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The Mineralogy of Beryllium

General Properties
Symbol:Be
Atomic Number:4
Standard atomic weight (Ar):9.012182(3)
Electron configuration:[He] 2s2
Photos
<
Pure beryllium bead
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.57
Atomic Radius:112 pm
Ionic Radius:45 pm (+2)
1st Ionization energy:900 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:2
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1560 K
Boiling Point:2743 K
Density:1.85 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:alkaline earth metal
Main isotopes of Beryllium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
7Betrace43.12dε7Li
9Be100%stable
10Betrace1.36x106yβ−10B
Main ions of Beryllium
NameIonExample minerals
berylliumBe2+Beryl, Chrysoberyl
fluorine-beryllate complexBeF+
fluorine-beryllate complexBeF3-
fluorine-beryllate complexBeF42-
[Be(OH)4]2-
[Be(H2O)4]2+
Other Information
Year Discovered:1797
Discovered By:
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin
Year Isolated:1828
Isolated By:
Friedrich Wöhler
Antoine Alexandre Brutus Bussy


Friedrich Wöhler & Antoine Bussy
Named For:
from the mineral beryl
CPK color coding:#C2FF00
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Nitridesberyllium nitrideBe3N2+2
Sulfidesberyllium sulphideBeS+2
Selenidesberyllium selenideBeSe+2
Telluridesberyllium tellurideBeTe+2
Hydridesberyllium hydrideBeH2+2
Hydroxidesberyllium hydroxideBe(OH)2+2
Fluoridesberyllium fluorideBeF2+2
Chloridesberyllium chlorideBeCl2+2
Bromidesberyllium bromideBeBr2+2
Iodidesberyllium iodideBeI2+2
Oxidesberyllium oxideBeO+2
Carbonatesberyllium carbonateBeCO3+2
Boratesbasic beryllium borateBe2BO3OH+2Hambergite
Nitratesberyllium nitrateBe(NO3)2+2
Sulfatesberyllium sulfateBeSO4+2
Phosphatesberyllium phosphateBe3(PO4)2+2
Silicatesberyllium silicateBe2SiO4+2Phenakite
Mineral Diversity of Beryllium
4. Oxides 9 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 1 valid mineral species
6. Borates4 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates29 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 60 valid mineral species
Total:103 valid species containing essential Beryllium
Geochemistry of Beryllium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Be2+ is commonly concentrated in residual soils and sediments.
Be2+ is concentrated in deep-sea ferromanganese nodules relative to seawater.
Elemental Abundance for Beryllium
Crust (CRC Handbook)2.8 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)2.0 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)2 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)1.500 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)3.000 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)5.6 x 10-12mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)6 x 10-13mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)4.0 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)7.0 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)7.30 x 10-7 (9.5%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Beryllium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Beryllium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Beryllium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Beryllium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Beryllium% of Be mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen120 minerals with Be and O100.00%29.83% higher
Silicon71 minerals with Be and Si59.17%111.35% higher
Hydrogen71 minerals with Be and H59.17%9.07% higher
Calcium56 minerals with Be and Ca46.67%88.07% higher
Aluminium36 minerals with Be and Al30.00%49.83% higher
Sodium31 minerals with Be and Na25.83%35.35% higher
Phosphorus30 minerals with Be and P25.00%124.54% higher
Iron24 minerals with Be and Fe20.00%13.11% lower
Manganese18 minerals with Be and Mn15.00%28.67% higher
Magnesium17 minerals with Be and Mg14.17%2.03% higher
Fluorine16 minerals with Be and F13.33%58.69% higher
Potassium16 minerals with Be and K13.33%36.50% higher
Lithium12 minerals with Be and Li10.00%341.65% higher
Boron10 minerals with Be and B8.33%62.53% higher
Yttrium9 minerals with Be and Y7.50%184.26% higher
Cerium7 minerals with Be and Ce5.83%75.13% higher
Barium6 minerals with Be and Ba5.00%6.88% higher
Zinc6 minerals with Be and Zn5.00%7.22% lower
Caesium5 minerals with Be and Cs4.17%827.78% higher
Titanium5 minerals with Be and Ti4.17%40.14% lower
Arsenic4 minerals with Be and As3.33%70.99% lower
Tin3 minerals with Be and Sn2.50%34.95% higher
Zirconium3 minerals with Be and Zr2.50%2.77% higher
Sulfur3 minerals with Be and S2.50%87.31% lower
Chlorine3 minerals with Be and Cl2.50%67.09% lower
Lead2 minerals with Be and Pb1.67%82.74% lower
Antimony2 minerals with Be and Sb1.67%66.26% lower
Lanthanum2 minerals with Be and La1.67%3.19% lower
Neodymium2 minerals with Be and Nd1.67%71.28% higher
Scandium2 minerals with Be and Sc1.67%456.67% higher
Carbon1 mineral with Be and C0.83%88.84% lower
Thorium1 mineral with Be and Th0.83%7.22% lower
Ytterbium1 mineral with Be and Yb0.83%642.22% higher
Vanadium1 mineral with Be and V0.83%80.03% lower
Rubidium1 mineral with Be and Rb0.83%790.67% higher
Chromium1 mineral with Be and Cr0.83%49.96% lower
Strontium1 mineral with Be and Sr0.83%70.70% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Be Relative Frequency
Lithium << Beryllium >> Boron


Most widespread minerals containing Beryllium
This list of minerals containing Beryllium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Beryllium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)Hexagonal3657
BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2Orthorhombic594
PhenakiteBe2SiO4Trigonal332
ChrysoberylBeAl2O4Orthorhombic303
BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2Orthorhombic239
HelvineBe3Mn2+4(SiO4)3SIsometric238
MilariteK2Ca4Al2Be4Si24O60 · H2OHexagonal150
Gadolinite-(Y)Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10Monoclinic144
EuclaseBeAl(SiO4)(OH)Monoclinic119
HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)Monoclinic115
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Beryllium mineral species
map should go here
1Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Carrière Mont Saint-Hilaire; MSH), Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada21 Be minerals
Ilímaussaq complex, Narsaq, Kujalleq, Greenland18 Be minerals
3Saga 1 Quarry, Sagåsen, Mørje, Porsgrunn, Telemark, Norway13 Be minerals
4Xianghualing Mine (Hsianghualing Mine), Xianghualing Sn-polymetallic ore field, Linwu Co., Chenzhou Prefecture, Hunan Province, China13 Be minerals
5Heftetjern pegmatite, Tørdal, Drangedal, Telemark, Norway12 Be minerals
6Vevja Quarry, Tvedalen, Larvik, Vestfold, Norway12 Be minerals
Tuften (Tuften 1 Quarry; Tuften 2 Quarry), Tvedalen, Larvik, Vestfold, Norway12 Be minerals
8A/S Granit Quarry, Tuften (Tuften 1 Quarry; Tuften 2 Quarry), Tvedalen, Larvik, Vestfold, Norway12 Be minerals


Important ores of Beryllium
NameFormulaCrystal System
BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)Hexagonal
BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2Orthorhombic
Photos


Other significant minerals containing Beryllium
NameFormulaCrystal System
ChrysoberylBeAl2O4Orthorhombic
HambergiteBe2(BO3)(OH)Orthorhombic
PhenakiteBe2SiO4Trigonal
Photos


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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