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The Mineralogy of Barium

General Properties
Symbol:Ba
Atomic Number:56
Standard atomic weight (Ar):137.327(7)
Electron configuration:[Xe] 6s2
Photos
<
1.5 grams barium with a grey oxide layer under argon
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):0.89
Atomic Radius:253 pm
Ionic Radius:135 pm (+2)
1st Ionization energy:503 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-14 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:2
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1000 K
Boiling Point:2143 K
Density:3.51 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:alkaline earth metal
Main isotopes of Barium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
130Ba0.106%(0.5-2.7)x1021yεε130Xe
132Ba0.101%>3x1020yβ+β+ ?132Xe
133Basynthetic10.51yε133Cs
134Ba2.417%-Spontaneous fission ?
135Ba6.592%-Spontaneous fission ?
136Ba7.854%-Spontaneous fission ?
137Ba11.23%-Spontaneous fission ?
138Ba71.7%-Spontaneous fission ?
Main ions of Barium
NameIonExample minerals
bariumBa2+Baryte, Witherite
Other Information
Year Discovered:1772
Discovered By:
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Year Isolated:1808
Isolated By:
Humphry Davy
Named For:Greek: barys - "heavy"
CPK color coding:#00C900
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Nitridestribarium dinitrideBa3N2+2
Sulfidesbarium sulphideBaS+2
barium trisulphideBa(S3)+2
Selenidesbarium selenideBaSe+2
Hydridesbarium dihydrideBaH2+2
Fluoridesbarium difluorideBaF2+2Frankdicksonite
Chloridesbarium dichlorideBaCl2+2
barium dichloride dihydrateBaCl2 · 2H2O+2
Bromidesbarium dibromide dihydrateBaBr2 · 2H2O+2
Iodidesbarium diiodideBaI2+2
barium diiodide dihydrateBaI2 · 2H2O+2
Oxidesbarium oxideBaO+2
barium peroxideBaO2+2
Carbonatesbarium carbonateBaCO3+2Witherite
Nitratesbarium nitrateBa(NO3)2+2Nitrobarite
Sulfatesbarium sulfateBaSO4baryte
Mineral Diversity of Barium
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 1 valid mineral species
3. Halides4 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 17 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 21 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 3 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates37 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 93 valid mineral species
Total:176 valid species containing essential Barium
Geochemistry of Barium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Ba2+ enters later phases in igneous rocks due to its large size.
Elemental Abundance for Barium
Crust (CRC Handbook)4.25 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)3.8 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)3.90 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.50000 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)5.42000 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)7.07000 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)5.50000 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)1.070000 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)1.3 x 10-8mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)2.1 x 10-8mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)3.8 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)4.5 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)4.49 x 10-6 (6.3%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Barium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Barium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Barium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Barium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Barium% of Ba mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen245 minerals with Ba and O98.00%27.67% higher
Hydrogen153 minerals with Ba and H61.20%13.20% higher
Silicon142 minerals with Ba and Si56.80%103.58% higher
Sodium82 minerals with Ba and Na32.80%72.43% higher
Titanium75 minerals with Ba and Ti30.00%332.42% higher
Calcium71 minerals with Ba and Ca28.40%14.84% higher
Iron66 minerals with Ba and Fe26.40%15.09% higher
Aluminium60 minerals with Ba and Al24.00%20.27% higher
Fluorine59 minerals with Ba and F23.60%181.83% higher
Potassium49 minerals with Ba and K19.60%101.33% higher
Manganese39 minerals with Ba and Mn15.60%34.27% higher
Phosphorus39 minerals with Ba and P15.60%40.58% higher
Magnesium35 minerals with Ba and Mg14.00%1.17% higher
Carbon33 minerals with Ba and C13.20%77.39% higher
Strontium31 minerals with Ba and Sr12.40%337.43% higher
Niobium23 minerals with Ba and Nb9.20%171.05% higher
Chlorine21 minerals with Ba and Cl8.40%10.94% higher
Cerium20 minerals with Ba and Ce8.00%140.99% higher
Vanadium20 minerals with Ba and V8.00%92.36% higher
Boron15 minerals with Ba and B6.00%17.42% higher
Uranium14 minerals with Ba and U5.60%16.38% higher
Sulfur11 minerals with Ba and S4.40%77.59% lower
Arsenic10 minerals with Ba and As4.00%65.07% lower
Lead9 minerals with Ba and Pb3.60%62.59% lower
Yttrium7 minerals with Ba and Y2.80%6.48% higher
Beryllium6 minerals with Ba and Be2.40%7.24% higher
Copper6 minerals with Ba and Cu2.40%80.94% lower
Zirconium6 minerals with Ba and Zr2.40%1.01% lower
Chromium5 minerals with Ba and Cr2.00%20.49% higher
Lanthanum4 minerals with Ba and La1.60%6.75% lower
Thorium3 minerals with Ba and Th1.20%34.05% higher
Lithium2 minerals with Ba and Li0.80%64.55% lower
Tantalum1 mineral with Ba and Ta0.40%70.62% lower
Dysprosium1 mineral with Ba and Dy0.40%436.20% higher
Tungsten1 mineral with Ba and W0.40%47.69% lower
Nickel1 mineral with Ba and Ni0.40%87.74% lower
Nitrogen1 mineral with Ba and N0.40%79.18% lower
Zinc1 mineral with Ba and Zn0.40%92.55% lower
Selenium1 mineral with Ba and Se0.40%82.98% lower
Tin1 mineral with Ba and Sn0.40%78.34% lower
Gadolinium1 mineral with Ba and Gd0.40%257.47% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Ba Relative Frequency
Caesium << Barium >> Lanthanum


Most widespread minerals containing Barium
This list of minerals containing Barium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Barium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
BaryteBaSO4Orthorhombic10872
Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10Monoclinic293
Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2OMonoclinic283
WitheriteBaCO3Orthorhombic231
HollanditeBa(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16Monoclinic225
BariopharmacosideriteBa0.5Fe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2OTetragonal139
GorceixiteBaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6Monoclinic118
CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)Monoclinic89
UranocirciteBa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10H2OTetragonal86
BarytocalciteBaCa(CO3)2Monoclinic78
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Barium mineral species
map should go here
1Esquire No. 7 claim, Big Creek, Rush Creek deposit, Big Creek-Rush Creek District, Fresno Co., California, USA22 Ba minerals
2Trumbull Peak Ba-silicate deposit, Trumbull Peak, Clearing House, Clearing House District, East Belt, Mariposa Co., California, USA21 Ba minerals
3Esquire No. 8 claim (Lander's Gillespite locality), Big Creek, Rush Creek deposit, Big Creek-Rush Creek District, Fresno Co., California, USA19 Ba minerals
4Gun claim (Gunn claim), Wilson Lake, Itsi Mt., Watson Lake Mining District, Yukon, Canada18 Ba minerals
5Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Carrière Mont Saint-Hilaire; MSH), Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada17 Ba minerals
6Kirovskii apatite mine (Kirovsky Mine; Kirovskii Mine; Kirov Mine), Kukisvumchorr Mt, Khibiny Massif, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia15 Ba minerals
7Esquire No. 1 claim, Rush Creek, Rush Creek deposit, Big Creek-Rush Creek District, Fresno Co., California, USA15 Ba minerals
8Darai-Pioz Glacier (Dara-i-Pioz; Dara-Pioz), Alai Range (Alayskiy), Tien Shan Mtn, Region of Republican Subordination, Tajikistan14 Ba minerals


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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