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The Mineralogy of Beryllium

General Properties
Atomic Number:4
Standard atomic weight (Ar):9.012182(3)
Electron configuration:[He] 2s2
Pure beryllium bead
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.57
Atomic Radius:112 pm
Ionic Radius:45 pm (+2)
1st Ionization energy:900 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:2
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1560 K
Boiling Point:2743 K
Density:1.85 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:alkaline earth metal
Main isotopes of Beryllium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
Main ions of Beryllium
NameIonExample minerals
berylliumBe2+Beryl, Chrysoberyl
fluorine-beryllate complexBeF+
fluorine-beryllate complexBeF3-
fluorine-beryllate complexBeF42-
Other Information
Year Discovered:1797
Discovered By:
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin
Year Isolated:1828
Isolated By:
Friedrich Wöhler
Antoine Alexandre Brutus Bussy

Friedrich Wöhler & Antoine Bussy
Named For:
from the mineral beryl
CPK color coding:#C2FF00
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Nitridesberyllium nitrideBe3N2+2
Sulfidesberyllium sulphideBeS+2
Selenidesberyllium selenideBeSe+2
Telluridesberyllium tellurideBeTe+2
Hydridesberyllium hydrideBeH2+2
Hydroxidesberyllium hydroxideBe(OH)2+2
Fluoridesberyllium fluorideBeF2+2
Chloridesberyllium chlorideBeCl2+2
Bromidesberyllium bromideBeBr2+2
Iodidesberyllium iodideBeI2+2
Oxidesberyllium oxideBeO+2
Carbonatesberyllium carbonateBeCO3+2
Boratesbasic beryllium borateBe2BO3OH+2Hambergite
Nitratesberyllium nitrateBe(NO3)2+2
Sulfatesberyllium sulfateBeSO4+2
Phosphatesberyllium phosphateBe3(PO4)2+2
Silicatesberyllium silicateBe2SiO4+2Phenakite
Mineral Diversity of Beryllium
4. Oxides 10 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 1 valid mineral species
6. Borates4 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates29 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 60 valid mineral species
Total:104 valid species containing essential Beryllium
Geochemistry of Beryllium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Be2+ is commonly concentrated in residual soils and sediments.
Be2+ is concentrated in deep-sea ferromanganese nodules relative to seawater.
Elemental Abundance for Beryllium
Crust (CRC Handbook)2.8 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)2.0 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)2 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)1.500 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)3.000 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)5.6 x 10-12mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)6 x 10-13mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)4.0 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)7.0 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)7.30 x 10-7 (9.5%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Beryllium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Beryllium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Beryllium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Beryllium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Beryllium% of Be mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen362 minerals with Be and O100.00%25.19% higher
Silicon209 minerals with Be and Si57.73%104.85% higher
Hydrogen207 minerals with Be and H57.18%2.65% higher
Calcium164 minerals with Be and Ca45.30%85.88% higher
Aluminium102 minerals with Be and Al28.18%40.55% higher
Sodium93 minerals with Be and Na25.69%34.54% higher
Phosphorus92 minerals with Be and P25.41%117.38% higher
Iron70 minerals with Be and Fe19.34%11.55% lower
Manganese50 minerals with Be and Mn13.81%25.20% higher
Magnesium49 minerals with Be and Mg13.54%2.88% higher
Potassium44 minerals with Be and K12.15%29.80% higher
Fluorine42 minerals with Be and F11.60%49.32% higher
Lithium30 minerals with Be and Li8.29%300.21% higher
Boron26 minerals with Be and B7.18%38.49% higher
Yttrium25 minerals with Be and Y6.91%189.90% higher
Cerium17 minerals with Be and Ce4.70%60.17% higher
Barium16 minerals with Be and Ba4.42%3.14% lower
Zinc16 minerals with Be and Zn4.42%15.07% lower
Titanium15 minerals with Be and Ti4.14%39.38% lower
Caesium13 minerals with Be and Cs3.59%683.88% higher
Arsenic12 minerals with Be and As3.31%72.84% lower
Tin9 minerals with Be and Sn2.49%39.87% higher
Sulfur9 minerals with Be and S2.49%88.08% lower
Zirconium9 minerals with Be and Zr2.49%8.54% higher
Chlorine7 minerals with Be and Cl1.93%73.82% lower
Chromium7 minerals with Be and Cr1.93%8.79% higher
Scandium6 minerals with Be and Sc1.66%376.04% higher
Lead6 minerals with Be and Pb1.66%83.73% lower
Neodymium6 minerals with Be and Nd1.66%182.65% higher
Antimony6 minerals with Be and Sb1.66%66.25% lower
Lanthanum4 minerals with Be and La1.10%2.74% lower
Ytterbium3 minerals with Be and Yb0.83%1,030.59% higher
Vanadium3 minerals with Be and V0.83%81.47% lower
Carbon3 minerals with Be and C0.83%89.31% lower
Strontium3 minerals with Be and Sr0.83%67.46% lower
Rubidium1 mineral with Be and Rb0.28%402.49% higher
Thorium1 mineral with Be and Th0.28%61.35% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Be Relative Frequency
Lithium << Beryllium >> Boron

Most widespread minerals containing Beryllium
This list of minerals containing Beryllium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Beryllium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities

Localities with greatest number of different Beryllium mineral species
map should go here
2Poudrette quarry (De-Mix quarry; Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Carrière Mont Saint-Hilaire; MSH), Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada21 Be minerals
Ilímaussaq complex, Narsaq, Kujalleq, Greenland, Denmark18 Be minerals
5Pitkyaranta District (Pitkäranta District), Ladoga Region, Republic of Karelia, Russia14 Be minerals
6Saga 1 Quarry, Sagåsen, Mørje, Porsgrunn, Telemark, Norway13 Be minerals
7Xianghualing Mine (Hsianghualing Mine), Xianghualing Sn-polymetallic ore field, Linwu Co., Chenzhou, Hunan, China13 Be minerals
8Foote Lithium Co. Mine (Foote Mine), Kings Mountain District, Cleveland Co., North Carolina, USA13 Be minerals

Important ores of Beryllium
NameFormulaCrystal System

Other significant minerals containing Beryllium
NameFormulaCrystal System

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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