Savage built up a collection of mainly Broken Hill and Queensland minerals that he donated to the National Museum of Victoria (now Museum Victoria) in 1895. There were some nice specimens of anglesite, bromargyrite, cerussite, iodargyrite, linarite, marshite (would you believe that there were 8 specimens of this one present), mimetite, pyromorphite, raspite, silver, smithsonite, stolzite and wulfenite (from the first find in the Junction Mine, on the 45 m level, that was made in 1890) present in this collection. The total number of specimens that has survived this donation is 106 with all the 59 Broken Hill specimens in this collection being from the oxidised zone of the main lode.

Smith G (1861-1944). George Smith was a general mineral collector who was once the General Manager of the A.B.H. Consols Mine. His collection of Broken Hill minerals was very fine but was only a small component of this collection. In 1895 he donated a fine suite of mineral specimens from the A.B.H. Consols Mine to the New South Wales Mining Museum (now the former Earth Exchange Museum which has since closed) in Sydney. In 1907 the Australian Museum purchased 1500 specimens from this collection off George Smith for 500 pounds, half of which was donated by 3 of the Broken Hill mining companies which consisted of the Zinc Corporation, Broken Hill South and North Broken Hill mines. In 1927 the final 700 mineral specimens from his personal mineral collection were passed on to the safekeeping of the Australian Museum’s department of mineralogy, thus joining the earlier 1500 specimens already acquired by this venerable institution. One of George Smith’s better Broken Hill mineral specimens was illustrated in the 1999 edition of The Minerals of Broken Hill and it was a specimen of siderite (page 226).

Sulphide Street Railway Museum, The. The Sulphide Street Railway Museum has a collection of minerals from the Broken hill district on display. This mineral collection incorporates part of the mineral collection formed by he late Tess Alfonsi.

Taylor N. Norman Taylor was a geologist with the Broken Hill Proprietary Mine during its early years and he assembled a nice collection of minerals from this mine. This collection was purchased in 1894 by the New South Wales Mining Museum (now the former Earth Exchange Museum which has since closed).

Van der Heyden A. Arnold van der Heyden was employed as a geologist by Minerals Mining and Metallurgy between the years of 1985-1992. During this time he managed to assemble a very fine mineral collection of secondary species from the oxidised zone that he encountered in the Kintore and Block 14 Open Cuts during his daily occupation as company geologist. This collection of Broken Hill minerals is still in van der Heyden’s possession. Quite a number of the better specimens from this collection were illustrated in the 1999 edition of The Minerals of Broken Hill and these were adamite (page 93), bayldonite (page 109), cerussite pseudomorphs after anglesite (page 125), chlorargyrite (page 131), chrysocolla (page 134), hemimorphite (two illustrations on page 160), iodargyrite (page 167), linarite (page 175) rhodonite (page 217), smithsonite (page 230) and tsumebite (page 250).

Vincent F. Frank Vincent, the twin brother of Max, built up a substantial collection of minerals from vugs and other sources that he encountered whilst working in the South mine (particularly in the Browne’s and Reticulate shaft areas) and the Zinc Corporation Mine. He owned and operated the Gladstone Hotel Mining Museum where his mineral collection was on display for many years. He disposed of his collection by selling most of it, and the remainder of contents of his museum, to Kevin White who has it now in his mineral art gallery in Allendale street. Milton Lavers obtained a small proportion of Frank’s mineral collection where it was incorporated into his own collection.

Vincent M. Max Vincent, the twin brother of Frank, built up a substantial collection of minerals from vugs and other sources that he encountered whilst working in the Zinc Corporation Mine. In 1988, just before his death, he sold his mineral collection to the Broken Hill City Council who then incorporated it as part of the mineral collection of the Albert Kersten Geocentre that was established in Broken Hill in 1993.

Wainwright W.E. William Wainwright was an early manager of the South Mine and his large collection of Broken Hill specimens, mainly from the oxidised zone, was donated in 1908 to the New South Wales Mining Museum (now the former Earth Exchange Museum which has since closed) in Sydney.

Waldron R. Roy Waldron worked in the Zinc Corporation and NBHC mines and has built up a very large collection of Broken Hill minerals that contains a number of representative specimens from all parts of the main Broken Hill lode that was of very high quality. His entire mineral collection was sold in 1983 to the Broken Hill City Council who then incorporated it as part of the mineral collection of the Albert Kersten Geocentre that was established in 1993.

Watkins, R.G. Mr Watkins assembled a general collection of minerals from the main Broken Hill lode that consisted primarily of the minerals from the oxidised portion of this lode. In 1900 he donated this mineral collection to the New South Wales Mining Museum (now the former Earth Exchange Museum which has since closed) in Sydney.

