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The Mineralogy of Antimony

General Properties
Symbol:Sb
Atomic Number:51
Standard atomic weight (Ar):121.760(1)
Electron configuration:[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
Photos
<
Ultrapure metallic antimony piece, front side
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.05
Atomic Radius:133 pm
Ionic Radius:76 pm (+3)
1st Ionization energy:834 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-103 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-3,3,5
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:904 K
Boiling Point:1860 K
Density:6.7 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:metalloid
Main isotopes of Antimony
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
121Sb57.36%-Spontaneous fission ?
123Sb42.64%-Spontaneous fission ?
125Sbsynthetic2.7582yβ−125Te
Main ions of Antimony
NameIonExample minerals
antimony(III)Sb3+
antimony(V)Sb5+
antimonideSb3-
Other Information
Year Discovered:3000 BC
Year Isolated:1540
Isolated By:
Vannoccio Biringuccio
Named For:Greek: anti (opposed) and monos (solitude) - "not alone"
CPK color coding:#9E63B5
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Nitridesantimony nitrideSbN+3
Sulfidesdiantimony trisulphideSb2S3+3Metastibnite, Stibnite
diantimony pentsulphideSb2S5+5
Selenidesdiantimony triselenideSb2Se3+3Antimonselite
Telluridesdiantimony tritellurideSb2Te3+3Tellurantimony
Hydridesantimony trihydrideSbH3+3
Fluoridesantimony trifluorideSbF3+3
antimony pentafluorideSbF5+5
Chloridesantimony trichlorideSbCl3+3
antimony pentachlorideSbCl5+5
Iodidesantimony triiodideSbI3+3
antimony pentaiodideSbI5+5
Oxidesdiantimony trioxideSb2O3+3Senarmontite, Valentinite
diantimony tetroxideSb2O4+3,+5Cervantite, Clinocervantite
diantimony pentoxideSb2O5+5
Mineral Diversity of Antimony
1. Elements 3 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 140 valid mineral species
3. Halides4 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 38 valid mineral species
6. Borates1 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 6 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates4 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 5 valid mineral species
Total:201 valid species containing essential Antimony
Geochemistry of Antimony
Goldschmidt classification:Chalcophile
Elemental Abundance for Antimony
Crust (CRC Handbook)2 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)2 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)2 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.00 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)2.03 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.00 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)2.4 x 10-10mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)3.3 x 10-10mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)3.0 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)3.1 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)3.09 x 10-7 (18%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Antimony in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Antimony and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Antimony and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Antimony.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Antimony% of Sb mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Sulfur476 minerals with Sb and S59.50%185.06% higher
Lead276 minerals with Sb and Pb34.50%238.30% higher
Oxygen272 minerals with Sb and O34.00%57.47% lower
Arsenic221 minerals with Sb and As27.63%126.14% higher
Silver167 minerals with Sb and Ag20.88%508.61% higher
Copper159 minerals with Sb and Cu19.88%51.76% higher
Iron113 minerals with Sb and Fe14.13%35.45% lower
Hydrogen103 minerals with Sb and H12.88%76.91% lower
Thallium68 minerals with Sb and Tl8.50%543.64% higher
Manganese57 minerals with Sb and Mn7.13%35.47% lower
Bismuth56 minerals with Sb and Bi7.00%64.50% higher
Calcium47 minerals with Sb and Ca5.88%75.92% lower
Chlorine41 minerals with Sb and Cl5.13%30.67% lower
Mercury40 minerals with Sb and Hg5.00%175.35% higher
Nickel39 minerals with Sb and Ni4.88%58.21% higher
Sodium35 minerals with Sb and Na4.38%77.11% lower
Zinc35 minerals with Sb and Zn4.38%16.01% lower
Tin32 minerals with Sb and Sn4.00%124.82% higher
Tellurium31 minerals with Sb and Te3.88%23.55% higher
Aluminium30 minerals with Sb and Al3.75%81.31% lower
Palladium29 minerals with Sb and Pd3.63%178.36% higher
Magnesium26 minerals with Sb and Mg3.25%75.32% lower
Selenium23 minerals with Sb and Se2.88%22.46% higher
Silicon22 minerals with Sb and Si2.75%90.25% lower
Titanium16 minerals with Sb and Ti2.00%70.77% lower
Cobalt16 minerals with Sb and Co2.00%55.77% higher
Gold15 minerals with Sb and Au1.88%209.77% higher
Potassium14 minerals with Sb and K1.75%81.33% lower
Vanadium14 minerals with Sb and V1.75%60.90% lower
Tantalum11 minerals with Sb and Ta1.38%15.33% higher
Platinum10 minerals with Sb and Pt1.25%94.71% higher
Boron10 minerals with Sb and B1.25%75.92% lower
Niobium7 minerals with Sb and Nb0.88%70.37% lower
Tungsten6 minerals with Sb and W0.75%9.13% lower
Zirconium6 minerals with Sb and Zr0.75%67.29% lower
Beryllium6 minerals with Sb and Be0.75%66.21% lower
Molybdenum5 minerals with Sb and Mo0.63%49.89% lower
Fluorine4 minerals with Sb and F0.50%93.57% lower
Bromine3 minerals with Sb and Br0.38%36.30% higher
Nitrogen3 minerals with Sb and N0.38%82.67% lower
Chromium3 minerals with Sb and Cr0.38%78.92% lower
Cadmium3 minerals with Sb and Cd0.38%24.28% lower
Iridium3 minerals with Sb and Ir0.38%2.23% higher
Caesium2 minerals with Sb and Cs0.25%45.48% lower
Rhodium1 mineral with Sb and Rh0.13%59.91% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Sb Relative Frequency
Tin << Antimony >> Tellurium


Most widespread minerals containing Antimony
This list of minerals containing Antimony is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Antimony mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13Isometric4991
StibniteSb2S3Orthorhombic3087
PyrargyriteAg3SbS3Trigonal1464
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Antimony mineral species
map should go here
2Zlatá Baňa, Prešov Co., Prešov Region, Slovakia33 Sb minerals
3Långban, Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden26 Sb minerals
5Kremnica (Kremnitz), Žiar nad Hronom Co., Banská Bystrica Region, Slovakia25 Sb minerals
Chauvai (Chauvay) Sb-Hg Deposit, Alai Range (Alay Range), Osh Oblast, Kyrgyzstan24 Sb minerals
7Dúbrava, Liptovský Mikuláš Co., Žilina Region, Slovakia24 Sb minerals
8Buca della Vena Mine, Ponte Stazzemese, Stazzema, Apuan Alps, Lucca Province, Tuscany, Italy24 Sb minerals


Important ores of Antimony
NameFormulaCrystal System
StibniteSb2S3Orthorhombic
Photos


Other significant minerals containing Antimony
NameFormulaCrystal System
AntimonySbTrigonal
MetastibniteSb2S3Amorphous
TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13Isometric
Photos


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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