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The Mineralogy of Arsenic

General Properties
Symbol:As
Atomic Number:33
Standard atomic weight (Ar):74.92160(2)
Electron configuration:[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p3
Photos
<
Ultrapure metallic arsenic under argon
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.18
Atomic Radius:114 pm
Ionic Radius:58 pm (+3)
Van der Waals Radius:185 pm
1st Ionization energy:947 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-78 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-3,2,3,5
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1090 K
Boiling Point:887 K
Density:5.73 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:metalloid
Main isotopes of Arsenic
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
73Assynthetic80.3dε73Ge
74Assynthetic17.78dε74Ge
β+74Ge
Main ions of Arsenic
NameIonExample minerals
arsenic(III)As3+Arsenolite, Orpiment
arsenideAs3-
arsenate[AsO4]3-Mimetite
Other Information
Year Discovered:2500 BC
Discovered By:Early Bronze Age
Year Isolated:1250
Isolated By:
Albertus Magnus
Named For:From Greek: arsenikon - "yellow orpiment"
CPK color coding:#BD80E3
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Sulfidesdiarsenic trisulphideAs2S3+3Anorpiment, Orpiment
diarsenic pentasulphideAs2S5+5
tetraarsenic tetrasulphideAs4S4+2Pararealgar, Realgar
Selenidesdiarsenic triselenideAs2Se3+3
diarsenic pentaselenideAs2Se5+5
Telluridesdiarsenic tritellurideAs2Te3+3
HydridesarsineAsH3+3
diarsenic tetrahydrideAs2H4+2
Fluoridesarsenic trifluorideAsF3+3
arsenic pentafluorideAsF5+5
Chloridesarsenic trichlorideAsCl3+3
arsenic pentachlorideAsCl5+5
Bromidesarsenic tribromideAsBr3+3
Iodidesarsenic triiodideAsI3+3
diarsenic tetraiodide[AsI2]2+2
Oxidesdiarsenic trioxideAs2O3+3Arsenolite, Claudetite
diarsenic pentoxideAs2O5+5
Mineral Diversity of Arsenic
1. Elements 5 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 142 valid mineral species
3. Halides2 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 37 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 1 valid mineral species
6. Borates2 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 5 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates298 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 8 valid mineral species
Total:500 valid species containing essential Arsenic
Geochemistry of Arsenic
Goldschmidt classification:Chalcophile
As3+ is concentrated in residual soils and sediments (less certainty.)
As5+ is essential to nutrition of at least some vertebrates ('essential minerals').
As3- forms minerals with Cu+.
Elemental Abundance for Arsenic
Crust (CRC Handbook)1.8 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)2.0 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)1.8 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)1.0 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)2.03 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)1.5 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)3.7 x 10-9mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)2.6 x 10-9mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)6.6 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)6.56 x 10-6 (12%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Arsenic in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Arsenic and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Arsenic and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Arsenic.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Arsenic% of As mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen424 minerals with As and O69.06%10.04% lower
Hydrogen346 minerals with As and H56.35%4.23% higher
Sulfur155 minerals with As and S25.24%28.55% higher
Copper151 minerals with As and Cu24.59%95.36% higher
Iron134 minerals with As and Fe21.82%4.86% lower
Calcium113 minerals with As and Ca18.40%25.58% lower
Lead106 minerals with As and Pb17.26%79.40% higher
Antimony79 minerals with As and Sb12.87%161.33% higher
Zinc73 minerals with As and Zn11.89%121.35% higher
Manganese65 minerals with As and Mn10.59%8.89% lower
Magnesium54 minerals with As and Mg8.79%36.45% lower
Aluminium54 minerals with As and Al8.79%55.93% lower
Silver44 minerals with As and Ag7.17%114.66% higher
Sodium43 minerals with As and Na7.00%63.18% lower
Nickel40 minerals with As and Ni6.51%99.61% higher
Thallium36 minerals with As and Tl5.86%415.38% higher
Uranium35 minerals with As and U5.70%18.47% higher
Cobalt33 minerals with As and Co5.37%279.19% higher
Chlorine33 minerals with As and Cl5.37%29.02% lower
Silicon23 minerals with As and Si3.75%86.57% lower
Bismuth23 minerals with As and Bi3.75%8.70% lower
Potassium19 minerals with As and K3.09%68.21% lower
Palladium18 minerals with As and Pd2.93%118.32% higher
Mercury17 minerals with As and Hg2.77%59.63% higher
Vanadium17 minerals with As and V2.77%33.43% lower
Molybdenum12 minerals with As and Mo1.95%69.02% higher
Fluorine11 minerals with As and F1.79%78.61% lower
Titanium10 minerals with As and Ti1.63%76.52% lower
Barium10 minerals with As and Ba1.63%65.07% lower
Cerium9 minerals with As and Ce1.47%55.84% lower
Tin8 minerals with As and Sn1.30%29.43% lower
Rhodium7 minerals with As and Rh1.14%221.74% higher
Tellurium7 minerals with As and Te1.14%62.73% lower
Selenium7 minerals with As and Se1.14%51.48% lower
Phosphorus7 minerals with As and P1.14%89.73% lower
Cadmium6 minerals with As and Cd0.98%94.06% higher
Lanthanum6 minerals with As and La0.98%43.05% lower
Ruthenium6 minerals with As and Ru0.98%303.06% higher
Platinum5 minerals with As and Pt0.81%5.08% lower
Boron5 minerals with As and B0.81%84.06% lower
Strontium4 minerals with As and Sr0.65%77.02% lower
Beryllium4 minerals with As and Be0.65%70.89% lower
Neodymium4 minerals with As and Nd0.65%32.82% lower
Yttrium4 minerals with As and Y0.65%75.23% lower
Carbon3 minerals with As and C0.49%93.43% lower
Nitrogen3 minerals with As and N0.49%74.56% lower
Osmium3 minerals with As and Os0.49%191.10% higher
Chromium2 minerals with As and Cr0.33%80.38% lower
Iridium2 minerals with As and Ir0.33%30.14% lower
Germanium2 minerals with As and Ge0.33%39.77% lower
Caesium2 minerals with As and Cs0.33%27.23% lower
Indium1 mineral with As and In0.16%37.62% lower
Thorium1 mineral with As and Th0.16%81.81% lower
Lithium1 mineral with As and Li0.16%92.78% lower
Bromine1 mineral with As and Br0.16%48.63% lower
Tantalum1 mineral with As and Ta0.16%88.04% lower
Tungsten1 mineral with As and W0.16%78.70% lower
Iodine1 mineral with As and I0.16%65.07% lower
Gallium1 mineral with As and Ga0.16%24.76% higher
Niobium1 mineral with As and Nb0.16%95.20% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with As Relative Frequency
Germanium << Arsenic >> Selenium