Watt A. (1934-) Ashleigh Watt came to Broken Hill in 1962 where he was working for an insurance company. It was seeing the fabulous well crystallised mineral specimens that were coming out of the mines then that got Ashleigh started in collecting them. By the time he left Broken Hill in 1969 Ashleigh’s mineral collection contained very nice specimens of anglesite, cerussite, South Mine gypsum, brown and green pyromorphite, rhodonite, stolzite, etc. One of Ashleigh’s specimens was featured in the 1980 Broken Hill book and it was a specimen of green pyromorphite that he had passed on to Howard Worner and that is now in the Milton Lavers collection. Ashleigh expanded his mineral collection to a world wide collection when he left broken Hill in 1969 and he is now slowly dispersing his specimens so as to concentrate on acquiring only mineral specimens from China.

Weaven C. Colin Weaven started work in the Zinc Corporation Mine as an iron moulder in the mine’s foundry. He only became interested in collecting minerals when he transferred to an underground position with this mine in the early 1960’s and encountered a vug full of crystals on the 6th level of this mine. He has since built up a very good general collection of Broken Hill minerals that is still in his possession today. One of Weaven’s better Broken Hill mineral specimens was illustrated in the 1999 edition of The Minerals of Broken Hill and it was a specimen of calcite (page 121).

Weber, C. (1947) Carol Weber has a world wide scope mineral collection that contains a number of good broken Hill specimens including amethyst, rhodonite and smithsonite. Carol came to Broken Hill in 2001 where she now works as a nurse at the Broken Hill Base Hospital. She was a mineral collector before she moved to the Hill in her employment.

Wiele, H. Harold Wiele was an underground stores manager in the South Mine from 1934until its closure in1972 and he managed to pick up a number of superb specimens from there which he then kept. His best specimen was a superb crystallised secondary galena on colloform sphalerite that came from the 360 metre level. This specimen is now in the collection of his grandson, Greg Murray (Figure ).

Wiele (Murray) M. (1953-) Margaret Wiele nee Murray built up a nice collection of Broken Hill minerals and she started collecting minerals as a result of the pretty rocks that she was able to collect around Broken Hill. Her collection has since passed onto her son Greg who is a very enthusiastic collector himself and has now built it up to quite a substantial mineral collection.

White, K. Kevin White has quite a substantial collection of Broken Hill minerals on display in his Mineral Art Gallery in Allendale Street of Broken Hill. A large proportion of this collection was once part of Frank Vincent’s mineral collection.

Williams B (1/11/1949-) Bernad Williams came to live and work in Broken Hill in 1964 but did not start his own collection of minerals until 1971 when he obtained some specimens that a work mate of his no longer wanted. A major influence on getting Bernie started in collecting minerals was the late Noel Franks who was working with Bernie as a carpenter back in 1970 and showed Bernie some of his own acquisitions at that time. Before Bernard’s meeting with Noel Franks he had purchased his first house in Wyman Lane from Fred Williams (who was an ex South Mine worker) and out the back was 20x12 foot slab on which were sitting bags and drums full of specimens that Fred Williams had collected from the South Mine. Bernie tells that there were at least 3 large boxes full of native silver that looked like steel wool. Other boxes and drums contained spessartine, rhodonite, etc. Now Bernie wanted to build a shed on this slab so the entire lot was taken to the tip and tossed out! Bernie Williams first collection of minerals was started shortly after coming in contact with Noel Franks and was basically a beginner’s collection consisting of Broken Hill specimens and world wide minerals.it was disposed of in 1976 to Gary and Nigel Leske of Port Pierre where it was dispersed. His second collection was sterted in 1976 and consisted entirely of broken Hill specimens and the best one was a large cavity specimen containing silver wires, bromian chlorargyrite crystals and with a dusting of yellow pyromorphite. There were also large azurite crystals (to 5 cm in length), crystallized alabandite specimens, straw cerussite and other good Broken Hill specimens in it. This collection was sold to a dealer in the mid 1980’s. The third mineral collection was started soon after the disposal of the second and one of William’s better Broken Hill mineral specimens in this collection was illustrated in the 1999 edition of The Minerals of Broken Hill and it was a specimen of fluorite from the North Mine (page 149). This particular mineral collection was dispersed in 2006 by Bernard’s ex wife, Betty, upon their divorce with many of the key pieces going to local collectors. Graham Hogan was the collector who managed to end up with the Fluorite specimen that was illustrated in the 1999 book on Broken Hill minerals and Greg Murray also obtained some of the better pieces. Frank Pace purchased the remaining specimens from this collection. The fourth collection started by Bernie is currently still going and once more is only containing the minerals found in the Broken Hill mines.

Williams F. Fred Williams was a worker in the South mine who accumulated a major supply of specimens encountered during his mining days. This was stored in drums and boxes in his backyard and all was tossed out to the tip when he sold his house to Bernard Williams There were very good specimens of rhodonite, silver, spessartine, etc..

