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The Mineralogy of Antimony

General Properties
Atomic Number:51
Standard atomic weight (Ar):121.760(1)
Electron configuration:[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
Ultrapure metallic antimony piece, front side
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.05
Atomic Radius:133 pm
Ionic Radius:76 pm (+3)
1st Ionization energy:834 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-103 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-3,3,5
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:904 K
Boiling Point:1860 K
Density:6.7 g/cm3
Main isotopes of Antimony
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
121Sb57.36%-Spontaneous fission ?
123Sb42.64%-Spontaneous fission ?
Main ions of Antimony
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:3000 BC
Year Isolated:1540
Isolated By:
Vannoccio Biringuccio
Named For:Greek: anti (opposed) and monos (solitude) - "not alone"
CPK color coding:#9E63B5
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Nitridesantimony nitrideSbN+3
Sulfidesdiantimony trisulphideSb2S3+3Metastibnite, Stibnite
diantimony pentsulphideSb2S5+5
Selenidesdiantimony triselenideSb2Se3+3Antimonselite
Telluridesdiantimony tritellurideSb2Te3+3Tellurantimony
Hydridesantimony trihydrideSbH3+3
Fluoridesantimony trifluorideSbF3+3
antimony pentafluorideSbF5+5
Chloridesantimony trichlorideSbCl3+3
antimony pentachlorideSbCl5+5
Iodidesantimony triiodideSbI3+3
antimony pentaiodideSbI5+5
Oxidesdiantimony trioxideSb2O3+3Senarmontite, Valentinite
diantimony tetroxideSb2O4+3,+5Cervantite, Clinocervantite
diantimony pentoxideSb2O5+5
Mineral Diversity of Antimony
1. Elements 3 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 138 valid mineral species
3. Halides4 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 37 valid mineral species
6. Borates1 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 6 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates4 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 5 valid mineral species
Total:198 valid species containing essential Antimony
Geochemistry of Antimony
Goldschmidt classification:Chalcophile
Elemental Abundance for Antimony
Crust (CRC Handbook)2 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)2 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)2 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.00 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)2.03 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.00 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)2.4 x 10-10mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)3.3 x 10-10mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)3.0 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)3.1 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)3.09 x 10-7 (18%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Antimony in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Antimony and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Antimony and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Antimony.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Antimony% of Sb mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Sulfur158 minerals with Sb and S59.85%207.03% higher
Oxygen88 minerals with Sb and O33.33%56.25% lower
Lead88 minerals with Sb and Pb33.33%248.97% higher
Arsenic79 minerals with Sb and As29.92%163.27% higher
Silver57 minerals with Sb and Ag21.59%551.59% higher
Copper53 minerals with Sb and Cu20.08%60.67% higher
Iron39 minerals with Sb and Fe14.77%35.12% lower
Hydrogen35 minerals with Sb and H13.26%75.30% lower
Thallium26 minerals with Sb and Tl9.85%772.16% higher
Manganese19 minerals with Sb and Mn7.20%37.60% lower
Bismuth18 minerals with Sb and Bi6.82%67.42% higher
Calcium17 minerals with Sb and Ca6.44%73.77% lower
Mercury16 minerals with Sb and Hg6.06%252.04% higher
Nickel15 minerals with Sb and Ni5.68%75.39% higher
Sodium13 minerals with Sb and Na4.92%73.92% lower
Zinc13 minerals with Sb and Zn4.92%7.64% lower
Chlorine13 minerals with Sb and Cl4.92%34.48% lower
Palladium11 minerals with Sb and Pd4.17%212.62% higher
Tellurium11 minerals with Sb and Te4.17%37.25% higher
Tin10 minerals with Sb and Sn3.79%106.69% higher
Aluminium10 minerals with Sb and Al3.79%80.88% lower
Silicon8 minerals with Sb and Si3.03%89.06% lower
Magnesium8 minerals with Sb and Mg3.03%77.94% lower
Selenium7 minerals with Sb and Se2.65%13.68% higher
Titanium6 minerals with Sb and Ti2.27%67.00% lower
Cobalt6 minerals with Sb and Co2.27%61.54% higher
Gold5 minerals with Sb and Au1.89%241.04% higher
Tantalum5 minerals with Sb and Ta1.89%40.15% higher
Platinum4 minerals with Sb and Pt1.52%77.93% higher
Vanadium4 minerals with Sb and V1.52%63.30% lower
Potassium4 minerals with Sb and K1.52%84.32% lower
Niobium3 minerals with Sb and Nb1.14%66.27% lower
Tungsten2 minerals with Sb and W0.76%0.18% lower
Zirconium2 minerals with Sb and Zr0.76%68.52% lower
Beryllium2 minerals with Sb and Be0.76%65.90% lower
Boron2 minerals with Sb and B0.76%85.06% lower
Caesium2 minerals with Sb and Cs0.76%70.52% higher
Fluorine2 minerals with Sb and F0.76%90.89% lower
Iridium1 mineral with Sb and Ir0.38%18.15% lower
Chromium1 mineral with Sb and Cr0.38%77.01% lower
Cadmium1 mineral with Sb and Cd0.38%24.21% lower
Nitrogen1 mineral with Sb and N0.38%80.13% lower
Rhodium1 mineral with Sb and Rh0.38%7.70% higher
Molybdenum1 mineral with Sb and Mo0.38%67.00% lower
Bromine1 mineral with Sb and Br0.38%20.37% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Sb Relative Frequency
Tin << Antimony >> Tellurium

Most widespread minerals containing Antimony
This list of minerals containing Antimony is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Antimony mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities

Localities with greatest number of different Antimony mineral species
map should go here
1Zlatá Baňa, Prešov Co., Prešov Region, Slovakia33 Sb minerals
2Kremnica (Kremnitz), Žiar nad Hronom Co., Banská Bystrica Region, Slovakia25 Sb minerals
Chauvai (Chauvay) Sb-Hg Deposit, Alai Range (Alay Range), Osh Oblast, Kyrgyzstan24 Sb minerals
4Dúbrava, Liptovský Mikuláš Co., Žilina Region, Slovakia24 Sb minerals
5Långban, Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden23 Sb minerals
6Buca della Vena Mine, Ponte Stazzemese, Stazzema, Apuan Alps, Lucca Province, Tuscany, Italy22 Sb minerals
7Herja Mine, Chiuzbaia (Kisbánya), Baia Mare (Nagybánya), Maramureș Co., Romania22 Sb minerals
8Hemlo gold deposit, Bomby Township, Thunder Bay District, Ontario, Canada22 Sb minerals

Important ores of Antimony
NameFormulaCrystal System

Other significant minerals containing Antimony
NameFormulaCrystal System

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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