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The Köppen Climate Classification


The Köppen Climate Classification divides the Earth's climate into five main climate groups:

  • A (tropical)
  • B (dry)
  • C (temperate)
  • D (continental)
  • E (polar)

These are subdivided by seasonal precipitation and heat.

It was first published by the Russian-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen and others, notably Rudolf Geiger, hence the system is sometimes also called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.

The map below shows the distribution (as of the 2006) of climatic zones on the land surface of the Earth to an approximate accuracy of 0.5 degrees. Click on any climate classification type for more details.

Ref: Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.

Climatic Classifications
CodeDescriptionGroupPrecipitation TypeLevel of Heat
AfTropical rainforest climateTropicalRainforest
AmTropical monsoon climateTropicalMonsoon
AsTropical dry savanna climateTropicalSavanna, Dry
AwTropical savanna, wetTropicalSavanna, Wet
BShHot semi-arid (steppe) climateAridSteppeHot
BSkCold semi-arid (steppe) climateAridSteppeCold
BWhHot deserts climateAridDesertHot
BWkCold desert climateAridDesertCold
CfaHumid subtropical climateTemperateWithout dry seasonHot summer
CfbTemperate oceanic climateTemperateWithout dry seasonWarm summer
CfcSubpolar oceanic climateTemperateWithout dry seasonCold summer
CsaHot-summer Mediterranean climateTemperateDry summerHot summer
CsbWarm-summer Mediterranean climateTemperateDry summerWarm summer
CscCool-summer Mediterranean climateTemperateDry summerCold summer
CwaMonsoon-influenced humid subtropical climateTemperateDry winterHot summer
CwbSubtropical highland climate or temperate oceanic climate with dry wintersTemperateDry winterWarm summer
CwcCold subtropical highland climate or subpolar oceanic climate with dry wintersTemperateDry winterCold summer
DfaHot-summer humid continental climateCold (continental)Without dry seasonHot summer
DfbWarm-summer humid continental climateCold (continental)Without dry seasonWarm summer
DfcSubarctic climateCold (continental)Without dry seasonCold summer
DfdExtremely cold subarctic climateCold (continental)Without dry seasonVery cold winter
DsaHot, dry-summer continental climateCold (continental)Dry summerHot summer
DsbWarm, dry-summer continental climateCold (continental)Dry summerWarm summer
DscDry-summer subarctic climateCold (continental)Dry summerCold summer
DwaMonsoon-influenced hot-summer humid continental climateCold (continental)Dry winterHot summer
DwbMonsoon-influenced warm-summer humid continental climateCold (continental)Dry winterWarm summer
DwcMonsoon-influenced subarctic climateCold (continental)Dry winterCold summer
DwdMonsoon-influenced extremely cold subarctic climateCold (continental)Dry winterVery cold winter
EFIce cap climatePolarIce cap
ETTundraPolarTundra


 
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