Williams T. Trevor Williams, the brother of Craig Williams (who was involved with his brother Trevor in the Consolidated Broken Hill Limited operation that included the reopening of the Pinnacles mine and the cleanup of the ore from the Kintore and Block 14 open Cuts that was dumped for processing at this mine in the late 1990’s), has always been fascinated with the minerals that he encountered during mining operations with the result that his collection is now rich in specimens from both the oxidised and primary zones of the main Broken Hill lode. Some of the better crystallised specimens from this collection were illustrated in the 1999 edition of The Minerals of Broken Hill and these were anglesite (page 97), azurite (page 105) and cerussite (page 124).

Willis A. Alan Willis was a miner and mining engineer employed by the Zinc Corporation Mine from 1976-1989 who managed to build up a very fine collection of Broken Hill minerals before he left the district in 1990. Alan still has this collection in his possession. A number of the better specimens from this mineral collection were illustrated in the 1999 edition of The Minerals of Broken Hill and these were calcite (page 120), fluorapatite (page 147), gahnite (page 151), manganpyrosmalite (page 180), microcline (page 183), pyromorphite (page 201), pyrrhotite (page 205), rhodochrosite (page 214), and wulfenite (page 253).

Wilson, R.K. Johnny Wilson was for many years the main barber of Broken Hill. He had an interest in minerals and prospecting and maintained a small collection of his finds and other specimens that he had acquired in his barber shop. He was instrumental in finding, and operating in the Thackaringa region for its alkali feldspar content, a small pegmatite that had a range of unusual phosphate minerals in it. This pegmatite that Johnny mined was given the name of Wilson’s Pegmatite,.

Yourn Mrs. Mrs. Yourn was a long term resident of Broken Hill that lived at the north end of town. Hence her collection consisted primarily of the minerals that came from the North Mine. She concentrated mainly on acquiring Thumbnail and miniature sized specimens and her collection was gradually sold off over the years and is now dispersed.

Zinc Corporation Mine The Zinc Corporation Mine’s mineral collection was on display for many years in a room called the ‘Model Room’ that was on its mine lease in Broken Hill. The mineral collection was made up of very fine specimens of main lode minerals from the entire length of lode, although the majority did come from the two mines that the Zinc Corporation operated under its parent company CRA. This room was visited by tourists as bus groups were allowed access to it on a regular basis. It was passed on to the Pasminco company when this group took over the Zinc Corporation Mine’s Broken Hill leases in 1988.

The following Broken Hill miners/collectors all had specimens that they sold to the well known Australian mineral dealer Michael Newnham but unfortunately no other details are known about them:
Mrs Baum, Ray Beahl, Colin Bevan, Wentworth Chaplin, Doug Degounis, Alan Groves, Kevin Hendry, Phillip Jones, Ralph Lane, Herb Locke, Mr Luckman, Ron McAvaney, Lindsay McInnes, Mr Nardelli (the father of Lee), Lee Nardelli, Geoff Nixon, John Preston, Mike Prince, R. Ralph, Jack Schuster, Mr Sharp, Arthur Slee, Ron Supple (the father of Grant), Grant Supple, Andris Svilanis and John Woodruffe. I am also sure that a number of other residents of Broken Hill have had mineral collections, some of which could have been quite substantial in size and scope, and whose details are no longer known. Unfortunately their history has passed on to the nether regions and the details are now lost.







ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to acknowledge the help that the following mineral collectors provided in compiling this historical information. Their contributions have enabled many gaps being filled on a number of Broken Hill mineral collections that have been built up and then dispersed over the years. These collectors that have contributed relevant information are Trevor Dart, Bill Harvey, Dermot Henry, Milton Lavers, Greg Murray, Michael Newnham, Frank Pace, Jeff Parker, Bernie Williams, just to name a few.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
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Birch, W.D. (1977) Maurice Mawby-a memorial. Australian Mineralogist, 1(12), 53
Birch, W.D. (1977) The mineral collection of Sir Maurice Mawby. Australian Mineralogist, 1(12), 58-60.
Birch, W.D, (Editor) 1999 Minerals of brokenhill. Broken Hill City Council in conjunction with Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 289p.
Canfield, F. (1923/1990) the final disposition of some American collections of minerals. Mineralogical Record, 21 (1), 41-46.
Chalmers, O. and Worner, H. (1982) Collectors and collections. In: Worner, H.K. and Mitchell, R. (Editors) Minerals of Broken Hill, Australian Mining and Smelting Limited, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 33- 35.
McNamara, G., Chalmers, O., Birch, W.D. and Plimer, I. (1999) The investigators, the identities and their minerals. In: Birch, W.D, (Editor) Minerals of brokenhill. Broken Hill City Council in conjunction with Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 36-57.
Plimer, I.R., and Blucher, I.D. (1979) Unusual phosphate minerals from Wilson’s Pegmatite, Thackaringa, N.S.W. Australian Mineralogist, 1 (24), 113-213.
Pring, A. (1990) The Doug Barratt mineral collection. Australian Mineralogist, 5 (4), 114-117.
Pring, A. (1997) The Hall collection-a Broken Hill treasure trove. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 3 (1), 11-16.
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