Most widespread minerals containing Arsenic
This list of minerals containing Arsenic is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Arsenic mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
ArsenopyriteFeAsSMonoclinic8196
TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13Isometric1610
MimetitePb5(AsO4)3ClHexagonal1070
ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2OOrthorhombic1061
EnargiteCu3AsS4Orthorhombic861
CobaltiteCoAsSOrthorhombic861
ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2OMonoclinic804
ProustiteAg3AsS3Trigonal720
LöllingiteFeAs2Orthorhombic696
RealgarAs4S4Monoclinic691
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Arsenic mineral species
map should go here
1Tsumeb Mine (Tsumcorp Mine), Tsumeb, Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto), Namibia96 As minerals
2Clara Mine, Rankach valley, Oberwolfach, Wolfach, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany89 As minerals
3Jáchymov (St Joachimsthal), Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal), Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge), Karlovy Vary Region, Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Czech Republic74 As minerals
4Johann Mine, Burgfelsen, Wittichen, Schenkenzell, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany68 As minerals
5Anton Mine (St. Anton Mine), Heubach Valley, Wittichen, Schenkenzell, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany68 As minerals
6Sterling Mine, Sterling Hill, Ogdensburg, Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA59 As minerals
7Lengenbach Quarry, Fäld (Imfeld; Im Feld; Feld), Binn Valley, Wallis (Valais), Switzerland54 As minerals
8Långban, Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden52 As minerals


Important ores of Arsenic
NameFormulaCrystal System
ArsenopyriteFeAsSMonoclinic
Photos


Minor ores of Arsenic
NameFormulaCrystal System
RealgarAs4S4Monoclinic
OrpimentAs2S3Monoclinic
LöllingiteFeAs2Orthorhombic
Photos


Other significant minerals containing Arsenic
NameFormulaCrystal System
ArsenicAsTrigonal
AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)Orthorhombic
CobaltiteCoAsSOrthorhombic
MimetitePb5(AsO4)3ClHexagonal
TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13Isometric
Photos


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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