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The mineralogy of Barium

General Properties
Atomic Number:56
Standard atomic weight (Ar):137.327(7)
Electron configuration:[Xe] 6s2
1.5 grams barium with a grey oxide layer under argon
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):0.89
Atomic Radius:253 pm
Ionic Radius:135 pm (+2)
1st Ionization energy:503 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-14 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:2
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1000 K
Boiling Point:2143 K
Density:3.51 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:alkaline earth metal
Main isotopes of Barium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
132Ba0.101%>3×1020yβ+β+ ?132Xe
134Ba2.417%-Spontaneous fission ?
135Ba6.592%-Spontaneous fission ?
136Ba7.854%-Spontaneous fission ?
137Ba11.23%-Spontaneous fission ?
138Ba71.7%-Spontaneous fission ?
Main ions of Barium
NameIonExample minerals
bariumBa2+Baryte, Witherite
Other Information
Year Discovered:1772
Discovered By:
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Year Isolated:1808
Isolated By:
Humphry Davy
Named For:Greek: barys - "heavy"
CPK color coding:#00C900
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Nitridestribarium dinitrideBa3N2+2
Sulfidesbarium sulphideBaS+2
barium trisulphideBa(S3)+2
Selenidesbarium selenideBaSe+2
Hydridesbarium dihydrideBaH2+2
Fluoridesbarium difluorideBaF2+2Frankdicksonite
Chloridesbarium dichlorideBaCl2+2
barium dichloride dihydrateBaCl2 · 2H2O+2
Bromidesbarium dibromide dihydrateBaBr2 · 2H2O+2
Iodidesbarium diiodideBaI2+2
barium diiodide dihydrateBaI2 · 2H2O+2
Oxidesbarium oxideBaO+2
barium peroxideBaO2+2
Carbonatesbarium carbonateBaCO3+2Witherite
Nitratesbarium nitrateBa(NO3)2+2Nitrobarite
Sulfatesbarium sulfateBaSO4baryte
Mineral Diversity of Barium
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 1 valid mineral species
3. Halides4 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 18 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 21 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 3 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates40 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 99 valid mineral species
Total:186 valid species containing essential Barium
Geochemistry of Barium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Ba2+ enters later phases in igneous rocks due to its large size.
Elemental Abundance for Barium
Crust (CRC Handbook)4.25 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)3.8 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)3.90 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.50000 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)5.42000 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)7.07000 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)5.50000 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)1.070000 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)1.3 x 10-8mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)2.1 x 10-8mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)3.8 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)4.5 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)4.49 x 10-6 (6.3%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Barium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Barium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Barium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Barium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Barium% of Ba mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen731 minerals with Ba and O97.73%26.40% higher
Hydrogen455 minerals with Ba and H60.83%12.81% higher
Silicon428 minerals with Ba and Si57.22%109.75% higher
Sodium242 minerals with Ba and Na32.35%75.05% higher
Titanium217 minerals with Ba and Ti29.01%338.50% higher
Calcium201 minerals with Ba and Ca26.87%13.91% higher
Iron180 minerals with Ba and Fe24.06%13.72% higher
Aluminium174 minerals with Ba and Al23.26%19.88% higher
Fluorine169 minerals with Ba and F22.59%200.43% higher
Potassium131 minerals with Ba and K17.51%93.23% higher
Phosphorus123 minerals with Ba and P16.44%45.31% higher
Manganese103 minerals with Ba and Mn13.77%28.96% higher
Carbon95 minerals with Ba and C12.70%69.28% higher
Magnesium93 minerals with Ba and Mg12.43%2.37% lower
Strontium73 minerals with Ba and Sr9.76%295.85% higher
Niobium65 minerals with Ba and Nb8.69%204.31% higher
Chlorine61 minerals with Ba and Cl8.16%14.09% higher
Vanadium58 minerals with Ba and V7.75%79.17% higher
Cerium58 minerals with Ba and Ce7.75%173.23% higher
Uranium44 minerals with Ba and U5.88%17.19% higher
Boron43 minerals with Ba and B5.75%14.53% higher
Sulfur33 minerals with Ba and S4.41%78.14% lower
Arsenic30 minerals with Ba and As4.01%66.05% lower
Yttrium21 minerals with Ba and Y2.81%21.76% higher
Copper20 minerals with Ba and Cu2.67%78.89% lower
Lead19 minerals with Ba and Pb2.54%74.24% lower
Beryllium16 minerals with Ba and Be2.14%0.33% lower
Zirconium16 minerals with Ba and Zr2.14%3.52% lower
Chromium15 minerals with Ba and Cr2.01%16.56% higher
Lanthanum12 minerals with Ba and La1.60%45.89% higher
Thorium7 minerals with Ba and Th0.94%35.29% higher
Lithium6 minerals with Ba and Li0.80%59.98% lower
Nickel5 minerals with Ba and Ni0.67%77.57% lower
Zinc3 minerals with Ba and Zn0.40%92.04% lower
Tin3 minerals with Ba and Sn0.40%76.69% lower
Selenium3 minerals with Ba and Se0.40%82.33% lower
Nitrogen3 minerals with Ba and N0.40%80.84% lower
Scandium2 minerals with Ba and Sc0.27%20.66% lower
Molybdenum2 minerals with Ba and Mo0.27%77.83% lower
Gadolinium1 mineral with Ba and Gd0.13%653.74% higher
Dysprosium1 mineral with Ba and Dy0.13%276.87% higher
Tantalum1 mineral with Ba and Ta0.13%88.40% lower
Tungsten1 mineral with Ba and W0.13%83.25% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Ba Relative Frequency
Caesium << Barium >> Lanthanum

Most widespread minerals containing Barium
This list of minerals containing Barium is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Barium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2OMonoclinic295

Localities with greatest number of different Barium mineral species
map should go here
2Esquire No. 7 claim, Big Creek, Rush Creek deposit, Big Creek-Rush Creek Mining District, Fresno Co., California, USA22 Ba minerals
4Trumbull Peak Ba-silicate deposit, Trumbull Peak, Clearing House, Clearing House Mining District, East Belt, Mariposa Co., California, USA21 Ba minerals
6Esquire No. 8 claim (Lander's Gillespite locality), Big Creek, Rush Creek deposit, Big Creek-Rush Creek Mining District, Fresno Co., California, USA19 Ba minerals
8Gun claim (Gunn claim), Wilson Lake, Itsi Mountain, Watson Lake mining district, Yukon, Canada18 Ba minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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